The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Montclair State University
Montclair State University is a public research university in Montclair, New Jersey. Montclair State University is the second largest university in New Jersey; as of October 2018, there were 21,115 total enrolled students: 16,988 undergraduate students and 4,127 graduate students. The campus covers 500 acres, inclusive of the New Jersey School of Conservation in Stokes State Forest; the university offers more than 300 majors and concentrations. Plans for the State Normal school were initiated in 1903, required a year for the State of New Jersey to grant permission to build the school, it was established as New Jersey State Normal School at Montclair, a normal school, in 1908 5 years after the initial planning of the school. At the time, Governor John Franklin Fort attended the dedication of the school in 1908, the school was to have its first principal Charles Sumner Chapin that same year; the first building constructed was College Hall, it still stands today. At the time, the campus was around 25 acres, had 187 students.
The first graduating class, which numbered at 45 students, contained William O. Trapp, who would go on to win the Pulitzer Prize for journalism in 1929; the first dormitory was built five years in 1915, is known as Russ Hall. In 1924, Dr. Harry Sprague was the first president of Montclair, shortly afterwards the school began being more inclusive of extracurricular activities such as athletics. In 1927, after studies had emerged concerning the number of high school teachers in the state of New Jersey, the institution became Montclair State Teachers College and developed a four-year program in pedagogy, becoming the first US institute to do so. In 1937 it became the first teachers college accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools. In 1943, during World War II, several students, with permission from the president, Harry Sprague, joined the US Navy as volunteers to train for the war, it was a time when students and faculty sold war bonds to support US American troops. In 1958 the school merged with the Panzer College of Physical Education and Hygiene to become Montclair State College.
The school became a comprehensive multi-purpose institution in 1966. The Board of Higher Education designated the school a teaching university on April 27, 1994, in the same year the school became Montclair State University, it has offered Master of Arts programs since 1932, Master of Business Administration since 1981, Master of Education since 1985, Master of Science since 1992, Master of Fine Arts since 1998, Doctor of Education since 1999. From 2008 onwards, the University started offering PhD degrees, first in Teacher Education and Teacher Development Environmental Management, Counselor Education, Family Studies, most Communications Sciences and Disorders. In 2018, Montclair State University graduated more than 30 doctoral students. In 2004, New Jersey Transit opened Montclair State University Station at Little Falls, which links the university to New York City; the building of the MSU Station cost $26 million to complete, including a 1,500-space parking deck. In 2015, the university established the School of Communication and Media and added two new buildings to its campus.
Partridge Hall was renovated and in 2016, became the new School of Nursing, which welcomed its inaugural class of students that fall. The new state-of-the-art home for the School of Communication and Media opened in fall 2017, followed in 2018 by the opening of the Center for Computing and Information Science in the former Mallory Hall, which underwent a complete renovation and expansion. In 2016, the university's classification was changed from a Masters to a Doctoral Research University, in 2019, was changed to R2: Doctoral University - High Research Activity. Montclair State University comprises six schools, each led by a Dean or Director; the colleges and schools organize and conduct academic programs within their units, work cooperatively to offer interdisciplinary programs. Beginning in fall 2018, University College will be an academic home for students to pursue interests that will lead them to their eventual academic concentration. University College will admit about one-third of incoming freshman, as well as 1,400 returning and transfer students who have yet to declare a major.
Once University College students have been admitted to their chosen majors, they will transition onto the college or school of that academic program. The John J. Cali School of Music is part of the College of the Arts; the Cali School of Music provides a wide range of study and performance opportunities for its undergraduate and graduate students, as well as professional certification programs in Music Education and Music Therapy, the Artist's Diploma and Performer's Certificate degrees in classical and jazz performance. In addition, the noted string quartet, the Shanghai Quartet, has been in residence at MSU since 2002. Included in the College of the Arts is the School of Communication and Media. A new facility for the School of Communication opened for the Fall 2017 semester; the new facility houses studios and academic facilities and connects existing Life Hall and Morehead Hall. The College of Education and Human Services houses the Center of Pedagogy, with oversees the Teacher Education program.
Majors across the university earning teacher credentials are administered jointly by the Center of Pedagogy and the department that houses the student's
Hackensack, New Jersey
Hackensack is a city in Bergen County in New Jersey, United States, serves as its county seat. The area was named New Barbadoes Township until 1921, but it was informally known as Hackensack since at least the 18th century; as of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 43,010, reflecting an increase of 333 from the 42,677 counted in the 2000 Census, which had, in turn, increased by 5,628 from the 37,049 counted in the 1990 Census. An inner suburb of New York City, Hackensack is located 12 miles northwest of Midtown Manhattan and about 7 miles from the George Washington Bridge. From a number of locations, the New York City skyline can be seen; the Metropolitan Campus of Fairleigh Dickinson University straddles the Hackensack River in both Hackensack and Teaneck. Hackensack is the home of the New Jersey Naval Museum and the World War II submarine USS Ling. Astronaut Wally Schirra is Hackensack's most famous native son; the city is known for a great diversity of neighborhoods and land uses close to one another.
Within its borders are the prominent Hackensack University Medical Center, a trendy high-rise district about a mile long, classic suburban neighborhoods of single-family houses, stately older homes on acre-plus lots, older two-family neighborhoods, large garden apartment complexes, industrial areas, the Bergen County Jail, a tidal river, Hackensack River County Park, Borg's Woods Nature Preserve, various city parks, large office buildings, a major college campus, the Bergen County Court House, a vibrant small-city downtown district, various small neighborhood business districts. The first inhabitants of the area were the Lenni Lenape, an Algonquian people who lived along the valley of what they called the Achinigeu-hach, or "Ackingsah-sack", meaning stony ground. A representation of Chief Oratam of the Achkinhenhcky appears on the Hackensack municipal seal; the most common explanation is that the city was named for the Native American tribe, though other sources attribute it to a Native American word variously translated as meaning "hook mouth", "stream that unites with another on low ground", "on low ground" or "land of the big snake", while another version described as "more colorful than probable" attributes the name to an inn called the "Hock and Sack".
Settlement by the Dutch West India Company in New Netherland on west banks of the North River across from New Amsterdam began in the 1630s at Pavonia leading to the establishment of Bergen in 1660. Oratam, sachem of the Lenni Lenape, deeded the land along mid-Hackensack River to the Dutch in 1665; the area kept its Dutch name. Philip Cartaret, governor of what became the proprietary colony of East Jersey granted land to Captain John Berry in the area of Achter Kol and soon after took up residence and called it "New Barbadoes," after having resided on the island of Barbados. In 1666, a deed was confirmed for the 2,260-acre tract, given earlier by Oratem to Sarah Kiersted in gratitude for her work as emissary and interpreter. Other grants were given at the English Neighborhood. In 1675, the East Jersey Legislature established the administrative districts:. In 1683, Bergen was recognized as an independent county by the Provincial Assembly; the seal of Bergen County bearing this date includes an image of an agreement between the settlers and the natives.
New Barbadoes Township, together with Acquackanonk Township, were formed by Royal charter on October 31, 1693. In 1700, the village of Hackensack was little more than the area around Main Street from the Courthouse to around Anderson Street. New Barbadoes Township included what is now Maywood, Rochelle Park and River Edge, along with those portions of Oradell that are west of the Hackensack River; these areas were all sparsely populated and consisted of farm fields and swamplands. The few roads that existed included the streets now known as Kinderkamack Road, Paramus Road/Passaic Street and Essex Street; the southernmost portions of what is now Hackensack were not part of New Barbadoes Township at that time. The neighborhood that came to be known as the village of Hackensack was a part of Essex County until 1710, when Bergen County, by royal decree of Queen Anne of Great Britain, was enlarged and the Township of New Barbadoes was removed from Essex County and added to Bergen County. In 1710, the village of Hackensack in the newly formed Township of New Barbadoes was designated as being more centrally located and more reached by the majority of the Bergen County's inhabitants, hence was chosen as the county seat of Bergen County, as it remains today.
The earliest records of the Bergen County Board of Chosen Freeholders date back to 1715, at which time agreement was made to build a courthouse and jail complex, completed in 1716. During the American Revolutionary War, George Washington headquartered in the village of Hackensack in November 1776 during the retreat from Fort Lee via New Bridge Landing and camped on'The Green' across from the First Dutch Reformed Church on November 20, 1776. A raid by British forces against Hackensack on March 23, 1780, resulted in the destruction by fire of the original courthouse structure; the Hackensack Improvement Commission was incorporated by an Act of the state legislature approved on April 1, 1868, within New Barbadoes township and including the village of Hackensack, with authority to develop sewers and other improv
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
Bergen County, New Jersey
Bergen County is the most populous county in the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 948,406, an increase of 4.8% from the 2010 United States Census, which in turn represented an increase of 20,998 from the 884,118 counted in the 2000 Census. Located in the northeastern corner of New Jersey and its Gateway Region, Bergen County is part of the New York City Metropolitan Area and is directly across the Hudson River from Manhattan, to which it is connected by the George Washington Bridge. Bergen County has no large cities, its most populous place, with 43,010 residents at the time of the 2010 census, is Hackensack, its county seat. Mahwah covered the largest area of any municipality, at 26.19 square miles. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $75,849, the fourth-highest in New Jersey and ranked 45th of 3,113 counties in the United States. Bergen County is one of the wealthiest counties in the United States, with a median household income of $81,708 per the 2010 Census, increasing to an estimated $84,677 in 2014, 18% higher than the $71,919 median statewide.
The county hosts an extensive park system totaling nearly 9,000 acres. The origin of the name of Bergen County is a matter of debate, it is believed that the county is named for one of the earliest settlements, Bergen, in modern-day Hudson County. However, the origin of the township's name is debated. Several sources attribute the name to Bergen, while others attribute it to Bergen, North Holland in the Netherlands; some sources say that the name is derived from one of the earliest settlers of New Amsterdam, Hans Hansen Bergen, a native of Norway, who arrived in New Netherland in 1633. At the time of first European contact, Bergen County was inhabited by Native American people the Lenape Nation, whose sub-groups included the Tappan and Rumachenanck, as named by the Dutch colonists; some of their descendants are included among the Ramapough Mountain Indians, recognized as a tribe by the state in 1980. Their ancestors had moved into the mountains to escape encroachment by English colonists, their descendants reside in the northwest of the county, in nearby Passaic County and in Rockland County, New York, tracing their Lenape ancestry to speakers of the Munsee language, one of three major dialects of their language.
Over the years, they absorbed other ethnicities by intermarriage. In the 17th century, the Dutch considered the area comprising today's Bergen and Hudson counties as part of New Netherland, their colonial province of the Dutch Republic; the Dutch claimed it after Henry Hudson explored Newark Bay and anchored his ship at Weehawken Cove in 1609. From an early date, the Dutch began to import African slaves to fill their labor needs. Bergen County was the largest slaveholding county in the state; the African slaves were used for labor at the ports to support shipping, as well as for domestic servants and farm labor. Early settlement attempts by the Dutch included Pavonia and Achter Col, but the Native Americans repelled these settlements in Kieft's War and the Peach Tree War. European settlers returned to the western shores of the Hudson River in the 1660 formation of Bergen Township, which would become the first permanent European settlement in the territory of present-day New Jersey. During the Second Anglo-Dutch War, on August 27, 1664, New Amsterdam's governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendered to the English Navy.
The English organized the Province of New Jersey in 1665 splitting the territory into East Jersey and West Jersey in 1674. On November 30, 1675, the settlement Bergen and surrounding plantations and settlements were called Bergen County in an act passed by the province's General Assembly. In 1683, Bergen was recognized as an independent county by the Provincial Assembly. Bergen County consisted of only the land between the Hudson River and the Hackensack River, extending north to the border between East Jersey and New York. In January 1709, the boundaries were extended to include all of the current territory of Hudson County and portions of the current territory of Passaic County; the 1709 borders were described as follows: "Beginning at Constable's Hook, so along the bay and Hudson's River to the partition point between New Jersey and the province of New York. † The line between East and West Jersey here referred to is not the line adopted and known as the Lawrence line, run by John Lawrence in September and October 1743.
It was the compromise line agreed upon between Governors Daniel Coxe and Robert Barclay in 1682, which ran a little north of Morristown to the Passaic River. This line being afterward objected to by the East Jersey proprietors, the latter procured the running of the Lawrence line. Bergen was the location of several battles and troop movements during the American Revolutionary War. Fort Lee's location on the bluffs of the New Jersey Palisades, opposite Fort Washington in Manhattan, made it a strategic position during the war. In November 1776, the Battle of Fort Lee took place as part of a British plan to capture George Washington and to crush the Contin
Ku Klux Klan
The Ku Klux Klan called the KKK or the Klan, is an American white supremacist hate group. The Klan has existed in three distinct eras at different points in time during the history of the United States; each has advocated extremist reactionary positions such as white nationalism, anti-immigration and—especially in iterations—Nordicism and anti-Catholicism. The Klan used terrorism—both physical assault and murder—against groups or individuals whom they opposed. All three movements have called for the "purification" of American society and all are considered right-wing extremist organizations. In each era, membership was secret and estimates of the total were exaggerated by both friends and enemies; the first Klan flourished in the Southern United States in the late 1860s died out by the early 1870s. It sought to overthrow the Republican state governments in the South by using violence against African-American leaders; each chapter was autonomous and secret as to membership and plans. Its numerous chapters across the South were suppressed through federal law enforcement.
Members made their own colorful, costumes: robes and conical hats, designed to be terrifying and to hide their identities. The second Klan was founded in Georgia in 1915 and it flourished nationwide in the early and mid-1920s, including urban areas of the Midwest and West. Taking inspiration from D. W. Griffith's 1915 silent film The Birth of a Nation, which mythologized the founding of the first Klan, it employed marketing techniques and a popular fraternal organization structure. Rooted in local Protestant communities, it sought to maintain white supremacy took a pro-Prohibition stance, it opposed Catholics and Jews, while stressing its opposition to the alleged political power of the Pope and the Catholic Church; this second organization was funded by selling its members a standard white costume. It used K-words which were similar to those used by the first Klan, while adding cross burnings and mass parades to intimidate others, it declined in the half of the 1920s. The third and current manifestation of the KKK emerged after 1950, in the form of localized and isolated groups that use the KKK name.
They have focused on opposition to the civil rights movement using violence and murder to suppress activists. It is classified as a hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Center; as of 2016, the Anti-Defamation League puts total KKK membership nationwide at around 3,000, while the Southern Poverty Law Center puts it at 6,000 members total. The second and third incarnations of the Ku Klux Klan made frequent references to America's "Anglo-Saxon" blood, hearkening back to 19th-century nativism. Although members of the KKK swear to uphold Christian morality every Christian denomination has denounced the KKK; the first Klan was founded in Pulaski, sometime between December 1865 and August 1866 by six former officers of the Confederate army as a fraternal social club inspired at least in part by the largely defunct Sons of Malta. It borrowed parts of the initiation ceremony from that group, with the same purpose: "ludicrous initiations, the baffling of public curiosity, the amusement for members were the only objects of the Klan," according to Albert Stevens in 1907.
The name is derived from the Greek word kuklos which means circle. The manual of rituals was printed by Laps D. McCord of Pulaski. According to The Cyclopædia of Fraternities, "Beginning in April, 1867, there was a gradual transformation... The members had conjured up a veritable Frankenstein, they had played with an engine of power and mystery, though organized on innocent lines, found themselves overcome by a belief that something must lie behind it all — that there was, after all, a serious purpose, a work for the Klan to do."Although there was little organizational structure above the local level, similar groups rose across the South and adopted the same name and methods. Klan groups spread throughout the South as an insurgent movement promoting resistance and white supremacy during the Reconstruction Era. For example, Confederate veteran John W. Morton founded a chapter in Tennessee; as a secret vigilante group, the Klan targeted their allies. In 1870 and 1871, the federal government passed the Enforcement Acts, which were intended to prosecute and suppress Klan crimes.
The first Klan had mixed results in terms of achieving its objectives. It weakened the black political establishment through its use of assassinations and threats of violence. On the other hand, it caused a sharp backlash, with passage of federal laws that historian Eric Foner says were a success in terms of "restoring order, reinvigorating the morale of Southern Republicans, enabling blacks to exercise their rights as citizens". Historian George C. Rable argues that the Klan was a political failure and therefore was discarded by the Democratic leaders of the South, he says: the Klan declined in strength in part because of internal weaknesses. More fundamentally, it declined because it failed to achieve its central objective – the overthrow of Republican state governments in the South. After the Klan was suppressed, similar insurgent paramilitary groups arose that were explicitly directed at suppressing Republican voting and turning Republicans out o
North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North Carolina is the 28th-most extensive and the 9th-most populous of the U. S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties; the capital is Raleigh, which along with Durham and Chapel Hill is home to the largest research park in the United States. The most populous municipality is Charlotte, the second-largest banking center in the United States after New York City; the state has a wide range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to 6,684 feet at Mount Mitchell, the highest point in North America east of the Mississippi River. The climate of the coastal plains is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the state falls in the humid subtropical climate zone. More than 300 miles from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a subtropical highland climate. Woodland-culture Native Americans were in the area around 1000 BCE.
During this time, important buildings were constructed as flat-topped buildings. By 1550, many groups of American Indians lived in present-day North Carolina, including Chowanoke, Pamlico, Coree, Cape Fear Indians, Waxhaw and Catawba. Juan Pardo explored the area in 1566–1567, establishing Fort San Juan in 1567 at the site of the Native American community of Joara, a Mississippian culture regional chiefdom in the western interior, near the present-day city of Morganton; the fort lasted only 18 months. A expedition by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe followed in 1584, at the direction of Sir Walter Raleigh. In June 1718, the pirate Blackbeard ran his flagship, the Queen Anne's Revenge, aground at Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina, in present-day Carteret County. After the grounding her crew and supplies were transferred to smaller ships. In November, after appealing to the governor of North Carolina, who promised safe-haven and a pardon, Blackbeard was killed in an ambush by troops from Virginia.
In 1996 Intersal, Inc. a private firm, discovered the remains of a vessel to be the Queen Anne's Revenge, added to the US National Register of Historic Places. North Carolina became one of the English Thirteen Colonies and with the territory of South Carolina was known as the Province of North-Carolina; the northern and southern parts of the original province separated in 1729. Settled by small farmers, sometimes having a few slaves, who were oriented toward subsistence agriculture, the colony lacked cities or towns. Pirates menaced the coastal settlements. Growth was strong in the middle of the 18th century, as the economy attracted Scots-Irish, Quaker and German immigrants. A majority of the colonists supported the American Revolution, a smaller number of Loyalists than in some other colonies such as Georgia, South Carolina, New York. During colonial times, Edenton served as the state capital beginning in 1722, New Bern was selected as the capital in 1766. Construction of Tryon Palace, which served as the residence and offices of the provincial governor William Tryon, began in 1767 and was completed in 1771.
In 1788 Raleigh was chosen as the site of the new capital, as its central location protected it from coastal attacks. Established in 1792 as both county seat and state capital, the city was named after Sir Walter Raleigh, sponsor of Roanoke, the "lost colony" on Roanoke Island; the population of the colony more than quadrupled from 52,000 in 1740 to 270,000 in 1780 from high immigration from Virginia and Pennsylvania plus immigrants from abroad. North Carolina made the smallest per-capita contribution to the war of any state, as only 7,800 men joined the Continental Army under General George Washington. There was some military action in 1780–81. Many Carolinian frontiersmen had moved west over the mountains, into the Washington District, but in 1789, following the Revolution, the state was persuaded to relinquish its claim to the western lands, it ceded them to the national government so that the Northwest Territory could be organized and managed nationally. After 1800, cotton and tobacco became important export crops.
The eastern half of the state the Tidewater region, developed a slave society based on a plantation system and slave labor. Many free people of color migrated to the frontier along with their European-American neighbors, where the social system was looser. By 1810, nearly 3 percent of the free population consisted of free people of color, who numbered more than 10,000; the western areas were dominated by white families Scots-Irish, who operated small subsistence farms. In the early national period, the state became a center of Jeffersonian and Jacksonian democracy, with a strong Whig presence in the West. After Nat Turner's slave uprising in 1831, North Carolina and other southern states reduced the rights of free blacks. In 1835 the legislature withdrew their right to vote. On May 20, 1861, North Carolina was the last of the Confederate states to declare secession from the Union, 13 days after the Tennessee legislature voted for secession; some 125,000 North Carolinians served in the military.