Area code 907
Area code 907 covers the state of Alaska, except for the small southeastern community of Hyder, which uses area codes 236, 250 and 778 of neighboring Stewart, British Columbia. Despite having telephone service to the contiguous US via a terrestrial line from Juneau since 1937, Alaska was not included in the North American Numbering Plan until after the Alaska submarine cable was opened for traffic in 1956; the Alaska numbering plan area was assigned the area code 907, entered service in 1957. The Alaska numbering plan area is geographically the largest of any in the United States, it is the second-largest on the NANP and on the entire North American continent behind 867, which serves Canada's northern territories. Because the Aleutian Islands of Alaska cross longitude 180, the Anti-Meridian, 907 may be considered to be both the farthest west and the farthest east of all area codes in the NANP. Due to Alaska's low population, 907 is one of only 12 remaining area codes serving an entire state.
It is not projected to be exhausted until 2029. Many calls within Alaska are long-distance calls and must be dialed with the leading 1-907, except for cellphone services. Local calls and cellphone calls for long-distance service within Alaska, only require seven-digit dialing. At the time of its creation, area code 907 was one of the two longest area codes to dial on a rotary phone, taking 26 pulses to dial out in an era before the first touch tone phones; this is the same number of pulses as Hawaii's area code 808, introduced the same year. List of NANP area codes NANPA Area Code Map of Alaska List of exchanges from AreaCodeDownload.com, 907 Area Code
Valdez–Cordova Census Area, Alaska
Valdez–Cordova Census Area is a census area located in the state of Alaska, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,636, it therefore has no borough seat. Its largest communities are Cordova. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the census area has a total area of 40,340 square miles, of which 34,240 square miles is land and 6,100 square miles is water. Southeast Fairbanks Census Area, Alaska – north Yakutat City and Borough, Alaska – southeast Kenai Peninsula Borough, Alaska – west Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska – west Matanuska-Susitna Borough, Alaska – west Yukon Territory, Canada – east Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Middleton Island Chugach National Forest Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Wrangell-Saint Elias Wilderness As of the census of 2000, there were 10,195 people, 3,884 households, 2,559 families residing in the census area; the population density was less than 1 person per square mile. There were 5,148 housing units at an average density of less than 1/sq mi.
The racial makeup of the census area was 75.90% White, 0.32% Black or African American, 13.25% Native American, 3.55% Asian, 0.26% Pacific Islander, 1.13% from other races, 5.58% from two or more races. 2.81% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 2.33 % reported speaking Spanish at home. There were 3,884 households out of which 37.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.10% were married couples living together, 8.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.10% were non-families. 27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.18. In the census area, the population was spread out with 29.60% under the age of 18, 7.00% from 18 to 24, 30.90% from 25 to 44, 26.50% from 45 to 64, 6.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 113.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.90 males.
Cordova Valdez Whittier Copperville Eyak List of airports in the Valdez–Cordova Census Area Census Area map, 2000 census: Alaska Department of Labor Census Area map, 2010 census: Alaska Department of Labor Media related to Valdez-Cordova Census Area, Alaska at Wikimedia Commons
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Cordova is a small town located near the mouth of the Copper River in the Valdez-Cordova Census Area, United States, at the head of Orca Inlet on the east side of Prince William Sound. The population was 2,239 at the 2010 census, down from 2,454 in 2000. Cordova was named Puerto Cordova by Spanish explorer Salvador Fidalgo in 1790. No roads connect Cordova to other Alaskan towns, so a plane or ferry is required to travel there. In the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 1989, an oil tanker ran aground northwest of Cordova damaging ecology and fishing, it was cleaned up shortly after, but there are lingering effects, such as a lowered population of some birds. In 1790 the inlet in front of the current Cordova townsite was named Puerto Cordova by Spanish explorer Salvador Fidalgo, after Spanish admiral Luis de Córdova y Córdova; the town of Cordova was named after it, although the inlet itself was renamed the Orca Inlet. Cordova proper was founded as a result of the discovery of high-grade copper ore at Kennecott, north of Cordova.
A group of surveyors from Valdez laid out a town site and Michael James Heney purchased half the land for the terminus of the Copper River and Northwestern Railway after determining that the neighboring town of Katalla was a poor harbor. Heney and his crew held a brief ceremony to organize the town on March 26, 1906. A week crews arrived to begin work on the railroad; the first lots in the new town site, which make up the heart of present-day Cordova, were sold at auction in May 1908. As the railroad grew, so did the town. Schools, businesses, a hospital, utilities were established. After the railroad was completed Cordova became the transportation hub for the ore coming out of Kennecott. In the years 1911 to 1938, more than 200 million tons of copper ore was transported through Cordova; the area around Cordova was home to the Eyak, with a population of Chugach to the west, occasional visits from Ahtna and Tlingit people for trade or battle. The last full-blooded Eyak Marie Smith Jones died in 2008, but the native traditions and lifestyle still has an influence on the local culture.
Cordova was once the home of a booming razor clam industry, between 1916 and the late 1950s it was known as the "Razor Clam Capital of the World". Commercial harvest in the area was as much as 3.5 million pounds. Returns began declining in the late 1950s due to overharvesting and a large die-off in 1958; the 1964 Good Friday earthquake and obliterated the industry. There has been no commercial harvest in the area since 1988 with the exception of a brief harvest in 1993. In March 1989 the Exxon Valdez oil tanker ran aground on Bligh Reef northwest of Cordova causing one of the most devastating environmental disasters in North America; the Exxon Valdez oil spill affected the area's salmon and herring populations leading to a recession of the local fishing-reliant economy as well as disrupting the general ecology of the area. After many years of litigation, 450 million dollars were awarded for compensatory and punitive damages. Cordova first appeared on the 1910 U. S. Census as an incorporated city.
It incorporated the year before in 1909. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 2,239 people residing in the city; the racial makeup of the city was 68.3% White, 0.4% Black, 8.7% Native American, 10.7% Asian, <0.1% Pacific Islander and 7.6% from two or more races. 4.2% were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,454 people, 958 households, 597 families residing in the city; the population density was 40.0 per square mile. There are 1,099 housing units at an average density of 17.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 71.11% White, 23.6% Native American, 10.07% Asian, 0.41% Black or African American, 1.34% from other races, 6.72% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.06% of the population. There were 958 households out of which 36.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.5% were married couples living together, 8.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.6% were non-families. 30.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.17. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.0% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 32.8% from 25 to 44, 25.4% from 45 to 64, 6.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 119.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 120.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $50,114, the median income for a family was $65,625. Males had a median income of $40,444 versus $26,985 for females; the per capita income for the city was $25,256. About 4.3% of families and 7.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.2% of those under the age of 18 and 6.2% of those 65 and older. Cordova is located within the Chugach National Forest at 60°32′34.1″N 145°45′36.59″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 75.6 square miles, of which, 61.4 square miles of it is land and 14.3 square miles of it is water.
The total area is 18.87% water. Cordova has a subpolar oceanic climate according to the Köppen climate classification system, with cool temperatures and heavy rainfall caused by orographic lift. Westerly winds coming off the North Pacific Ocean are forced upwards by the Chugach Mountains, which causes the air mass to cool and creates clouds and precipitation; the yearly average r
Valdez is a city in Valdez-Cordova Census Area in the U. S. state of Alaska. According to the 2010 US Census, the population of the city is 3,976, down from 4,036 in 2000; the city was named in 1790 after the Spanish Navy Minister Antonio Valdés y Fernández Bazán. A former Gold Rush town, it is located at the head of a fjord on the eastern side of Prince William Sound; the port did not flourish until after the road link to Fairbanks was constructed in 1899. It suffered catastrophic damage during the 1964 Alaska earthquake, is located near the site of the disastrous 1989 Exxon Valdez oil tanker spill. Today it is one of the most important ports in Alaska, a commercial fishing port as well as a freight terminal; the port of Valdez was named in 1790 by the Spanish explorer Salvador Fidalgo after the Spanish naval officer Antonio Valdés y Fernández Bazán. A scam to lure prospectors off the Klondike Gold Rush trail led to a town being developed there in 1898; some steamship companies promoted the Valdez Glacier Trail as a better route for miners to reach the Klondike gold fields and discover new ones in the Copper River country of interior Alaska than that from Skagway.
The prospectors who believed the promotion found. The glacier trail was twice as long and steep as reported, many men died attempting the crossing, in part by contracting scurvy during the long cold winter without adequate supplies; the town did not flourish until after the construction of the Richardson Highway in 1899, which connected Valdez and Fairbanks. With a new road and its ice-free port, Valdez became permanently established as the first overland supply route into the interior of Alaska; the highway was open in summer-only until 1950. In 1907, a shootout between two rival railroad companies ended Valdez's hope of becoming the railroad link from tidewater to the Kennicott Copper Mine; the mine, located in the heart of the Wrangell-St. Elias Mountains, was one of the richest copper ore deposits on the continent; the exact location of the right-of-way dispute, in which one man was killed and several injured, is located at the southern entrance of Keystone Canyon on the Valdez side. A half-completed tunnel in the canyon marks the end of railroad days in Valdez.
A rail line to Kennicott was established from the coastal city of Cordova. The city of Valdez was not destroyed in the 1964 Good Friday earthquake. Soil liquefaction of the glacial silt that formed the city's foundation led to a massive underwater landslide, which caused a section of the city's shoreline to break off and sink into the sea; the underwater soil displacement caused a local tsunami 30 feet high that traveled westward, away from the city and down Valdez Bay. 32 men and children were on the city's main freight dock to help with and watch the unloading of the SS Chena, a supply ship that came to Valdez regularly. All 32 people died. There were no deaths in the town. Residents continued to live there for an additional three years while a new site was being prepared on more stable ground four miles away; the new construction was supervised by the Army Corps of Engineers. They transported 54 houses and buildings by truck to the new site, to re-establish the new city at its present location.
The original town site was abandoned. From 1975 to 1977, the Trans-Alaska pipeline was built to carry oil from the Prudhoe Bay oil fields in northern Alaska to a terminal in Valdez, the nearest ice-free port. Oil is loaded onto tanker ships for transport; the construction and operation of the pipeline and terminal boosted the economy of Valdez. The first tanker to be loaded with pipeline oil was the ARCO Juneau in early August 1977, bound for the Cherry Point Refinery in Washington; the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred as the oil tanker Exxon Valdez was leaving the terminal at Valdez full of oil. The spill occurred at about 40 km from Valdez. Although the oil did not reach Valdez, it devastated much of the marine life in the surrounding area; the clean-up of the oil caused a short-term boost to the economy of Valdez. On January 24, 2014, a major avalanche occurred just outside Valdez at Mile 16 near Keystone Canyon, prompting the closure of the only highway in or out of town. On January 25, Alaska DOT triggered another massive slide.
Due to weather conditions at the time, the avalanche dammed the Lowe River, creating a half-mile-long lake that stalled snow removal efforts for nearly a week. The blockage was dubbed the "Damalanche" by local city officials after a name coined by local resident, Joshua Buffington. News of this event spread to media outlets nationwide. Once the water receded, crews worked around the clock to clear about 200,000 cubic yards of snow in five days. No one was injured during this incident. Valdez is located at 61°7′51″N 146°20′54″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 277.1 square miles, of which, 222.0 square miles is land and 55.1 square miles is water. Valdez is located near the head of a deep fjord in the Prince William Sound in Alaska, it is surrounded by the Chugach Mountains, which are glaciated. Valdez is the northernmost port in North America, ice-free year-round; the northernmost point of the coastal Pacific temperate rain forest is on Blueberry Hill. Despite the presence of temperate rainforest, Valdez under the Köppen climate classification has a subarctic climate: its winters, though much warmer than most climates of this type, are not sufficiently mild, as those of, Ketchikan or Kodiak are, to fit into the oceanic or subpolar oceanic clima
Whittier is a city at the head of the Passage Canal in the U. S. state of Alaska, about 58 miles southeast of Anchorage. The city is within the Valdez–Cordova Census Area. At the 2010 census the population was 220, up from 182 in 2000; the 2016 estimate was 214 people all of whom live in a single building. Whittier is a port for the Alaska Marine Highway; the region occupied by Whittier was once part of the portage route of the Chugach people native to Prince William Sound. The passage was used by Russian and American explorers, by prospecting miners during the gold rush; the nearby Whittier glacier was named for American poet John Greenleaf Whittier in 1915, the town took the name as well. During World War II, the United States Army constructed a military facility, complete with port and railroad near Whittier Glacier and named the facility Camp Sullivan; the spur of the Alaska Railroad to Camp Sullivan was completed in 1943 and the port became the entrance for United States soldiers into Alaska.
The two buildings that dominate the town were built after World War II. The 14-story Hodge Building was completed in 1957 and contains 150 two- and three-bedroom apartments plus bachelor efficiency units. Dependent families and Civil Service employees were moved into this high-rise; the Whittier School was connected by a tunnel at the base of the west tower so students could safely access school on days with bad weather. The building was named in honor of Colonel Walter William Hodge, a civil engineer and the commanding officer of 93rd Engineer Regiment on the Alcan Highway; the other main structure in town, the Buckner Building, was completed in 1953, was called the "city under one roof". The Buckner Building was abandoned. Buckner and Begich Towers were at one time the largest buildings in Alaska; the Begich Building became a condominium, along with the two-story private residence known as Whittier Manor, houses a majority of the town's residents. The port at Whittier was an active Army facility until 1960.
In 1962, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers constructed a petroleum products terminal, a pumping station and a 62-mile-long, 8-inch pipeline to Anchorage in Whittier. On March 28, 1964, Whittier suffered over $10 million worth of damage in what became known as the Good Friday earthquake; as of 2019, the earthquake remains the largest U. S. earthquake, measuring 9.2 on the moment magnitude scale, having caused tsunamis along the West Coast of the U. S; the tsunami that hit Whittier killed 13 people. Whittier was incorporated in 1969 and became a port of call for cruise ships, it is utilized about 100-passenger mid-sized cruise ships. When the Anton Anderson Memorial Tunnel opened to public access in 2000, it became the first highway to connect Whittier to Anchorage and inner Alaska—previously, the only ways to reach the town had been rail and plane. After the tunnel expanded access to Whittier, it began to be visited by larger cruise lines, it is the embarkation/debarkation point of one-way cruises from Anchorage to Vancouver by Princess Tours.
Whittier is popular with tourists, outdoor enthusiasts, hikers, sport fishermen, hunters because of its abundance of wildlife and natural beauty. Whittier is located within the Chugach National Forest, the second-largest national forest in the U. S. Whittier is in the Chugach School District and has one school serving 38 students from preschool through high school, according to the 2015–2016 enrollment numbers. Whittier is located at 60°46′27″N 148°40′40″W; the only land access is through the Anton Anderson Memorial Tunnel, a mixed-use road and rail tunnel. The town is on the northeast shore of the Kenai Peninsula, at the head of Passage Canal, on the west side of Prince William Sound, it is 58 miles southeast of Anchorage. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.7 square miles, of which, 12.5 square miles of it is land and 7.2 square miles of it is water. Whittier has a subarctic climate under the Köppen climate classification, it is the wettest city in Alaska and the United States, receiving more annual precipitation than Yakutat and Ketchikan which are the second- and third-wettest cities in Alaska, respectively.
Whittier is located at the northern tip of the northernmost temperate rainforest. Whittier first appeared on the 1950 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it formally incorporated in 1969. As of 2015, there were 214 people living with 288 available housing units; the entirety of this population lives within the 14-story Begich Towers. The racial makeup of the city was 78.38% White, 4.05% Asian, 4.96% Native American, 3.60% Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, 5.41% Hispanic, 9.01% from two or more races. There are 124 households in the town and the average household size is 1.79 people, according to 2014 statistics. Of these households, 56 are family and 68 are non family. 40.30% of the population is married, 32.34% are divorced. 51.78% of the population has children. The age distribution within the city shows that 13.96 percent of the population is under the age of 18, 3.15 percent is between the ages of 18 and 24, 23.87 percent is between the ages of 25 to 44, 52.25 percent is between the ages of 45 and 64, 6.76 percent of the population is above the age of 65.
The median income for a household in the city was $46,250 in 2014. The per capita income for the city was $31,624. Unemployment in Whittier was at a rate of 9.2 percent. City government consists of a seven-member council