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Nations: A Simulation Game in International Politics

Nations: A Simulation Game in International Politics is a case study available from the Georgetown University Institute for the Study of Diplomacy. In the game, students are divided into countries, they compete against other by trading resources and making treaties; the game takes place on the fictional continent of Lostralia. The students are provided with rules; each country has secrets. Each country has a series of problems that they must solve and a certain amount of resources that they must get; the game is set on the fictional continent of Lostralia. It consists of a neutral zone; the seven states are Spartonia, Holy Zott, Libertania and Crock. Each of the countries have specified resources and problems. Lostralia is fraught with diplomatic issues and players that all dominate in varying fields: Spartonia-military, Pyrote-religious, Crock-diplomatic, Zamboni-food, Libertania-freedom. Lostralia is known for its problems, but for its ability to overcome them, much like the real world had done between World War I and the end of the Cold War.

Nations at Institute for the Study of Diplomacy A Conflict Resolution Game in Peacebuilding and Conflict Resolution Resource Center


Peakirk is a civil parish in the city of Peterborough, Cambridgeshire in the United Kingdom. For local government purposes it forms part of Newborough ward. In 2001, the parish had a population of 139 households. Saint Pega the sister of Saint Guthlac of Crowland, had a hermitage here; the parish church is uniquely dedicated to St Pega and the name of the village is derived from "Pega's church". The church is a Grade I has a fine series of wall paintings, it is said that her heart was kept as a relic in the church, contained in a heart stone, the broken remains of which, smashed by Cromwell's troops, can be seen in the south aisle window. The Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust, founded by Sir Peter Scott in 1946 to preserve and maintain Britain's many species of waterfowl, had a reserve here until 2001. Glinton cum Peakirk Church of England Primary School is situated in neighbouring Glinton. Peakirk has an unusual war memorial. An oak-panelled frame with 48 photographs and details of the service of all who served from the village during the First World War, not just those who died.

Peakirk railway station Media related to Peakirk at Wikimedia Commons

Ana Derșidan-Ene-Pascu

Ana Derșidan-Ene-Pascu is a Romanian fencer and sport leader. She won a bronze medal in the women's team foil events at the 1972 Summer Olympics; the daughter of the vice-president of the Romanian Table Tennis Federation, Pascu was fascinated as a child by elite sport. Her first sport idols were table tennis players Angelica Rozeanu and Sari Szasz, who were at the peak of their careers; when Pascu's father took a position at the Romanian Fencing Federation, she transferred her interests to the sport, practiced at the Athenaeum of Bucharest, whose athletes spoke French. At the age of eleven, she began to take fencing lessons with Italian master Angelo Pellegrini. Future champion Maria Vicol featured amongst his other pupils. Pascu won the 1963 Junior World Championship in Ghent, a result she considers as the best of her career, she joined the senior national team, which featured Marina Stanca. They were joined by Olga Szabo, Ileana Gyulai, Ecaterina Stahl and Suzana Ardeleanu. Romania was one of the only countries at the time offering centralised training in fencing: the national team trained twice a day, nine months a year.

She made a brilliant career with the Romanian team: she won seven medals in the World Championships and took part in five Olympic Games, earning two bronze medals in 1968 and 1972. She was awarded the title of master emeritus in sports for her performance, she retired after the Summer Olympics of Montreal. In 1981, she gave birth to a son, Alexandru, she led the Romanian Fencing Federation from 1982 to 2013, when she opted not to run for a new term, leaving the road open to Mihai Covaliu. She now serves as honorary president of the FRS, she is vice-president of the Romanian Olympic and Sports Committee since 2004. Pascu was a member of the Rules Commission of the International Fencing Federation from 1984 to 1996 and sat at the Refereeing Commission from 1996 to 2004, she is a member of the executive committee of the FIE since 2000 and a vice-president since 2004. Ana Pascu at the Comitetul Olimpic și Sportiv Român Ana Dersidan-Ene-Pascu at the International Olympic Committee Ana Derșidan-Ene-Pascu at Olympics at

Pype Hayes

Pype Hayes is a modern housing estate area in the east of the Erdington district of Birmingham. It is within the Tyburn ward. Covering the postcodes of B76 and B24; the name of the area derives from a major landowner in Erdington called Henry de Pipe. On this land he built a house which developed into Pype Hayes Hall. Pype Hayes developed during the 20th century as a result of the expansion of Erdington northwards towards the Chester Road; the Chester Road follows the line of the ancient drover's road called the Welsh Road.. It developed during the 17th century as a major thoroughfare through Birmingham. Stage coaches used the road and it developed a reputation as a haven for highwaymen. All the land in Pype Hayes was owned as part of an estate with Pype Hayes Hall at its centre; this was a prominent hall in the area and the nearest settlement was Holifast Grange to the north-west. The construction of the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal in the south of Erdington prompted the establishment of industries near Tyburn, close to Pype Hayes.

However, Pype Hayes remained unaffected by the industry. In the 20th century, Pype Hayes became the focus of residential developments for the expanding Erdington area; the public wanted houses so that they could live near their workplaces at Tyburn. Eachelhurst Road was selected as a main housing development location; as Eachelhurst Road was on the boundary of Pype Hayes, the area remained untouched. The houses were of a semi-detached style, they were constructed of steel. The areas surrounding Pype Hayes developed quickly. Walmley in Sutton Coldfield expanded massively and Castle Vale to the south-east became a major industrial area with the construction of a large aerodrome; the landowners lost power within the area and so the Chester Road became developed. During the war, Pype Hayes was bombed, this was haphazard bombing aimed at Erdington. Walmley Ash, nearby to Pype Hayes, witnessed 70-80 bombs being dropped on the area in just one night. Pype Hayes was extensively developed for council housing in the 1920s, as Birmingham City Council had started a huge process of rehousing people from inner city slums.

More than 1,300 homes were built at Pype Hayes on land between Chester Road and Tyburn Road, with concrete walls and steel subframes - typical Dunlop Boswell style. The first school opened on the estate in 1928 - Paget Council School, which had capacity for 824 pupils aged 5–15 years. Gunter Road Council School was added in 1930 for 432 children aged 5–11 years, with wooden huts being added in 1930 and the hall of St Mary's Church being used as an annex from 1952 to 1954 to cope with increased pupil numbers. By the 1980s, most of the houses at Pype Hayes were plagued with "concrete cancer" - a structural defect which renders buildings beyond repair; as with many large council housing estates, car crime, burglaries and "hooligan" behaviour were becoming a widespread problem. Demolished as the Norton public house, replaced by a supermarket, it was soon decided that the defective homes all had to be demolished, in 1992 the Pype Hayes Regeneration Programme began. Several tower blocks were built on Pype Hayes during the 1960s, as part of further rehousing from inner city slums, but these homes were no better than the older ones in the area, despite being some 40 years newer.

They too would have to be demolished. On 7 July 2005 the council approved the demolition of properties 189-235 Pype Hayes Road, which were built by Dunlop Boswell. Demolition cost an estimated £60,000; the last houses to be were demolished were around 2010-2011. The twelfth and final phase of the regeneration was approved by the Cabinet on 27 October 2003; the successful tender submission by Barratt Homes and Prime Focus was approved in 2002. Most of the properties in Pype Hayes were demolished, with the exception of Sorrel House, retained and refurbished, were replaced with a modern housing development; the regeneration of Pype Hayes continues with Persimmon Homes completing the final phase in 2009, ending the estate's regeneration process which had lasted 17 years. Pype Hayes Hall remains today and was auctioned by Birmingham City Council in February 2012, it is now in private hands. The hall was sold in November 2013 for £25,000 to private investors with plans to create a hotel and leisure complex.

As of November 2019 the hall still lies derelict with no development. Surrounding the hall is a 100-acre park called Pype Hayes Park which hosts a funfair and used to be the site for a large City Council funded bonfire and firework display to celebrate Guy Fawkes Night; this has not been held for a number of years due to cuts in City resources. Adjacent to the park is Pype Hayes Golf Course, opened in 1933; the two are separated by Plants Brook. At the Eachelhurst Road - Chester Road junction was a pub called The Bagot Arms; this closed in 2019 and is still empty with plans to turn the building into a steak house or restaurant. The parish church for Pype Hayes is St Mary's Church, which opened in 1929; the A38 passes through the area. The road is used by several National Express West Midlands services which travel through Stockland Green to the Aston Expressway, or travel in the opposite direction into Sutton Coldfield. There are no rail facilities in the area, further up the Chester Road is Chester Road railway station on the Cross-City Line.

In close proximity are Erdington and Water Orton railway stations. The Story of Erdington - From Sleepy Hamlet to Thriving Suburb, Douglas V. Jones, 1989, Westwood Press Pype Hayes Park Pype Hayes Golf Course Pype Hayes Golf Club Friends

Old Speckled Hen

Old Speckled Hen is a premium bitter from the Morland Brewery, now owned by Greene King Brewery. Old Speckled Hen was first brewed in 1979 in Abingdon, Oxfordshire, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the MG car factory there on the 30 November 1979. Since 2000, when Greene King bought Morland and closed down the Abingdon brewery, it has been made in Greene King's Bury St Edmunds brewery, it is available in more than twenty different countries in bottles, cans and on tap from cask and keg. The brand has been expanded to include Old Crafty Hen, a 6.5% ABV ale, Old Golden Hen, a golden coloured 4.1% beer, Old Hoppy Hen, a 4.2% ABV pale ale. Old Speckled Hen took its name from an MG car, used as a runaround for workers in the MG factory. Over years of service, the car became covered in flecks of paint, gaining it acclaim in the town and earned it the nickname "Owld Speckled'Un", translated by Ian Williams the personnel officer at the Abingdon factory into Old Speckled Hen for the brown ale first brewed by Morland in 1979 when the brewery was asked by MG to create a commemorative beer for the factory's 50th anniversary.

An alternative history of this car is that it was ordered from the factory in 1929 with that "flecked" paint scheme by a lady who lived in Abingdon-on-Thames and was well-known to residents and patrons of the pub there. It was a model 14/18, there are photos of it with a fashionably dressed woman in the driver's seat, and only the canvas-covered bodywork has the flecked paint. The roof, bumpers, wheel spokes, etc. appear to have no flecks or overspray. Jim Dymore-Brown, assisted by Daniel O'Leary, developed the recipe for the beer. Ian Williams was a personnel officer at the MG factory in Abingdon in 1979 and it was he who thought of using the name for the new ale. After the MG factory moved in 1980, production declined and Old Speckled Hen was exclusively available in pubs operated by Morland due to financial constraints and a different direction being taken by the brewery- believing its future lay in the production of lager. Within a few years, Morland began to re-explore ale production, reviving Old Speckled Hen and launching the draught version in 1990 with considerable success, with Old Speckled Hen proving to be a beer that Morland could market outside their own estate.

In January 1993, Old Speckled Hen was featured as Michael Jackson's "Beer of the Month" in his regular column for The Independent. The relaunch was thought to be behind an 8.9% interim profits rise for Morland in June 1997. Greene King announced in December 2003 that, in the light of what it called "foaming" sales of Old Speckled Hen in particular, it was expanding its brewing capacity, having been operating at 96% capacity. Fiona Hope, marketing director for Greene King speculated in April 2009 that Old Speckled Hen could follow GK's IPA and be made available in the so-called "dual pour font" whereby the tap version is available in two different styles, though this is, as yet, unconfirmed. Old Speckled Hen is available in bottles, cans and kegs; the alcohol by volume of both the canned and bottled versions is 5%, making it a strong, premium ale, the cask version was reduced to 4.5% ABV in 2006 to make it more of a "sessionable beer", resulting in a 60% increase in availability. Upon acquiring Morland, Greene King immediately decided to place emphasis on multi packs, rather than the sale of individual bottles and cans.

Old Speckled Hen was, in 2009, rebranded to appeal to a younger audience. As part of this, Greene King, through the Speckled Hen brand, has embarked on a marketing campaign involving sponsorship of the Northamptonshire and Derbyshire County Cricket Clubs and, most notably, the digital television channel Dave; the ten second adverts, which feature a "crafty fox" seeking out an "elusive hen" and feature the catchphrase "It's different, But it's not a hen.", are shown eight times per hour after 9PM on weekdays. Greene King's marketing director said of the deal, "The fit between Dave and Old Speckled Hen is spot on. Both offer something a little different and quintessentially British"; the Old Speckled Hen livery appears on fifteen black cabs in the Central London area. Old Speckled Hen's advertising was originated by Saatchi Group agency, RPG in 1987. Terry Symonds, head of RPG Design, designed the new label, based on the MG Octagon to show the link between MG and Morland. After having researched the brand, he discovered that landlords were asked about the name, so he suggested carrying a label on the reverse of the bottle, that would tell the story.

Terry and his team were responsible for rebranding bitter as 1711 and best bitter as'Old Masters'. RPG Design created a new identity to be carried through pub fascias, vehicle livery etc. Another advertising campaign was part of a drive to appeal to younger drinkers which has included the weakening of the draught version and the introduction of the advertising slogan "a not so traditional English ale" which featured on an oil painting reproduced in broadsheet newspapers and at 250 London Underground stations. Additionally, the campaign as revamped the brand's website, again aimed at a younger audience; the campaign was masterminded by Fallon Worldwide, although the contract was taken up by the Miles Calcraft Briginshaw Duffy agency, who devised the television campaign, which cost £3.5 million. According to Rob Flanagan, brand controller for Old Speckled Hen, the aim of the campaign was to attract up to 3 million new drinkers to the brand, while appearing to retain its "niche" status amo