Great Migration (African American)
The Great Migration, sometimes known as the Great Northward Migration, or the Black Migration, was the movement of six million African Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast and West that occurred between 1916 and 1970. In every U. S. Census prior to 1910, more than 90 percent of the African-American population lived in the American South. In 1900, only one-fifth of African Americans living in the South were living in urban areas. By the end of the Great Migration, just over 50 percent of the African-American population remained in the South, while a little less than 50 percent lived in the North and West, the African-American population had become urbanized. By 1960, of those African Americans still living in the South, half now lived in urban areas, by 1970, more than 80 percent of African Americans nationwide lived in cities. In 1991, Nicholas Lemann wrote that: The Great Migration was one of the largest and most rapid mass internal movements in history—perhaps the greatest not caused by the immediate threat of execution or starvation.
In sheer numbers it outranks the migration of any other ethnic group—Italians or Irish or Jews or Poles—to. For blacks, the migration meant leaving what had always been their economic and social base in America, finding a new one; some historians differentiate between a first Great Migration, which saw about 1.6 million people move from rural areas in the south to northern industrial cities, a Second Great Migration, which began after the Great Depression and brought at least 5 million people—including many townspeople with urban skills—to the north and west. Since the Civil Rights Movement, a less rapid reverse migration has occurred. Dubbed the New Great Migration, it has seen a gradual increase of African American migration to the South to states and cities where economic opportunities are the best; the reasons include economic difficulties of cities in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, growth of jobs in the "New South" and its lower cost of living and kinship ties, improved racial relations.
As early as 1975 to 1980, several southern states were net African-American migration gainers, while in 2014, African-American millennials moved in the highest numbers to Texas, Florida, North Carolina, California. African-American populations have continued to drop throughout much of the Northeast from the state of New York and northern New Jersey, as they rise in the South. James Gregory calculates decade-by-decade migration volumes in The Southern Diaspora. Black migration picked up from the start of the new century, with 204,000 leaving in the first decade; the pace continued through the 1920s. By 1930, there were 1.3 million former southerners living in other regions. The Great Depression wiped out job opportunities in the northern industrial belt for African Americans, caused a sharp reduction in migration. In the 1930s and 1940s, increasing mechanization of agriculture brought the institution of sharecropping that had existed since the Civil War to an end in the United States causing many landless black farmers to be forced off of the land.
As a result 1.4 million black southerners moved north or west in the 1940s, followed by 1.1 million in the 1950s, another 2.4 million people in the 1960s and early 1970s. By the late 1970s, as deindustrialization and the Rust Belt crisis took hold, the Great Migration came to an end. But, in a reflection of changing economics, as well as the end of Jim Crow laws in the 1960s and improving race relations in the South, in the 1980s and early 1990s, more black Americans were heading South than leaving that region. African Americans moved from the 14 states of the South Alabama, Louisiana and Georgia. Census figures show that African Americans went from 52.2% of the population in 1920 to 45.3% of the population in 1950 in Mississippi, from 41.7% in 1920 to 30.9% of the population in 1950 in Georgia, from 38.9% in 1920 to 32.9% of the population in 1950 in Louisiana, from 38.4% in 1920 to 32.0% of the population in 1950 in Alabama, 36.0% in 1920 to 31.0% of the population in Texas. Based on the total populations in each of the four states, only Georgia showed a net decrease in its African American population in 1950 compared to 1920.
Louisiana, Texas and Mississippi showed net increases in their African American populations in 1950 compared to 1920, with the percentage decreasing due to the white population increasing more. Big cities were the principal destinations of southerners throughout the two phases of the Great Migration. In the first phase, eight major cities attracted two-thirds of the migrants: New York and Chicago, followed in order by Philadelphia, St. Louis, Detroit and Indianapolis; the Second great black migration increased the populations of these cities while adding others as destinations, including the Western states. Western cities such as Los Angeles, San Francisco, Phoenix and Portland attracted African Americans in large numbers. There were clear migratory patterns that linked particular states and cities in the South to corresponding destinations in the North and West. Half of those who migrated from Mississippi during the first Great Migration, for example, ended up in Chicago, while those from Virginia tended to move to Philadelphia.
For the most part, these patterns were related to geography, with the closest cities attracting the most migrants. When multiple destinations
Colonie, New York
Colonie is a town in Albany County, New York, United States. It is the most populous suburb of Albany, New York, is the third largest town in area in Albany County, occupying about 11% of the county. Several hamlets exist within the town; as of the 2010 census, the town had a total population of 81,591. The name is derived from the Dutch Colonye or "Colonie", derived from the Colonie of Rensselaerswyck. All the land outside the Village of Beverwyck was referred to as the "Colonie"; the town of Colonie is at the northern border of the county. Within the town of Colonie are two villages, one known as Colonie and the other known as Menands; this area was once part of the Rensselaerwyck manor. The town of Colonie was formed in 1895 after the rural residents of the town of Watervliet opposed the state's proposal to transform the entire town into a city of Watervliet; the town and village of Green Island was split off as a town from the town of Watervliet a year and the village of West Troy that remained became the current city of Watervliet.
All debts from the original town were divided proportionally between Green Island and Colonie. Several lawsuits worked their way through the court system from the results of division; the original town of Watervliet was the "mother of towns" in Albany County, having once been all the land outside of the city of Albany within the county, all current towns either were formed directly or indirectly from a town formed from Watervliet. The central part of the town was once the location of the extensive Shaker community farms; the Watervliet Shaker Historic District is located in Colonie. Much of that land is now occupied by the Albany International Airport. Through to the 1930s, Colonie was a simple series of a few hamlets. However, in the post-war years, there was intensive suburban development on the corridor that connected Albany and Schenectady, but throughout the entire township. By 1980, suburban development had saturated the community. At the same time, there were large highways constructed which drastically changed the nature of the town and life there.
The Colonie of the 1990s and beyond has become an different community from the town of the 1930s and 1940s. The Casparus F. Pruyn House at Newtonville is open to the public as the historical and cultural arts center for the Town of Colonie. A number of sites in Colonie are included on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places, including - Albany Rural Cemetery Bacon-Stickney House Senator William T. Byrne House Frederick Cramer House Martin Dunsbach House Royal K. Fuller House Goodrich School Isaac M. Haswell House Hedge Lawn Henry-Remsen House Ebenezer Hills, Jr. Farmhouse Friend Humphrey House John Wolf Kemp House John V. A. Lansing Farmhouse and Billsen Cemetery and Archeological Site George H. Lawton House Louis Menand House Menands Manor Reformed Dutch Church of Rensselaer in Watervliet Alfred H. Renshaw House Simmons Stone House Jedediah Strong House Treemont Manor George Trimble House Van Denbergh-Simmons House Watervliet Shaker Historic District According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 57.9 square miles.
56.1 square miles of it is land and 1.8 square miles of it is water. The north town line borders Schenectady County, Saratoga County, marked by the Mohawk River; the east town line is the border of Rensselaer County, marked by the Hudson River. The town lies near the junction of the Mohawk. Interstate 87, Interstate 787, U. S. Route 9 pass through the town. State Routes 2, 5, 7, 32 and 155 are important arterials within the town; as of the census of 2000, there were 79,258 people, 30,980 households, 20,539 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,413.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 32,280 housing units at an average density of 575.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 90.55% White, 3.96% Black or African American, 0.15% Native American, 3.59% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.61% from other races, 1.13% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.86% of the population. There were 30,980 households out of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.3% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.7% were non-families.
28.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.00. In the town, the population was spread out with 21.8% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 25.1% from 45 to 64, 16.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $51,817, the median income for a family was $62,649. Males had a median income of $41,453 versus $30,763 for females; the per capita income for the town was $25,231. About 3.0% of families and 4.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.5% of those under age 18 and 6.0% of those age 65 or over. The current town supervisor is a Democrat, she was elected to her first term in November 2007, defeating long-time Republican incumbent Mary Brizzell.
In November 2009, Mahan was re-elected to a second term, defeating former Republican Albany County Executive/former New York State Senator Michael J. Hoblock. In November 2011, Mahan was re-elected to a third term, defeating former New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Commissioner and the former Direc
Empire State Plaza
The Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller Empire State Plaza is a complex of several state government buildings in downtown Albany, New York; the complex was built between 1976 at an estimated total cost of $2 billion. It houses several departments of the New York State administration and is integrated with the New York State Capitol, completed in 1899, which houses the state legislature. Among the offices at the plaza are the Department of Health and the Biggs Laboratory of the Wadsworth Center; the Empire State Art Collection, a major public collection of 1960s and 1970s monumental abstract artworks, is on permanent display throughout the site. The New York State Office of General Services maintains the plaza; the Nelson A. Rockefeller Empire State Plaza Performing Arts Center Corporation is a New York state public-benefit corporation, created in 1979 to manage the performing arts facility in the plaza; the plaza was the idea of Governor Nelson Rockefeller, inspired to create the new government complex after Princess Juliana of the Netherlands visited Albany for a celebration of the area's Dutch history.
Riding with the princess through a section of the city known colloquially as "the Gut", Rockefeller was embarrassed. He said, "there's no question that the city did not look as I think the Princess thought it was going to". Rockefeller conceived the basic design of the complex with architect Wallace Harrison in flight aboard the governor's private plane. Rockefeller doodled his ideas in pen on the back of a postcard, Harrison revised them, they used the vast scope and style of Brasilia and Chandigarh as models. The massive scale was designed to be appreciated from across the Hudson River, as the dominant feature of the Albany skyline. Paying for the construction of the plaza was a major problem, since a bond issue for an Albany project would certainly have been disapproved by the statewide electorate. Despite the displacement of thousands of loyal political voters, Albany Mayor Erastus Corning worked with Rockefeller to engineer a funding scheme that used Albany County bonds instead of state bonds.
During repayment, the state guaranteed the principal and interest payments in the form of rent for a plaza, county property. Ownership was to be transferred to the state in exchange for regular payments in lieu of taxes. Control of the bond issues gave Corning and party boss Daniel P. O'Connell influence when dealing with the Republican governor; the bonds were paid in 2001 and the state assumed ownership, though it required years to do the paperwork to change title. The state obtained possession of the 98.5-acre site on March 1962 through eminent domain. Demolition of the 1,200 structures began in the fall of 1962 and continued through the end of 1964; the official groundbreaking was on June 21, 1965. The initial cost estimate was $250 million; the project was plagued by delays. Unrealistic schedules set by the state forced contractors for various parts to interfere with each other during work; the difficult working conditions caused some of the contractors to sue the state later. The first building to be completed was the Legislative Office Building in 1972, the last was the Egg in 1978.
Though the plaza was dedicated in 1973, it began full operation in 1976 at a total cost exceeding $1.7 billion. As of 2014, more than 11,000 state employees work at the complex; when the State of New York seized the area in March 1962, it was home to about 7,000 residents according to the 1960 US Census. Like urban cores in most other American cities in the Northeast and Midwest, downtown Albany had seen sharp declines in white population, downtown retail activity, hotel occupancy rates since World War II. At the same time, the African American population had doubled in the downtown census tracts between 1950 and 1960. At the time of the State's 1962 seizure, the largest ethnic group in the entire area was African American, at about 14% of the total population. First and second generation Italian Americans made up about 10% of the area's population; the 98-acre area was made up of several distinct neighborhoods. To the south, clustered around Madison and Grand streets was the heart of Albany's Italian American community.
Although only about half of Little Italy was seized by the State, the demolition and subsequent noise and dirt associated with the construction of the Empire State Plaza led many residents to move if their homes were not appropriated. To the north lay Albany's rooming house district, centered on Jay and Hudson streets between Eagle and S. Swan. About 10% of the buildings torn down for the Empire State Plaza were rooming houses. In them lived over 1,000 single men elderly and poor, they made up at least 15 % of the take area's population. The eastern part of the take area, where the South Mall Arterial is now, was Albany's "Gut", an area of cheap hotels and dive bars; the take area boasted elegant homes on State Street at the northern end and Elm Street below Madison. The area in and around the seized area had long been home to their churches. Five churches operated in the area in the years just before its seizure by the state. Holy Cross, a German national Catholic church founded in 1850, was at the corner of Hamilton and Philip streets.
Due to declining numbers, it relocated in 1959 to Brevator on the city's western fringe. Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, a French national Catholic church, was at 109 Hamilton, between Grand and Fulton streets. Like Holy Cross, the church had seen a drop in parishioners to the point that in 1961 it celebrated only four baptisms and one marriage. Assumption relocat
In architecture and city planning, a terrace or terrace house or townhouse is a form of medium-density housing that originated in Europe in the 16th century, whereby a row of attached dwellings share side walls. They are known in some areas as row houses. Terrace housing can be found throughout the world, though it is in abundance in Europe and Latin America, extensive examples can be found in Australia and North America; the Place des Vosges in Paris is one of the early examples of the style. Sometimes associated with the working class and reproduction terraces have become part of the process of gentrification in certain inner-city areas. Though earlier Gothic ecclesiastical examples, such as Vicars' Close, Wells are known, the practice of building new domestic homes uniformly to the property line began in the 16th century following Dutch and Belgian models and became known in English as "row" houses. "Yarmouth Rows" in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk is an example where the building fronts uniformly ran right to the property line.
The term terrace was borrowed from garden terraces by British architects of the late Georgian period to describe streets of houses whose uniform fronts and uniform height created an ensemble, more stylish than a "row". Townhouses are two- to three-storey structures that share a wall with a neighbouring unit; as opposed to an apartment building, townhouses do not have neighbouring units below them. They are similar in concept to row houses or terraced houses, except they are divided into smaller groupings of homes; the first and last of these houses is called an end terrace, is a different layout from the houses in the middle, sometimes called mid-terrace. In Australia, the term "terrace house" refers exclusively to Victorian and Edwardian era terraces or replicas always found in the older, inner city areas of the major cities. Terraced housing was introduced to Australia from England in the nineteenth century, basing their architecture on those in the UK, France and Italy. Large numbers of terraced houses were built in the inner suburbs of large Australian cities Sydney and Melbourne between the 1850s and the 1890s.
Detached housing became the popular style of housing in Australia following Federation in 1901. The most common building material used was brick covered with cement render and painted. Many terraces were built in the "Filigree" style, a style distinguished through heavy use of cast iron ornament, it has a level paved area in front known as terrace on the balconies and sometimes depicting native Australian flora. In the 1950s, many urban renewal programs were aimed at eradicating them in favour of modern development. In recent decades these inner-city areas and their terraced houses have been gentrified; the suburbs in which terrace houses are found are sought after in Australia due to their proximity to the Central Business Districts of the major cities. They are therefore sometimes quite expensive though they are not the preferred accommodation style; the lack of windows on the side, the small gardens, the relative darkness of the rooms is at odds with the design principles for modern Australian homes.
The lack of off-street parking that most have is an issue for the majority of Australians. In Finland, an agrarian country where urbanism was a late phenomenon, the rivitalo has not been seen as a urban house type. What is regarded as the first terraced house to be built, Ribbingshof, in the new Helsinki suburb of Kulosaari was designed by renowned architect Armas Lindgren, was inspired by ideas from the English Garden City movement and Hampstead Garden Suburb, was seen as a low density residential area. A leafy suburban street of terraced houses was that of Hollantilaisentie in the suburb of Munkkiniemi, designed by architect Eliel Saarinen, they were envisioned as workers' housing, as part of a grand new urban scheme for the entirety of north-west Helsinki, but from the outset became a fashionable middle-class residential area. Terraced housing in Finland is associated with suburban middle-class living, such as the Tapiola garden city, from the 1950s. Terraced housing has long been a popular form in France.
The Place des Vosges was one of the earliest examples of the arrangement. In Parisian squares, central blocks were given discreet prominence. Terraced building including housing was used during Haussmann's renovation of Paris between 1852 and 1870 creating whole streetscapes consisting of terraced rows; the first streets of houses with uniform fronts were built by the Huguenot entrepreneur Nicholas Barbon in the rebuilding after the Great Fire of London. Fashionable terraces appeared in London's Grosvenor Square from 1727 onwards and in Bath's Queen Square from 1729 onwards; the Scottish architect Robert Adam is credited with the development of the house itself. Early terraces were built by the two John Woods in Bath and under the direction of John Nash in Regent's Park, London; the term soon became commonplace. It is far from being the case; this is true in London, where some of the wealthiest people in the country owned them in locations such as Belgrave Square and Carlton House Terrace. These townhouses, in the British sense, were the London residences of noble
The Italianate style of architecture was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture. In the Italianate style, the models and architectural vocabulary of 16th-century Italian Renaissance architecture, which had served as inspiration for both Palladianism and Neoclassicism, were synthesised with picturesque aesthetics; the style of architecture, thus created, though characterised as "Neo-Renaissance", was of its own time. "The backward look transforms its object," Siegfried Giedion wrote of historicist architectural styles. The Italianate style was first developed in Britain in about 1802 by John Nash, with the construction of Cronkhill in Shropshire; this small country house is accepted to be the first Italianate villa in England, from, derived the Italianate architecture of the late Regency and early Victorian eras. The Italianate style was further developed and popularised by the architect Sir Charles Barry in the 1830s. Barry's Italianate style drew for its motifs on the buildings of the Italian Renaissance, though sometimes at odds with Nash's semi-rustic Italianate villas.
The style was not confined to England and was employed in varying forms, long after its decline in popularity in Britain, throughout Northern Europe and the British Empire. From the late 1840s to 1890 it achieved huge popularity in the United States, where it was promoted by the architect Alexander Jackson Davis. Key visual components of this style include: In interior decoration there were direct parallels to "Italianate" architecture with free re-combinations of decorative features drawn from Italian 16th-century architecture and objects, which were applied to purely 19th century forms. Wardrobes and dressers could be dressed in Italianate detailing as well as row houses; the spur to such commercial designs can be found in the "free Renaissance" style, espoused by Charles Eastlake. In 1868 he published Hints on Household Taste in Furniture and other Details, influential in Britain and in the United States, where the book was published in 1872. Although the archaeology of Mr. Eastlake's volume was always careful, most of the principles in it are beyond question, can be stated in a few words.
The Italianate style would have no carving or molding or other ornament glued on—such work must be done in the solid. The furniture that he thus proposed has straight, squarely cut members equal to their intention, its ornament is painted panels, porcelain plaques and tiles, metal trimmings, conventionalized carvings in sunk relief, a part of the construction entering into the ornament in the shape of narrow striated strips of wood radiating in opposite lines, after a fashion not altogether unknown in the time of Henry III. It has the solidity, but not the attraction, of the Medieval. Today "Italianate" furnishings are called "Eastlake" by American collectors and dealers, but contemporary terms ranged imaginatively, included "Neo-Grec". A late intimation of Nash's development of the Italianate style was his 1805 design of Sandridge Park at Stoke Gabriel in Devon. Commissioned by the dowager Lady Ashburton as a country retreat, this small country house shows the transition between the picturesque of William Gilpin and Nash's yet to be evolved Italianism.
While this house can still be described as Regency, its informal asymmetrical plan together with its loggias and balconies of both stone and wrought iron. Examples of the Italianate style in England tend to take the form of Palladian-style building enhanced by a belvedere tower complete with Renaissance-type balustrading at the roof level; this is a more stylistic interpretation of what architects and patrons imagined to be the case in Italy, utilises more the Italian Renaissance motifs than those earlier examples of the Italianate style by Nash. Sir Charles Barry, most notable for his works on the Tudor and Gothic styles at the Houses of Parliament in London, was a great promoter of the style. Unlike Nash he found his inspiration in Italy itself. Barry drew on the designs of the original Renaissance villas of Rome, the Lazio and the Veneto or as he put it: "...the charming character of the irregular villas of Italy." His most defining work in this style was the large Neo-Renaissance mansion Cliveden.
Although it has been claimed that one third of early Victorian country houses in England used classical styles Italianate, by 1855 the style was falling from favour and Cliveden came to be regarded as "a declining essay in a declining fashion."Anthony Salvin designed in the Italianate style in Wales, at Hafod House and Penoyre House, described by Mark Girouard as "Salvin's most ambitious classical house."Thomas Cubitt, a London building contractor, incorporated simple classical lines of the Italianate style as defined by Sir Char
Gothic Revival architecture
Gothic Revival is an architectural movement popular in the Western world that began in the late 1740s in England. Its popularity grew in the early 19th century, when serious and learned admirers of neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval Gothic architecture, in contrast to the neoclassical styles prevalent at the time. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, lancet windows, hood moulds and label stops; the Gothic Revival movement emerged in 18th-century England. Its roots were intertwined with philosophical movements associated with Catholicism and a re-awakening of High Church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism; the "Anglo-Catholicism" tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. Gothic Revival architecture varied in its faithfulness to both the ornamental style and principles of construction of its medieval original, sometimes amounting to little more than pointed window frames and a few touches of Gothic decoration on a building otherwise on a wholly 19th-century plan and using contemporary materials and construction methods.
In parallel to the ascendancy of neo-Gothic styles in 19th-century England, interest spread to the continent of Europe, in Australia, Sierra Leone, South Africa and to the Americas. The influence of the Revival had peaked by the 1870s. New architectural movements, sometimes related as in the Arts and Crafts movement, sometimes in outright opposition, such as Modernism, gained ground, by the 1930s the architecture of the Victorian era was condemned or ignored; the 20th century saw a revival of interest, manifested in the United Kingdom by the establishment of the Victorian Society in 1958. The rise of Evangelicalism in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries saw in England a reaction in the High church movement which sought to emphasise the continuity between the established church and the pre-Reformation Catholic church. Architecture, in the form of the Gothic Revival, became one of the main weapons in the High church's armoury; the Gothic Revival was paralleled and supported by "medievalism", which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals and curiosities.
As "industrialisation" progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories grew. Proponents of the picturesque such as Thomas Carlyle and Augustus Pugin took a critical view of industrial society and portrayed pre-industrial medieval society as a golden age. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values, supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation. Gothic Revival took on political connotations. In English literature, the architectural Gothic Revival and classical Romanticism gave rise to the Gothic novel genre, beginning with The Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, inspired a 19th-century genre of medieval poetry that stems from the pseudo-bardic poetry of "Ossian". Poems such as "Idylls of the King" by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance. In German literature, the Gothic Revival had a grounding in literary fashions. Gothic architecture began at the Basilica of Saint Denis near Paris, the Cathedral of Sens in 1140 and ended with a last flourish in the early 16th century with buildings like Henry VII's Chapel at Westminster.
However, Gothic architecture did not die out in the 16th century but instead lingered in on-going cathedral-building projects. In Bologna, in 1646, the Baroque architect Carlo Rainaldi constructed Gothic vaults for the Basilica of San Petronio in Bologna, under construction since 1390. Guarino Guarini, a 17th-century Theatine monk active in Turin, recognized the "Gothic order" as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice. Gothic architecture survived in an urban setting during the 17th century, as shown in Oxford and Cambridge, where some additions and repairs to Gothic buildings were considered to be more in keeping with the style of the original structures than contemporary Baroque. Sir Christopher Wren's Tom Tower for Christ Church, University of Oxford, Nicholas Hawksmoor's west towers of Westminster Abbey, blur the boundaries between what is called "Gothic survival" and the Gothic Revival. Throughout France in the 16th and 17th centuries, churches such as St-Eustache continued to be built following gothic forms cloaked in classical details, until the arrival of Baroque architecture.
In the mid-18th century, with the rise of Romanticism, an increased in