Jesus Christ Superstar
Jesus Christ Superstar is a 1970 rock opera with music by Andrew Lloyd Webber and lyrics by Tim Rice. The musical started as a rock opera concept album before its Broadway debut in 1971; the musical is sung-through, with little spoken dialogue. The story is loosely based on the Gospels' accounts of the last week of Jesus's life, beginning with the preparation for the arrival of Jesus and his disciples in Jerusalem and ending with the crucifixion, it depicts political and interpersonal struggles between Judas Iscariot and Jesus that are not present in the Bible. The work's depiction offers a free interpretation of the psychology of other characters. Much of the plot centers on Judas, both dissatisfied with the direction in which Jesus is steering his disciples and fearful for the harm that may result. Contemporary attitudes and slang pervade the rock-opera's lyrics, ironic allusions to modern life are scattered throughout the depiction of political events. Stage and film productions accordingly contain many intentional anachronisms.
Judas Iscariot, a member of the Twelve Apostles, voices concern over Jesus's rising popularity and the negative repercussions that it will have, criticizing Jesus for accepting his followers' unrealistic beliefs. While Judas loves Jesus, he believes that he is just a man, not God, worries that his following will be seen as a threat to the Roman Empire, which would punish Jesus, his associates, all Jewish people. Judas's warning goes unheeded, as Jesus's followers have their minds set on going to Jerusalem with Jesus; when they ask Jesus for information about his plans for the future, Jesus refuses to give them any, since whatever will happen is determined by God. Recognizing that Jesus is irritated by the badgering and lack of understanding from his followers, Mary Magdalene tries to help Jesus relax. Judas does not like, it seems to Judas that Jesus is contradicting his own teaching, he worries that this apparent lack of judgment will be used against Jesus and his followers. Jesus tells Judas that Mary is with him now, unless Judas is without sin he should not judge the character of others.
Jesus reproaches the rest of the apostles and bitterly complains that not a single one of them cares if he comes or goes. Mary Magdalene tries to reassure Jesus while anointing him with oil. Judas angrily insists. Sadly, Jesus answers that they do not have the resources to end poverty, that they should be glad for what comforts they have, including himself. Meanwhile, the High Priest of Israel, assembles the Pharisees together at the Sanhedrin to talk about Jesus and his disciples. According to the Pharisees, Jesus's growing following consists of Jews unwilling to accept the Romans as their rulers, the priests believe that Jesus may come to be seen as a threat to the Roman Empire, to the priesthood's integrity. Caiaphas concludes that there could be great bloodshed and suggests that they kill him for the greater good, the Pharisees concur upon his decision; as Jesus and his followers arrive exultantly in Jerusalem, they are confronted by Caiaphas, who demands that Jesus should postpone the parade, which Jesus says would be futile and change nothing, he proceeds to greet the happy Israelites instead.
As the crowd cheers him on, they ask Jesus if he would die for them. To this, Jesus visibly reacts with concern. One of his apostles, Simon the Zealot, suggests that Jesus lead his mob in a war against Rome and gain absolute power. Jesus rejects this suggestion, stating that none of his followers understand what true power is, nor do they understand his true message. Pontius Pilate, the governor of Judea, has a dream in which he meets with a Galilean and receives all of the blame for the man's violent and mournful death, predicting the rise of Christianity. Jesus arrives at the Temple in Jerusalem and finds that it has become a haven of sin and debauchery as it is being used for selling everything from usury and weapons to prostitutes and drugs. A group of lepers begin to chime up to Jesus for healing. Though he heals some, their number increases, he is overwhelmed. Unable to solve everyone's problems, Jesus screams at them to heal themselves until he finds Mary Magdalene by his side, laying him to rest.
While Jesus is asleep, Mary acknowledges that she is unconditionally in love with him, unlike any man she has known before, it frightens her. Conflicted, Judas seeks out the Pharisees and promises to help them arrest Jesus, believing that he is acting with unselfish motives and that Jesus himself would approve if he knew those motives. Sustaining his testimony and Annas ask that Judas reveal the location of Jesus so that the authorities can apprehend him. In exchange for the information, Judas is offered thirty pieces of silver as a fee so that he can assuage his conscience by using the money charitably. Judas decides that it would be better to turn Jesus in before his popularity leads to the deaths of him and his followers, Judas included, he reveals. At what Jesus knows will be
Funny Face (musical)
Funny Face is a 1927 musical composed by George Gershwin, with lyrics by Ira Gershwin, book by Fred Thompson and Paul Gerard Smith. When it opened on Broadway on November 22, 1927, as the first show on the newly built Alvin Theatre, it starred Fred Astaire and his sister Adele Astaire, it was in this show that Fred Astaire first danced in a top hat. Called Smarty, it first opened in Philadelphia on October 11, 1927 to poor reviews; this led to major rewrites and caused critic-humorist Robert Benchley, who had contributed to the script, to walk out. The rewrites and changes continued as the musical moved from Philadelphia to Washington D. C.. It became a major Broadway hit, after 244 performances, the whole company transferred it to London, where Fred and Adele Astaire had a successful run of Lady, Be Good! just before starting the rehearsals of Smarty in Philadelphia. Jimmy Reeve is the legal guardian of three pretty sisters, Dora and Frankie, whose prize belongings he keeps in his safe. June's pearl necklace is locked in there, so is Frankie's diary, after having been confiscated by Jimmy.
However, the diary contains incriminating things, so Frankie convinces the aviator Peter Thurston to steal it from the safe. But somehow he manages to steal the pearls instead, setting off a merry chase that takes the cast to the Atlantic City pier, and to make matters more complicated, two bumbling burglars and Dugsie try to break into the safe and are swept along in the chase. At one point, they have a falling out, but Herbert is unable to shoot Dugsie as he has forgotten to get a shooting license; the show opened at the Alvin Theatre on November 22, 1927, ran for 244 performances. It was directed with choreography by Bobby Connolly. Main cast The plot of 1936 British film She Knew What She Wanted is loosely based on the musical, but doesn't contain any of the music; the 1957 film musical Funny Face, which starred Fred Astaire, featured just four songs from the stage musical, the plot was different. The 1983 Broadway musical My One and Only was claimed to be a revival of the original musical, but contained only some of the songs and had a different plot.
Website with extensive description of the show, with reprints from The Oxford Companion to American Theatre and various books Funny Face at the Internet Broadway Database Review of a 2000 revival Poster for the show with the original title, Smarty Poster for the show with the new title, Funny Face
New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission
The New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission is the New York City agency charged with administering the city's Landmarks Preservation Law. The Commission was created in April 1965 by Mayor Robert F. Wagner, Jr. following the destruction of Pennsylvania Station the previous year to make way for the construction of the current Madison Square Garden. The Commission is responsible for protecting New York City's architecturally and culturally significant buildings and sites by granting them landmark or historic district status, regulating them once they're designated, it is the largest municipal preservation agency in the nation. The Landmarks Preservation Commission consists of 11 commissioners, is required by law to include a minimum of three architects, a historian, a city planner or landscape architect, a realtor and at least one resident of each of the five New York City boroughs. According to the Landmarks Preservation Law, a building must be at least thirty years old before the Commission can declare it a landmark.
City law allows for the Commission's decision to be overturned if an appeal is filed within 90 days. The goal of New York City's landmarks law is to preserve the aesthetically and important buildings and other objects that make up the New York City vista; the Landmarks Preservation Commission is responsible for deciding which properties should be subject to landmark status and enacting regulations to protect the aesthetic and historic nature of these properties. These regulations are designed to allow property owners to continue to use and maintain their properties, while preserving the important architectural characteristics of the properties; the commission preserves not only architecturally significant buildings, but the overall historical sense of place of neighborhoods that are designated as historic districts. The commission is responsible for overseeing a range of designated landmarks in all five boroughs ranging from the Fonthill Castle in the North Bronx, built in 1852 for the actor Edwin Forrest, to the 1670s Conference House in Staten Island, where Benjamin Franklin and John Adams attended a conference aimed at ending the Revolutionary War.
The Commission helps preserve the City's landmark properties by regulating changes to their significant features. The role of the Commission has evolved over time with the changing real estate market in New York City; the Commission was created in 1965 through groundbreaking legislation signed by Mayor Robert F. Wagner in response to the mounting losses of significant buildings in New York City, most infamously Pennsylvania Station; the Landmarks Preservation Commission's first public hearing occurred in September, 1965 over the future of the Astor Library on Lafayette Street in Manhattan. The building was designated a New York City Landmark. Subsequently, the building was adaptively reused as The Public Theater. Twenty-five years the Commission was cited by David Dinkins as having preserved New York City's municipal identity and enhanced the market perception of a number of neighborhoods; this success is believed to be due, in part, to the general acceptance of the commission by the city's developers.
The Commission was headquartered in the Mutual Reserve Building from 1967 to 1980, the Old New York Evening Post Building from 1980 to 1987. In 1989, when the Commission and its process was under review following a panel created by Mayor Koch in 1985, a decision was made to change the process by which buildings are declared to be landmarks due to some perceived issues with the manner by which the Commission operates as well as the realization that the destruction feared when the Commission was formed was no longer imminent. In its first 25 years of existence, the Commission designated 856 buildings, 79 interiors and 9 parks or other outdoor places as landmarks, while declaring 52 neighborhoods with more than 15,000 buildings as historic districts; as of May 30, 2017, there are more than 36,000 landmark properties in New York City, most of which are located in 141 historic districts in all five boroughs. The total number of protected sites includes 1,398 individual landmarks, 119 interior landmarks and 10 scenic landmarks.
Some of these are National Historic Landmarks sites, many are National Registered Historic Places. One of the most prominent decisions in which the Commission was involved was the preservation of the Grand Central Terminal with the assistance of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. In 1978, the United States Supreme Court upheld the law in Penn Central Transportation Co. et al. v. New York City, et al. stopping the Penn Central Railroad from altering the structure and placing a large office tower above it. This success is cited as significant due to the Commission's origins following the destruction of Pennsylvania Station, referred to by some as architectural vandalism. In 1989, the Commission designated the Ladies' Mile Historic District; the next year marked the first time in the Commission's history that a proposed landmark, the Guggenheim Museum, received a unanimous vote by the Commission members. The vast majority of the Commission's actions are not unanimous by the Commission members or the community with a number of cases including: St. Bartholomew's Episcopal Church, Bryant Park and a number of Broadway theatres resulting in challenges.
One of the most controversial properties was 2 Columbus Circle, which remained at the center of a discussion over its future for a number of years. Cultural landmarks, such as Greenwich Village's Stonewall Inn, are recognized as well not for their architecture, but rather for their location in a designated historic district. In a heatedly discussed decision on August 3, 2010, the Commission unanimo
Ira Gershwin was an American lyricist who collaborated with his younger brother, composer George Gershwin, to create some of the most memorable songs of the 20th century. With George he wrote more than a dozen Broadway shows, featuring songs such as "I Got Rhythm", "Embraceable You", "The Man I Love" and "Someone to Watch Over Me", he was responsible, along with DuBose Heyward, for the libretto to George's opera Porgy and Bess. The success the Gershwin brothers had with their collaborative works has overshadowed the creative role that Ira played, his mastery of songwriting continued, after the early death of George. He wrote additional hit songs with Kurt Weill, Harry Warren and Harold Arlen, his critically acclaimed 1959 book Lyrics on Several Occasions, an amalgam of autobiography and annotated anthology, is an important source for studying the art of the lyricist in the golden age of American popular song. Gershwin was born in New York City, the oldest of four children of Morris and Rose Gershovitz, who were Russian Jews, born in St Petersburg, who had emigrated to the US in 1891.
Ira's siblings were George and Frances. Morris changed the family name to "Gershwine". Shy in his youth, Ira spent much of his time at home reading, but from grammar school through college he played a prominent part in several school newspapers and magazines, he graduated in 1914 from Townsend Harris High School, a public school for intellectually gifted students, where he met Yip Harburg, with whom he enjoyed a lifelong friendship and a love of Gilbert and Sullivan. He dropped out; the childhood home of Ira and George Gershwin was in the center of the Yiddish Theater District, on the second floor at 91 Second Avenue, between East 5th Street and East 6th Street. They frequented the local Yiddish theaters. While George began composing and "plugging" in Tin Pan Alley from the age of 18, Ira worked as a cashier in his father's Turkish baths, it was not until 1921. Alex Aarons signed Ira to write the songs for his next show, Two Little Girls in Blue produced by Abraham Erlanger, along with co-composers Vincent Youmans and Paul Lannin.
So as not to appear to trade off George's growing reputation, Ira wrote under the pseudonym "Arthur Francis", after his youngest two siblings. His lyrics were well received, allowing him to enter the show-business world with just one show; the same year, the Gershwins collaborated for the first time on a score. It was not until 1924 that Ira and George teamed up to write the music for what became their first Broadway hit Lady, Be Good. Once the brothers joined forces, their combined talents became one of the most influential forces in the history of American Musical Theatre. "When the Gershwins teamed up to write songs for Lady, Be Good, the American musical found its native idiom." Together, they wrote the music for four films. Some of their more famous works include "The Man I Love", "Fascinating Rhythm", "Someone to Watch Over Me", "I Got Rhythm" and "They Can't Take That Away from Me", their partnership continued until George's sudden death from a brain tumor in 1937. Following his brother's death, Ira waited nearly three years before writing again.
After this temporary retirement, Ira teamed up with accomplished composers such as Jerome Kern. Over the next 14 years, Gershwin continued to write the lyrics for many film scores and a few Broadway shows, but the failure of Park Avenue in 1946 was his farewell to Broadway. As he wrote at the time, "Am reading a couple of stories for possible musicalization but I hope I don't like them as I think I deserve a long rest."In 1947, he took 11 songs George had written but never used, provided them with new lyrics, incorporated them into the Betty Grable film The Shocking Miss Pilgrim. He wrote comic lyrics for Billy Wilder's 1964 movie Kiss Me, although most critics believe his final major work was for the 1954 Judy Garland film A Star Is Born. American singer and musical historian Michael Feinstein worked for Gershwin in the lyricist's latter years, helping him with his archive. Several lost musical treasures were unearthed during this period, Feinstein performed some of the material. Feinstein's book The Gershwins and Me: A Personal History in Twelve Songs about working for Ira, George and Ira's music was published in 2012.
According to a 1999 story in Vanity Fair, Ira Gershwin's love for loud music was as great as his wife's loathing of it. When Debby Boone—daughter-in-law of his neighbor Rosemary Clooney—returned from Japan with one of the first Sony Walkmans, Clooney gave it to Michael Feinstein to give to Ira, "so he could crank it in his ears, you know, and he said,'This is wonderful!' And he called his broker and bought Sony stock!" Three of Ira Gershwin's songs were nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Song, though none won. Along with George S Kaufman and Morrie Ryskind, he was a recipient of the 1932 Pulitzer Prize for Drama for Of Thee I Sing. In 1988 UCLA established The George and Ira Gershwin Lifetime Musical Achiev
Herbert J. Krapp
Herbert J. Krapp was a theatre architect and designer in the early part of the twentieth century. Krapp was an apprentice with the Herts & Tallant firm, where he was involved with designing the plans for the Lyceum, Booth, New Amsterdam and Longacre Theatres, among others, he departed the firm in 1915. Between 1912 and 1916 Krapp began working directly with the Shubert brothers, he designed theatres for the Chanin brothers. Krapp was well known for his ability to use his building space to its fullest potential. For the Majestic Theatre, Krapp incorporated stadium seating into the plans for the orchestra level, creating better sightlines and allowing for the creation of larger lounge and lobby areas, he designed the Ambassador Theatre on a diagonal plan to fit it into a small space. Krapp was responsible for renovating the Winter Garden Theatre and the Helen Hayes Theatre in the 1920s, he designed the Hotel Edison, the Lincoln Hotel, numerous other buildings. Although the stock market crash of 1929 brought an end to the theatre building boom, Krapp remained with the Shuberts until 1963, supervising the maintenance and renovations of the existing venues.
He experimented with inventing. S. Air Force, he died in Florida in 1973. Short history Partial listing of theatre credits at Cinema Treasures Broadway Theatres: History and Architecture, William Morrison, 1999, Dover Publications, ISBN 0-486-40244-4 Lost Broadway Theatres, Nicholas Van Hoogstraten, Princeton Architectural Press, 1997, ISBN 1-56898-116-3 The Shuberts Present: 100 Years of American Theater, Maryann Chach, Reagan Fletcher, Mark Evan Swartz, Sylvia Wang, Harry N. Abrams, 2001, ISBN 0-8109-0614-7 Shubert Organization Theatres
John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts
The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts is the United States National Cultural Center, located on the Potomac River, adjacent to the Watergate complex in Washington, D. C. named in 1964 as a memorial to President John F. Kennedy. Opened on September 8, 1971, the performing arts center is a multi-dimensional facility: it produces a wide array of performances encompassing the genres of theater, dance and orchestral, jazz and folk music. In addition to the 3,500 performances held annually for audiences totaling nearly two million, the center hosts touring productions and television and radio broadcasts that, are seen by 20 million more. Now in its 45th season, the center presents music and theater and supports artists in the creation of new work. With its artistic affiliate, the National Symphony Orchestra, the center's achievements as a commissioner and nurturer of developing artists have resulted in over 200 theatrical productions, dozens of new ballets and musical works. Authorized by the 1958 National Cultural Center Act of Congress, which requires that its programming be sustained through private funds, the center represents a public–private partnership.
Its activities include educational and outreach initiatives entirely funded through ticket sales and gifts from individuals and private foundations. The building, designed by architect Edward Durell Stone, was constructed by Philadelphia contractor John McShain, is administered as a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution. An earlier design proposal called for a more curvy, spaceship-inspired building similar to how the Watergate complex appears today, it receives annual federal funding to pay for its operation. The idea for a national cultural center dates to 1933 when First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt discussed ideas for the Emergency Relief and Civil Works Administration to create employment for unemployed actors during the Great Depression. Congress held hearings in 1935 on plans to establish a Cabinet level Department of Science and Literature, to build a monumental theater and arts building on Capitol Hill near the Supreme Court building. A 1938 congressional resolution called for construction of a "public building which shall be known as the National Cultural Center" near Judiciary Square, but nothing materialized.
The idea for a national theater resurfaced in 1950, when U. S. Representative Arthur George Klein of New York introduced a bill to authorize funds to plan and build a cultural center; the bill included provisions that the center would prohibit any discrimination of audience. In 1955, the Stanford Research Institute was commissioned to select a site and provide design suggestions for the center. From 1955 to 1958, Congress debated the idea amid much controversy. A bill was passed in Congress in the summer of 1958 and on September 4, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed into law the National Cultural Center Act which provided momentum for the project; this was the first time that the federal government helped finance a structure dedicated to the performing arts. The legislation required a portion of the costs, estimated at $10–25 million, to be raised within five years of the bill's passage. Edward Durell Stone was selected as architect for the project in June 1959, he presented preliminary designs to the President's Music Committee in October 1959, along with estimated costs of $50 million, double the original estimates of $25–30 million.
By November 1959, estimated costs had escalated to $61 million. Despite this, Stone's design was well received in editorials in The Washington Post, Washington Star, approved by the United States Commission of Fine Arts, National Capital Planning Commission, the National Park Service; the National Cultural Center was renamed the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in 1964, following the assassination of President Kennedy; the National Cultural Center Board of Trustees, a group President Eisenhower established January 29, 1959, led fundraising. Fundraising efforts were not successful, with only $13,425 raised in the first three years. President John F. Kennedy was interested in bringing culture to the nation's capital, provided leadership and support for the project. In 1961, President Kennedy asked Roger L. Stevens to help develop the National Cultural Center, serve as chairman of the Board of Trustees. Stevens recruited First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy as Honorary Chairman of the Center, former First Lady Mamie Eisenhower as co-chairman.
The total cost of construction was $70 million. Congress allocated $43 million for construction costs, including $23 million as an outright grant and the other $20 million in bonds. Donations comprised a significant portion of funding, including $5 million from the Ford Foundation, $500,000 from the Kennedy family. Other major donors included J. Willard Marriott, Marjorie Merriweather Post, John D. Rockefeller III, Robert W. Woodruff, as well as many corporate donors. Foreign countries provided gifts to the Kennedy Center, including a gift of 3,700 tons of Carrara marble from Italy from the Italian government, used in the building's construction. President Lyndon B. Johnson dug the ceremonial first-shovel of earth at the groundbreaking for the Kennedy Center December 2, 1964. However, debate continued for another year over the Foggy Bottom site, with some advocating for another location on Pennsylvania Avenue. Excavation of the site got underway on December 11, 1965, the site was c
Adele Astaire, Lady Charles Cavendish, was an American dancer, stage actress and singer. After beginning work as a dancer and vaudeville performer at the age of nine, Astaire built a successful performance career with her younger brother, Fred Astaire; the brother and sister act worked their way through vaudeville circuits achieving a breakthrough with their first Broadway roles in 1917. Astaire became known for her talents as a skilled dancer and comedienne, starring in hit Broadway musicals such as Lady, Be Good!, Funny Face and The Band Wagon. The siblings took several of their more popular shows to Britain's West End during the 1920s, where they were soon international celebrities, meeting members of the British royal family and prominent figures from contemporary arts and literature circles. In 1932, after a 27-year partnership with her brother, Astaire retired from the stage to marry Lord Charles Cavendish, the second son of the 9th Duke of Devonshire; the couple moved to the Cavendish estate of Lismore Castle in Ireland.
Despite offers of both stage and film roles from producers eager to see her return to acting, Astaire declined to come out of retirement. Following Cavendish's death in 1944, Astaire moved back to the United States, she divided her time between properties in the United States. In 1972, Astaire was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame. Adele Marie Austerlitz was born on September 1896, in Omaha, Nebraska, her parents were Johanna "Ann" Geilus, an American-born Lutheran of German descent, Frederic "Fritz" Austerlitz, an Austrian-born Roman Catholic of Jewish descent. Adele's younger brother, Fred Austerlitz, was born three years after her. After Adele showed an early propensity for dance, she was enrolled in a local dance school, she soon stood out for her natural ability as a dancer, began making appearances at local recitals and parties. Her parents decided to enroll Fred as well — a somewhat frail child in his earliest years — with the intention of having him build strength through dance training, he, showed the beginnings of aptitude.
When Adele was eight and Fred was five, a teacher suggested that the two children might have a stage career if they received proper training. This prompted the family to move from Omaha to New York, though the father returned to Omaha to work. Adele and their mother lived in a boarding house, the children began attending the Alviene Master School of the Theatre and Academy of Cultural Arts. Adele and Fred adopted the more American-sounding surname Astaire after trying several variations on the original Austerlitz, their mother Ann adopted the new surname. In late 1905, with the assistance of her dance instructor Claude Alvienne, Adele Astaire began a professional vaudeville act with Fred. Alvienne helped them develop a routine involving two large, elaborate set pieces in the form of wedding cakes. Astaire and her brother, dressed up as a small bride and groom, danced up and down the cakes and activated small electric lights and musical bells with their feet, they played a simple waltz through their dance steps.
The siblings performed intermittently at first, with their mother Ann acting as their manager and costume designer. They gained additional training from the ballet school of the Metropolitan Opera and from American choreographer Ned Wayburn. Ann Astaire home schooled her children, with the exception of a stint in New Jersey, when Adele and Fred put their performance career on hold and attended regular school for two and half years; the adolescent Adele had grown so tall at the time that her smaller, younger brother, still catching up in height, looked awkward dancing with her. After returning to the vaudeville circuit in 1911, Astaire and her brother struggled to find steady work for the next couple of years. Agents were uninterested in representing the unknown pair. In 1913, Astaire's father introduced the siblings to Aurelio Coccia, an experienced dance instructor and showman, he taught several new dances to the young Astaires and developed a new, more mature vaudeville routine for them. Bookings became more frequent after this, as the pair improved their act and reputation.
In 1916, the siblings encountered a difficult year when the White Rats of America, a union of vaudeville performers, staged a workers' strike that spread nationally, creating tense working relations between performers and vaudeville managers. Astaire and her brother, although not union members, lost valuable income nonetheless, their father, unlucky enough to be working at a Nebraska brewery when state-wide prohibition was approved, was unable to offer financial support; when the union strike ended, the Astaire siblings returned to work at last, achieving a successful season. As they grew older, the contrasting personalities of the siblings grew more distinct. Adele was a "perennial live wire": lively and known for her raw frankness, along with her colorful swearing. Fred, the hardworking perfectionist, was quieter and anxious about all the details of their day-to-day work. While Fred might come to a venue two hours early to prepare for their show, Adele was more to arrive only a handful of minutes before she was due on stage.
Despite their differences in temperament, the siblings were close. Astaire affectionately nicknamed her younger brother "Moaning Minnie" for his tendency to worry about every possible thing that could go wrong. In 1917, after Fred purchased a full-page advertisement on the back cover of Variety, the siblings landed a part in their first Broadway show, Lee Sh