The wicket-keeper in the sport of cricket is the player on the fielding side who stands behind the wicket or stumps being watchful of the batsman and be ready to take a catch, stump the batsman out and run out a batsman when occasion arises. The wicket-keeper is the only member of the fielding side permitted to wear gloves and external leg guards; the role of the keeper is governed by Law 27 of the Laws of Cricket. During the bowling of the ball the wicket-keeper crouches in a full squatting position but stands up as the ball is received. Australian wicket-keeper Sammy Carter was the first to squat on his haunches rather than bend over from the waist; the keeper's major function is to stop deliveries that pass the batsman, but he can attempt to dismiss the batsman in various ways: The most common dismissal effected by the keeper is for him to catch a ball that has nicked the batsman's bat, called an edge, before it bounces. Sometimes the keeper is in the best position to catch a ball, hit high in the air.
More catches are taken by wicket-keepers than by any other fielding position. The keeper can stump the batsman by using the ball to remove the bails from the stumps, if the batsman is out of his crease after a delivery has passed the stumps into the keeper's hands; the keeper must dislodge the bail and the batsman is out if he is still outside the crease. When the ball is hit into the outfield, the keeper moves close to the stumps to catch the return throw from a fielder and, if possible, to run out a batsman. A keeper's position depends on the bowler: for fast bowling he will squat some distance from the stumps, in order to have time to react to edges from the batsman, while for slower bowling, he will come much nearer to the stumps, to pressure the batsman into remaining within the crease or risk being stumped; the more skilled the keeper, the faster the bowling to which he is able to "stand up", for instance Godfrey Evans stood up to Alec Bedser. Like the other players on a cricket team, keepers will bat during the team’s batting innings.
At elite levels, wicket-keepers are expected to be proficient batters, averaging more than specialist bowlers. See Wicket-keeper-batsman. Law 27.2, which deals with the specifications for wicketkeepers' gloves, states that: If... the wicket-keeper wears gloves, they shall have no webbing between the fingers except joining index finger and thumb, where webbing may be inserted as a means of support. If used, the webbing shall be a single piece of non-stretch material which, although it may have facing material attached, shall have no reinforcements or tucks; the top edge of the webbing shall not protrude beyond the straight line joining the top of the index finger to the top of the thumb and shall be taut when a hand wearing the glove has the thumb extended. Substitutes were not allowed to keep wicket, but this restriction was lifted in the 2017 edition of the Laws of Cricket; this rule was sometimes suspended, by agreement with the captain of the batting side. For example, during the England–New Zealand Test Match at Lord's in 1986, England's specialist keeper, Bruce French was injured during England's first innings.
England used 4 keepers in New Zealand's first innings: Bill Athey kept for the first two overs. Arthur Jones was the first substitute to keep wicket in a Test match, when he did so against Australia at The Oval in 1905. There is no rule stating. On 5 June 2015 during a T20 Blast game between the Worcestershire Rapids and the Northamptonshire Steelbacks, Worcestershire chose not to play a wicket-keeper in the 16th over of the match, their keeper, Ben Cox, became an extra fielder at fly slip. The umpires consulted with each other and agreed that there was nothing in the rules to prevent it from happening; the following are the top 10 wicket-keepers by total dismissals in Test cricket. The following are the top 10 wicket-keepers by total dismissals in one day cricket; the following are the top 10 wicket-keepers by total dismissals in Twenty20 International cricket. Catcher Glossary of cricket terms Wicket-keeper's gloves Surya Prakash Chaturvedi, Bharat ke Wicket Keepers, National Book Trust, 2011
Stumped is a method of dismissal in cricket. The action of stumping can only be performed by a wicket-keeper and, according to the Laws of Cricket, a batsman can be given out stumped if: the wicket-keeper puts down the wicket, while the batsman is: out of his ground. Being "out of his ground" is defined as not having any part of the batsman's body or his bat touching the ground behind the crease – i.e. if his bat is elevated from the floor despite being behind the crease, or if his foot is on the crease line itself but not across it and touching the ground behind it he would be considered out. One of the fielding team must appeal for the wicket by asking the umpire; the appeal is directed to the square-leg umpire, who would be in the best position to adjudicate on the appeal. Stumping is the fifth most common form of dismissal after caught, leg before wicket and run out, though it is seen more in Twenty20 cricket because of its more aggressive batting, it is governed by Law 39 of the Laws of Cricket.
It is seen with a medium or slow bowler, as with fast bowlers a wicket-keeper takes the ball too far back from the wicket to attempt a stumping. It includes co-operation between a bowler and wicket-keeper: the bowler draws the batsman out of his ground, the wicket-keeper catches and breaks the wicket before the batsman realises he has missed the ball and makes his ground, i.e. places the bat or part of his body on the ground back behind the popping crease. If the bails are removed before the wicket-keeper has the ball, the batsman can still be stumped if the wicket-keeper removes one of the stumps from the ground, while holding the ball in his hand; the bowler is credited for the batsman's wicket, the wicket-keeper is credited for the dismissal. A batsman may be out stumped off a wide delivery but cannot be stumped off a no-ball as bowler is credited for the wicket. Notes: The popping crease is defined as the back edge of the crease marking (i.e. the edge closer to the wicket. Therefore, a batsman whose bat or foot is on the crease marking, but does not touch the ground behind the crease marking, can be stumped.
This is quite common. The wicket must be properly put down in accordance with Law 28 of the Laws of cricket: using either the ball itself or a hand or arm, in possession of the ball. Note that since the ball itself can put down the wicket, a stumping is still valid if the ball rebounds from the'keeper and breaks the wicket though never controlled by him; the wicket-keeper must allow the ball to pass the stumps before taking it, unless it has touched either the batsman or his bat first. If the wicket-keeper fails to do this, the delivery is a "no-ball", the batsman cannot be stumped
Jacques Kallis is a former South African cricketer, and, a former Test and ODI captain. As a right-handed batsman and right-arm fast-medium swing bowler, Kallis is regarded as the greatest cricketer of all time and the game's greatest all rounder; as of 2016 he was the only cricketer in the history of the game to score more than 10,000 runs and take over 250 wickets in both ODI and Test match cricket, pouching 131 ODI catches along the way as well. His Test match career in particular saw him score 13,289 runs, take 292 wickets and 200 catches respectively. Kallis played 166 Test had a batting average of over 55 runs per innings. From October to December 2007 he scored. With his century in the second innings of the third Test against India in January 2011, his 40th in all, he moved past Ricky Ponting to become the second-highest scorer of Test centuries, behind only Sachin Tendulkar's 51. Kallis was named Leading Cricketer in the World in the 2008 Wisden for his performances in 2007 in addition to being the "ICC Test Player of the Year" and ICC Player of the Year in 2005.
He has been described by Kevin Pietersen and Daryll Cullinan as the greatest cricketer to play the game, along with Wally Hammond and Sir Garry Sobers is one of the few Test all-rounders whose Test batting average is over 50 and exceeds his Test bowling average by 20 or more. Kallis became the fourth player and first South African to score 13,000 Test runs on an eventful opening day of the first Test against New Zealand on 2 January 2013. Kallis, who had taken 292 Test wickets, lies third behind Indian player Sachin Tendulkar and Australian Ricky Ponting on the list of all-time run scorers in test cricket, he was named one of the Wisden cricketers of the year in 2013. He retired from Test and first-class cricket after playing in the second Test against India at Durban in December 2013, he retired from all forms of international cricket on 30 July 2014. Kallis featured for Wales, representing the nation against England in the 2002 Natwest Challenge, helping them to an 8 wicket victory with a return of 31–1 off 10 overs and a score of 3 in the run chase.
He is the current coach of Kolkata Knight Riders. Kallis played cricket for Wynberg Boys' High School. In 2009 Wynberg honoured Kallis by naming their main cricket oval after him; as a teenager, Kallis had a brief spell with Netherfield CC in England where he established himself in Northern England – Kallis was only 19 when he spent a summer at Parkside Road back in 1995, returning 791 runs at an average of 98.87 from 14 matches before making his Test debut against England that year. Kallis played for Old Edwardians for a spell as a teenager, where coaching staff saw potential for him to become a first-class all rounder, he made his first-class debut in 1993/94 as an 18-year-old, playing for Western Province B. His first Test appearance was on 14–18 December 1995 against England in Durban, but he struggled with the bat in his first few matches. Kallis did not have much opportunity to excel, his breakthrough came in 1997, with 61 against Pakistan, two matches he salvaged a draw for South Africa with a fighting century against Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground.
Between 1998 and 2002, Jacques Kallis was one of the world's leading all-rounders, as seen in the ICC's cricket ratings. In 1998, he led South Africa to the ICC Champions Trophy title with two "Man of the Match" and the "Player of the Series" performances; the youngster was solid, without being spectacular, in the 1999 ICC Cricket World Cup, before a "Player of the Series" performance led South Africa to a stunning Test series victory against India in India in 2000. By late 2001 he was the world's number one ranked Test all-rounder, having held the same ranking in ODIs for the best part of 3 years. During this time, "Kallis blossomed into arguably the world's leading batsman, with a defensive technique second to none, the adhesive qualities of a Cape Point limpet. A placid and undemonstrative man, he nailed down the crucial No. 3 position in the South African batting order after a number of players had been tried and discarded, his stock rose exponentially from that moment." Kallis is one of only four players in Test history to make a century in five consecutive matches, achieved in season 2003/04.
In 2005, he set the record for the fastest half-century, as measured by balls faced, in Test cricket history, scoring 50 against Zimbabwe off only 24 balls. In 2007, Kallis scored five centuries in four Tests, making him just the fourth man after Bradman, Ken Barrington and Matthew Hayden to score four centuries in four Tests on two different occasions; that Kallis holds these records belies his reputation as a defensive batsman of the old-fashioned type, something he himself became determined to erase in the latter half of his career. Regardless of style, Kallis has a remarkable batting average in the mid-50s, has been rated as one of the best batsmen in the world. Although still a capable bowler with 292 Test wickets, he impressed with the bat between 2005 and 2007; as a result, he evolved into more of a batting all-rounder, a role in which he continued because of the emergence of Dale Steyn, Morné Morkel, Vernon Philander. Kallis is the only man to take over 200 wickets in Test cricket. Sir Garfield Sobers managed over 8,000 runs and 200 wickets
ESPNcricinfo is a sports news website for the game of cricket. The site features news, live coverage of cricket matches, StatsGuru, a database of historical matches and players from the 18th century to the present; as of March 2018, Sambit Bal was the editor. The site conceived in a pre-World Wide Web form in 1993 by Dr Simon King, was acquired in 2002 by the Wisden Group—publishers of several notable cricket magazines and the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack; as part of an eventual breakup of the Wisden Group, it was sold to ESPN, jointly owned by The Walt Disney Company and Hearst Corporation, in 2007. CricInfo was launched on 15 March 1993 by Dr Simon King, a British researcher at the University of Minnesota, with help from students and researchers at universities around the world; the site was reliant on contributions from fans around the world who spent hours compiling electronic scorecards and contributing them to CricInfo's comprehensive archive, as well as keying in live scores from games around the world using CricInfo's scoring software, "dougie".
In 2000, Cricinfo's estimated worth was $150 million. Cricinfo's significant growth in the 1990s made it an attractive site for investors during the peak of the dotcom boom, in 2000 it received $37 million worth of Satyam Infoway Ltd. shares in exchange for a 25% stake in the company. It used around $22m worth of the paper to pay off initial investors but only raised about £6 million by selling the remaining stock. While the site continued to attract more and more users and operated on a low cost base, its income was not enough to support a peak staff of 130 in nine countries, forcing redundancies. By late 2002 the company was making a monthly operating profit and was one of few independent sports sites to avoid collapse. However, the business was still servicing a large loan. Cricinfo was acquired by Paul Getty's Wisden Group, the publisher of Wisden Cricketers' Almanack and The Wisden Cricketer, renamed Wisden Cricinfo; the Wisden brand were phased out in favor of Cricinfo for Wisden's online operations.
In December 2005, Wisden re-launched its discontinued Wisden Asia Cricket magazine as Cricinfo Magazine, a magazine dedicated to coverage of Indian cricket. The magazine published its last issue in July 2007. In 2006, revenue was reported to be £3m. In 2007, the Wisden Group began to be sold to other companies. In June 2007, ESPN Inc. announced. The acquisition was intended to help further expand Cricinfo by combining the site with ESPN's other web properties, including ESPN.com and ESPN Soccernet. Terms of the acquisition were not disclosed; as of 2018, Sambit Bal is the Editor-in-Chief of ESPNcricinfo. In 2013, ESPNcricinfo.com celebrated its 20 anniversary of founding with a series of online features. The annual ESPNcricinfo Awards have become an popular event in the cricket calendar. ESPNcricinfo's popularity was further demonstrated on 24 February 2010, when the site could not handle the heavy traffic experienced after the great Indian cricketer Sachin Tendulkar broke the record for the highest individual male score in a One Day International match with 200*.
ESPNcricinfo contains various news, blogs and fantasy sports games. Among its most popular feature are its liveblogs of cricket matches, which includes a bevy of scorecard options, allowing readers to track such aspects of the game as wagon wheels and partnership breakdowns. For each match, the live scores are accompanied by a bulletin, which details the turning points of the match and some of the off-field events; the site used to offer Cricinfo 3D, a feature which utilizes a match's scoring data to generate a 3D animated simulation of a live match. Regular columns on ESPNcricinfo include "All Today's Yesterdays", an "On this day" column focusing on historical cricket events, "Quote Unquote", which features notable quotes from cricketers and cricket administrators. "Ask Steven" is another regular section on ESPNCricinfo. It is a Tuesday column. Among its most extensive feature is StatsGuru, a database created by Travis Basevi, containing statistics on players, teams, information about cricket boards, details of future tournaments, individual teams, records.
In May 2014, ESPNcricinfo launched CricIQ, an online test to challenge every fan’s cricket knowledge. The Cricket Monthly claims itself to be the world’s first digital-only cricket magazine; the first issue was dated August 2014. ESPNcricinfo History of the first decade of Cricinfo by Badri Seshadri, September 26, 2013 CricInfo – How it all began by Rohan Chandran, 2013, with an insiders view of the who and what and comments by other pioneers
In cricket, the term wicket has several meanings. Firstly, it is one of two bails at either end of the pitch; the wicket is guarded by a batsman who, with his bat, attempts to prevent the ball from hitting the wicket. Secondly, through metonymic usage, the dismissal of a batsman is known as the taking of a wicket, thirdly, the cricket pitch itself is sometimes called the wicket; the origin of the word is from a small gate. Cricket wickets had only two stumps and one bail and looked like a gate; the third stump was introduced in 1775. The size and shape of the wicket has changed several times during the last 300 years and its dimensions and placing is now determined by Law 8 in the Laws of Cricket, thus: Law 8: The wickets; the wicket consists of three wooden stumps. The stumps are placed along the batting crease with equal distances between each stump, they are positioned. Two wooden bails are placed in shallow grooves on top of the stumps; the bails must not project more than 0.5 inches above the stumps, must, for men's cricket, be 4.31 inches long.
There are specified lengths for the barrel and spigots of the bail. There are different specifications for the bails for junior cricket; the umpires may dispense with the bails. Further details on the specifications of the wickets are contained in Appendix D to the laws. For a batsman to be dismissed by being bowled, run out, stumped or hit wicket, his wicket needs to be put down. What this means is defined by Law 29. A wicket is put down if a bail is removed from the top of the stumps, or a stump is struck out of the grounds by the ball, the striker's bat, the striker's person, a fielder. A 2010 amendment to the Laws clarified the rare circumstance where a bat breaks during the course of a shot and the detached debris breaks the wicket; the wicket is put down if a fielder pulls a stump out of the ground in the same manner. If one bail is off, removing the remaining bail or striking or pulling any of the three stumps out of the ground is sufficient to put the wicket down. A fielder may remake the wicket, if necessary, in order to put it down to have an opportunity of running out a batsman.
If however both bails are off, a fielder must remove one of the three stumps out of the ground with the ball, or pull it out of the ground with a hand or arm, provided that the ball is held in the hand or hands so used, or in the hand of the arm so used. If the umpires have agreed to dispense with bails, for example, it is too windy for the bails to remain on the stumps, the decision as to whether the wicket has been put down is one for the umpire concerned to decide. After a decision to play without bails, the wicket has been put down if the umpire concerned is satisfied that the wicket has been struck by the ball, by the striker's bat, person, or items of his clothing or equipment separated from his person as described above, or by a fielder with the hand holding the ball or with the arm of the hand holding the ball; the dismissal of a batsman is known as the taking of a wicket. The batsman is said to have lost his wicket, the batting side is said to have lost a wicket, the fielding side to have taken a wicket, the bowler is said to have taken his wicket, if the dismissal is one of the types for which the bowler receives credit.
This language is used if the dismissal did not involve the stumps and bails in any way, for example, a catch. Though note that the other four of the five most common methods of dismissal do involve the stumps and bails being put down, or prevented from being put down by the batsman; the word wicket has this meaning in the following contexts: A team's score is described in terms of the total number of runs scored and the total number of wickets lost. The number of wickets taken is a primary measure of a individual bowler's ability, a key part of a bowling analysis; the sequence of time over which two particular batsmen bat together, a partnership, is referred to as a numbered wicket when discriminating it from other partnerships in the innings. The first wicket partnership is from the start of the innings until the team loses its first wicket, i.e. one of the first two batsmen is dismissed. The second wicket partnership is from when the third batsman starts batting until the team loses its second wicket, i.e. a second batsman is dismissed.
Etc... The tenth wicket or last wicket partnership is from when the eleventh batsman starts batting until the team loses its tenth wicket, i.e. a tenth batsman is dismissed. A team can win a match by a certain number of wickets; this means that they were batting last, reached the winning target with a certain number of batsmen still not dismissed. For example, if the side scored the required number of runs to win with only three batsmen dismissed, they are said to have won by seven wickets; the word wicket is sometimes used to refer to the cricket pitch itself. According to the Laws of Cricket, this usage is incorrect, but it is in common usage and understood by cricket followers; the term sticky wicket refers to a situation in which the pitch has become damp due to rain or high humidity. This makes the path of the ball more unpredictable thus making the
Grant William Flower is a former Zimbabwean cricketer and a former ODI captain, who played Tests and ODIs. He is rated among the best Zimbabwean cricketers in history for his handy left arm spin and fine batting skills, he was a fitness fanatic who spends hours in the gym, was regarded as a brilliant fielder, seen in the gully. "Flower Power", the combination of Grant and his brother Andy Flower, was the mainstay of Zimbabwean batting for a decade. He was his team's most successful opening batsman who played the role of anchorman, with strokeplayers coming in down the order, he played a lead role in, Zimbabwe's finest Test victory, against a strong Pakistan side. He would show a liking for the Pakistani side over his career, averaging over 40 against them and scoring 3 centuries including an unbeaten 201. In July 2014, he was appointed as batting coach of the Pakistan cricket team for a period of two years, he was the first batsman to have carried his bat across 2 different formats and the only batsman to have carried out his bat in both ODIs as well as in tests.
Grant Flower was born in Salisbury and was educated along with his brother Andy at North Park School where they were the best players in their age groups. Although always an allrounder, he bowled seamers in his early days and his bowling was rated more than his batting, it was at St. George's College where he changed to spin bowling. Quite Flower is part of the famous talent production line from St George’s College, which includes England cricketers Sam and Tom Curran as well as New Zealand international Colin de Grandhomme among a plethora of other internationally capped players. In the summer of 1990/91 his elevation to a professional cricketer was confirmed when he was employed by the Zimbabwe Cricket Union, his debut first-class game for Zimbabwe came against England A. In his second match he opened the innings and was rewarded with a fifty adding what would be the first of many century partnerships with his brother Andy. At just 19, Flower was part of the 1990 ICC tournament where the winner would qualify for the World Cup.
Zimbabwe would go on to win the competition with Grant Flower scoring in the early games. Had they not won the competition it is that Zimbabwe would not have made their rise to Test cricket, at least not until much later. Grant Flower missed out on the 1992 World Cup due to injury. In 1993 Grant spent a season in England with Widnes Cricket Club in the Manchester and District Cricket Association. After the World Cup Zimbabwe were promoted to Test status and Flower was unanimously selected to play against the Indians for the Inaugural Test match. On a flat pitch, he dominated in a 100 run opening stand, he would go on to score 82. Zimbabwe again met the Indians this time on their home turf and again fell just short of a maiden Test century when he fell for 96. Pakistan toured Zimbabwe in 1995 and in the 1st Test Flower scored his maiden Test century. Not content, he went on to register double hundred, he faced 523 balls as Zimbabwe scored a massive 4/544 declared. His innings would help Zimbabwe to win their first Test match as they won by a convincing Innings and 64 Runs.
He would continue to haunt the Pakistani side, scoring his second Test century at Sheikhupura Stadium in Pakistan. In 1997 Flower became the first Zimbabwean to score a century in both innings of a Test match. Playing against New Zealand in Harare, he scored 104 and 151. A year he scored his 5th Test century, an innings of 156 not out at Queens Sports Club against Pakistan, he would suffer a form slump after that innings, not scoring a 99 for 33 innings including 6 ducks. On 25 November 2000 he ended his slump with a fine 106 against India and would go on to score 4 50's in his next 6 innings. By the end of his ODI career, Flower had taken more wickets than any other Zimbabwean bowler except Heath Streak, his ODI statistics make better reading than his Test statistics. He would score 6 ODI tons and had it not been for the nervous nineties may have had many more. 9 times he was either dismissed in the 90's. One of his most memorable centuries would come in the final of a one-day triangular tournament in Bangladesh.
Playing against Kenya he smashed an 82 ball century and finished with 140, just 2 short of the national record at the time. He holds the record for taking the most catches as fielder for Zimbabawe in ODI historyFlower more was the first batsman to carry his bat right through the completed innings of an ODI, he holds the unique record for being the only batsman in ODI cricket to have carried his bat in an One Day International match in a winning cause. In 2004 he announced his retirement from international cricket; this was due to the dispute between the rebels and the Zimbabwean Cricket Union. He signed a contract with Essex as a Kolpak player. There was some grumbling amongst Essex supporters at his signing, but this appeared to die down after his first season, when he topped the Essex 2005 List-A batting averages and was third in the number of wickets taken. Following another fine season for Essex which turned out to be his last season of county cricket, Flower was handed a shock recall to the Zimbabwe team for the tour of South Africa.
He is expected to combine playing duties with his role of batting coach of the national side and was in contention to play in the 2011 Cricket World Cup held in India. He made his international return in October 2010 the first ODI of a three-match series vs South Africa. On May 2014, he was appointed as the batting coach of Pakistan cricket team. Grant
Zimbabwe the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of 16 million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English and Ndebele the most used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade; the British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia; the state endured a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces. Zimbabwe joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then-government, from which it withdrew in December 2003; the sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa.
It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity under the former Rhodesian administration. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator"; the country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état.
On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed. On 30 July 2018 Zimbabwe held its general elections, won by the ZANU-PF party led by Emmerson Mnangagwa. Nelson Chamisa, leading the main opposition party MDC Alliance contested the election results and filed a petition to the Constitution Court of Zimbabwe; the court confirmed Mnangagwa's victory. The name "Zimbabwe" stems from a Shona term for Great Zimbabwe, an ancient ruined city in the country's south-east whose remains are now a protected site. Two different theories address the origin of the word. Many sources hold that "Zimbabwe" derives from dzimba-dza-mabwe, translated from the Karanga dialect of Shona as "houses of stones"; the Karanga-speaking Shona people live around Great Zimbabwe in the modern-day province of Masvingo. Archaeologist Peter Garlake claims that "Zimbabwe" represents a contracted form of dzimba-hwe, which means "venerated houses" in the Zezuru dialect of Shona and references chiefs' houses or graves.
Zimbabwe was known as Southern Rhodesia and Zimbabwe Rhodesia. The first recorded use of "Zimbabwe" as a term of national reference dates from 1960 as a coinage by the black nationalist Michael Mawema, whose Zimbabwe National Party became the first to use the name in 1961; the term "Rhodesia"—derived from the surname of Cecil Rhodes, the primary instigator of British colonisation of the territory during the late 19th century—was perceived by African nationalists as inappropriate because of its colonial origin and connotations. According to Mawema, black nationalists held a meeting in 1960 to choose an alternative name for the country, proposing names such as "Matshobana" and "Monomotapa" before his suggestion, "Zimbabwe", prevailed. A further alternative, put forward by nationalists in Matabeleland, had been "Matopos", referring to the Matopos Hills to the south of Bulawayo, it was unclear how the chosen term was to be used—a letter written by Mawema in 1961 refers to "Zimbabweland" — but "Zimbabwe" was sufficiently established by 1962 to become the preferred term of the black nationalist movement.
In a 2001 interview, black nationalist Edson Zvobgo recalled that Mawema mentioned the name during a political rally, "and it caught hold, and, that". The black nationalist factions subsequently used the name during the Second Chimurenga campaigns against the Rhodesian government during the Rhodesian Bush War of 1964–1979. Major factions in this camp included the Zimbabwe African National Union, the Zimbabwe African People's Union. Archaeological records date human settlement of present-day Zimbabwe to at least 100,000 years ago; the earliest known inhabitants were San people, who left behind arrowheads and cave paintings. The first Bantu-speaking farmers arrived during the Bantu expansion around 2000 years ago. Societies speaking proto-Shona languages fir