Ranchi is the capital of the Indian state of Jharkhand. Ranchi was the centre of the Jharkhand movement, which called for a separate state for the tribal regions of South Bihar, northern Orissa, western West Bengal and the eastern area of what is present-day Chhattisgarh; the Jharkhand state was formed on 15 November 2000 by carving out the Bihar divisions of Chota Nagpur and Santhal Parganas. Ranchi has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission; the name Ranchi is derived from the previous name of the Oraon village at Archi. "Archi" derives from the Oraon word for bamboo stave. According to legend, after an altercation with a spirit, a farmer beat the spirit with his bamboo stave; the spirit shouted archi, archi and vanished. Archi became Rachi. Another etymological evidence suggests Ranchi to be derived from'rici', as the modern day landmark of Ranchi city, the Pahari Mandir, is known as Rici Buru - the hill of the kites, the city originated on the foothills of Rici Buru with the construction of bada talaab by Commissioner Thomas Wilkinson at the same site.
The entire administration of SWFA was run from Commissioner's office situated at the foothill of Rici Buru. Ranchi lies at 23°22′N 85°20′E near to the Tropic of Cancer, its municipal area is 652.02 km2, its average elevation is 651 m above sea level. Ranchi is located in the southern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau, the eastern section of the Deccan plateau. Ranchi has a hilly topography and its dense tropical forests a combination that produces a moderate climate compared to the rest of the state. However, due to the uncontrolled deforestation, development of the city, the average temperature has increased. Although Ranchi has a humid subtropical climate, its location and the forests surrounding it combine to produce the unusually pleasant climate for which it's known. Summer temperatures range from 20 °C to winter temperatures from 0 °C to 25 degrees. December and January are the coolest months, with temperatures dipping to the freezing point in some areas; the annual rainfall is about 1430 mm.
From June to September the rainfall is about 1,100 mm. As of 2011 India census, Ranchi municipal corporation has a population of 1,126,741, making it the 46th largest urban city in India. Males constitute 51.3% of the population and females 48.7%. Ranchi city has an average literacy rate of 87.68%. The city witnessed a sudden surge in population after the declaration of the new state of Jharkhand in 2000. Owing to the rising employment opportunities and opening of numerous regional and state level offices, FMCG companies, the city witnessed a rapid influx of employment seeking migrants; as per a study done by ASSOCHAM in late 2010, Ranchi was one of the highest employment generating Tier-III cities in India with a share of 16.8%, followed by Mangalore and Mysore. Hindi is the official language of the Ranchi city; the populace of Ranchi converse in Hindi. A number of Hindi dialects such as Nagpuri, Khortha spoken. Tribal language Mundari is spoken by Munda tribe. Hinduism is the prominent religion of Ranchi city followed by 64.31% of the population.
Islam is the second most followed religion in the city by 16.42% of the people. Minorities are Christians 8.52%, Sikhism 0.39%, Jains 0.22%, Buddhists 0.06%, those that didn't state a religion are 0.35%, others are 9.72%. Sadar Hospital, Ranchi Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences Central Institute of Psychiatry, Ranchi Ranchi is centre for numerous sports activities, including cricket, hockey and many others; the 34th National Games were held in Ranchi in February 2011. An International Cricket stadium with an indoor stadium and a practice ground has been constructed. So far, this stadium has hosted one T20 International match. Apart from that, this stadium has hosted two IPL 6 matches for Kolkata Knight Riders, three champions league 2013 matches and Celebrity Cricket League Matches for Bhojpuri Dabanggs. A tennis academy, inaugurated by Sania Mirza and Shoaib Malik runs besides the cricket stadium; the Ranchi franchise for Hockey India League was bought by Patel-Uniexcel Group and the team named Ranchi Rhinos.
Ranchi Rays Ranchi Rhinos Jaipal Singh Stadium JSCA International Cricket Stadium Birsa Munda Hockey Stadium Birsa Munda Athletics Stadium Birsa Munda Football Stadium Bhagawan Birsa Biological Park known as Jharkhand Zoo is wildlife zoo spread over 104 hectares that features numerous animals including Asian Black Bear, Bengal Tiger, Asiatic Lions, Indian Peacock, Indian Elephant among others. Tagore Hill Jagannath Temple Dassam Falls Jonha Falls Rock Garden Rajesh Chauhan, former Indian cricketer, was born in Ranchi Mahendra Singh Dhoni, Ex-Captain of Indian Cricket Team, famous for winning Cricket World Cup in 2011 Carl Haeberlin, German physician, was born in Ranchi Deepika Kumari, International Level Archer Anjana Om Kashyap, Indian journalist and news presenter. Rajesh Jais Alisha Singh and choreographerPeter Mansfield, British journalist and historian, was born in Ranchi Kariya Munda, Deputy Speaker of the 15th Lok Sabha and Member of Parliament from Khunti, Jharkhand Vinay Pathak, actor schooled at Vikas Vidyalaya, Ranchi Mukund Nayak, folk singer and dancer Nandlal Nayak, folk artist and Music composer Pat Reid MBE MC, escapee from Colditz Castle, was born in Ranchi Tapen Sen, Former Judge Calcutta High Court, Punjab & Haryana High Court and Jharkhand High Court.
Telesphore Toppo, Cardinal-Archbishop of Ra
Asiatic Society of Bangladesh
The Asiatic Society of Bangladesh was established as the Asiatic Society of Pakistan in Dhaka in 1952, renamed in 1972. Ahmed Hasan Dani, a noted historian and archaeologist of Pakistan played an important role in founding this society, he was assisted by a Bengali linguist. The society is housed in Nimtali locality of Old Dhaka; the society's publications include: Banglapedia, the National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh Cultural Survey of Bangladesh, a documentation of the country's cultural history and heritage Children’s Banglapedia, a three-volume version of Banglapedia for children History of Bangladesh National Online Biography.
Congress Working Committee
The Congress Working Committee is the executive committee of the Indian National Congress. It consists of fifteen members elected from the All India Congress Committee, it is headed by the Working President. The Working Committee has had different levels of in the party at different times. In the period prior to independence in 1947, the Working Committee was the centre of power, the Working President was more active than the Congress President. In the period after 1967, when the Congress Party split for the first time, the power of the Working Committee declined; the centralised nature of Congress decision making has since caused observers in the states to informally describe instructions from Delhi as coming from the "High Command". President Rahul Gandhi MPMember Permanent Invitee Special Invitee Indian National Congress All India Congress Committee Pradesh Congress Committee Official All India Congress Committee website Official Indian National Congress website
Kolkata is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River 75 kilometres west of the border with Bangladesh, it is the principal commercial and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port; the city is regarded as the "cultural capital" of India, is nicknamed the "City of Joy". According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the seventh most populous city. Recent estimates of Kolkata Metropolitan Area's economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai and Delhi. In the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading licence in 1690, the area was developed by the Company into an fortified trading post. Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah occupied Calcutta in 1756, the East India Company retook it the following year.
In 1793 the East India company was strong enough to abolish Nizamat, assumed full sovereignty of the region. Under the company rule, under the British Raj, Calcutta served as the capital of British-held territories in India until 1911, when its perceived geographical disadvantages, combined with growing nationalism in Bengal, led to a shift of the capital to New Delhi. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement. Following Indian independence in 1947, once the centre of modern Indian education, science and politics, suffered several decades of economic stagnation; as a nucleus of the 19th- and early 20th-century Bengal Renaissance and a religiously and ethnically diverse centre of culture in Bengal and India, Kolkata has local traditions in drama, film and literature. Many people from Kolkata—among them several Nobel laureates—have contributed to the arts, the sciences, other areas. Kolkata culture features idiosyncrasies that include distinctively close-knit neighbourhoods and freestyle intellectual exchanges.
West Bengal's share of the Bengali film industry is based in the city, which hosts venerable cultural institutions of national importance, such as the Academy of Fine Arts, the Victoria Memorial, the Asiatic Society, the Indian Museum and the National Library of India. Among professional scientific institutions, Kolkata hosts the Agri Horticultural Society of India, the Geological Survey of India, the Botanical Survey of India, the Calcutta Mathematical Society, the Indian Science Congress Association, the Zoological Survey of India, the Institution of Engineers, the Anthropological Survey of India and the Indian Public Health Association. Though home to major cricketing venues and franchises, Kolkata differs from other Indian cities by giving importance to association football and other sports; the word Kolkata derives from the Bengali term Kôlikata, the name of one of three villages that predated the arrival of the British, in the area where the city was to be established. There are several explanations about the etymology of this name: The term Kolikata is thought to be a variation of Kalikkhetrô, meaning "Field of Kali".
It can be a variation of'Kalikshetra'. Another theory is. Alternatively, the name may have been derived from the Bengali term kilkila, or "flat area"; the name may have its origin in the words khal meaning "canal", followed by kaṭa, which may mean "dug". According to another theory, the area specialised in the production of quicklime or koli chun and coir or kata. Although the city's name has always been pronounced Kolkata or Kôlikata in Bengali, the anglicised form Calcutta was the official name until 2001, when it was changed to Kolkata in order to match Bengali pronunciation; the discovery and archaeological study of Chandraketugarh, 35 kilometres north of Kolkata, provide evidence that the region in which the city stands has been inhabited for over two millennia. Kolkata's recorded history began in 1690 with the arrival of the English East India Company, consolidating its trade business in Bengal. Job Charnock, an administrator who worked for the company, was credited as the founder of the city.
The area occupied by the present-day city encompassed three villages: Kalikata and Sutanuti. Kalikata was a fishing village, they were part of an estate belonging to the Mughal emperor. These rights were transferred to the East India Company in 1698. In 1712, the British completed the cons
Bengalis rendered as the Bengali people and Bangalees, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group native to the Bengal region in South Asia in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, presently divided between Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Assam's Barak Valley, who speak Bengali, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family. The term "Bangalee" is used to denote people of Bangladesh as a nation. Bengalis are the third largest ethnic group in the world, after Han Chinese and Arabs. Apart from Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Assam's Barak Valley, Bengali-majority populations reside in India's union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands as well as Bangladesh's Chittagong Hill Tracts, with significant populations in Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Uttarakhand; the global Bengali diaspora have well-established communities in Pakistan, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Middle East, South Korea, Malaysia and Italy. They have four major religious subgroups: Bengali Muslims, Bengali Hindus, Bengali Christians, Bengali Buddhists.
In modern usage, "Bengali" or "Bangali" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Bengal. Their ethnonym is derived from Bangla; the exact origin of the word Bangla is unknown, though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang/Banga that settled in the area around the year 2500 BCE. Other accounts speculate that the name is derived from Venga, which came from the Austric word "Bonga" meaning the Sun-god. According to the Mahabharata, the Puranas and the Harivamsha, Vanga was one of the adopted sons of King Vali who founded the Vanga Kingdom, it was either under Kalinga Rules except few years under Pals. The Muslim accounts refer that a son of Hind colonised the area for the first time; the earliest reference to "Vangala" has been traced in the Nesari plates of Rashtrakuta Govinda III which speak of Dharmapala as the king of Vangala. The records of Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty, who invaded Bengal in the 11th century, speak of Govindachandra as the ruler of Vangaladesa.
Shams-ud-din Ilyas Shah took the title "Shah-e-Bangla" and united the whole region under one government. An interesting theory of the origin of the name is provided by Abu'l-Fazl in his Ain-i-Akbari. According to him, "The original name of Bengal was Bung, the suffix "al" came to be added to it from the fact that the ancient rajahs of this land raised mounds of earth 10 feet high and 20 in breadth in lowlands at the foot of the hills which were called "al". From this suffix added to the Bung, the name Bengal arose and gained currency". Archaeologists have discovered remnants of a 4,000-year-old Chalcolithic civilisation in the greater Bengal region, believe the finds are one of the earliest signs of settlement in the region. However, evidence of much older Palaeolithic human habitations were found in the form of a stone implement and a hand axe in Rangamati and Feni districts of Bangladesh; the origin of the word Bangla ~ Bengal is unknown, though it is believed to be derived from a tribe called Bang that settled in the area around the year 1000 BCE.
Kingdoms of Pundra and Vanga were formed in Bengal and were first described in the Atharvaveda around 1000 BCE as well as in Hindu epic Mahabharata. Anga and Magadha expanded to include most of the Bihar and Bengal regions, it was one of the four main kingdoms of India at the time of Buddha and was one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas. Under the Maurya Empire founded by Chandragupta Maurya, Magadha extended over nearly all of South Asia, including parts of Balochistan and Afghanistan, reaching its greatest extent under the Buddhist emperor Ashoka the Great in the 3rd century BCE. One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is the mention of a land ruled by the king Xandrammes named Gangaridai by the Greeks around 100 BCE; the word is speculated to have come from Gangahrd in reference to an area in Bengal. From the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE, the kingdom of Magadha served as the seat of the Gupta Empire. One of the first recorded independent kings of Bengal was Shashanka, reigning around the early 7th century.
After a period of anarchy, Gopala came to power in 750. He founded the Bengali Buddhist Pala Empire which ruled the region for four hundred years, expanded across much of Southern Asia: from Assam in the northeast, to Kabul in the west, to Andhra Pradesh in the south. Atisha was a renowned Bengali Buddhist teacher, instrumental in the revival of Buddhism in Tibet and held the position of Abbot at the Vikramshila university. Tilopa was from the Bengal region; the Pala Empire enjoyed relations with the Srivijaya Empire, the Tibetan Empire, the Arab Abbasid Caliphate. Islam first appeared in Bengal during Pala rule, as a result of increased trade between Bengal and the Middle East; the Pala dynasty was followed by a shorter reign of the Hindu Sena Empire. Islam was introduced to Bengal in the twelfth century by Sufi missionaries. Subsequent Muslim conquests helped spread Islam throughout the region. Bakhtiar Khalji, a Turkic general of the Slave dynasty of Delhi Sultanate, defeated Lakshman Sen of the Sena dynasty and conquered large parts of Bengal.
The region was ruled by dynasties of sultans and feudal lords under the Bengal Sultanate for the next few hundred years. Islam was introduced to the Sylhet region by the Muslim saint Shah Jalal in the early 14th century
Downing College, Cambridge
Downing College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge and has around 650 students. Founded in 1800, it was the only college to be added to Cambridge University between 1596 and 1869, is described as the oldest of the new colleges and the newest of the old. Downing College was formed "for the encouragement of the study of Law and Medicine and of the cognate subjects of Moral and Natural Science", has developed a reputation amongst Cambridge colleges for Law and Medicine. Downing has been named one of the two most eco-friendly Cambridge colleges. Upon the death of Sir George Downing, 3rd Baronet in 1749, the wealth left by his grandfather, Sir George Downing, 1st Baronet, who served both Cromwell and Charles II and built 10 Downing Street, was applied by his will. Under this will, as he had no direct issue, the family fortune was left to his cousin, Sir Jacob Downing, 4th Baronet, if he died without heir, to three cousins in succession. If they all died without issue, the estates were to be used to found a college at Cambridge called Downing.
Sir Jacob died in 1764, as the other named heirs had died, the college should have come into existence but Sir Jacob's widow, refused to give up the estates and the various relatives who were Sir George's legal heirs had to take costly and prolonged action in the Court of Chancery to compel her to do so. She died in 1778 but her second husband and the son of her sister continued to resist the heirs-at-law's action until 1800 when the Court decided in favour of Sir George's will and George III granted Downing a Royal Charter, marking the official foundation of the college; the architect William Wilkins was commissioned by the trustees of the Downing estate, who included the Master of Clare College and St John's College and the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, to design the plan for the college. Wilkins, a disciple of the neo-classical architectural style, designed the first wholly campus-based college plan in the world based on a magnificent entrance on Downing Street reaching back to form the largest court in Cambridge, extending to Lensfield Road.
But this was not to be. The estate was much reduced by the suit in Chancery, the grand plans failed. Much of the north side of what was the Pembroke Leys was sold to the University and is now home to scientific buildings. In fact, only limited East and West ranges were built, with the plans for a library and chapel on the south face of the college shelved; the third side of the square was only completed in 1951 with the building of the college chapel. Where the fourth side would have been is now a large paddock, with many trees. Though not enclosed, the court formed before the Downing College is largest in Cambridge or Oxford. An urban legend amongst Cambridge students claims that Trinity pays an undisclosed sum to the college annually with the condition that it will never build the fourth side of the square, so that Trinity may maintain the distinction of having the largest enclosed court of all colleges of Cambridge; the most recent building additions are the Howard Lodge accommodation, the Howard Building, most recent of all the Howard Theatre which opened in 2010.
These were sponsored by the Howard family and are located behind the main court around their own small garden. These facilities are used for conference and businesses gatherings outside the student term; the Heong Gallery, opened in February 2016, is a modern and contemporary art gallery at Downing, named by Alwyn Heong, an alumnus of the college, a supporter of the visual arts. The conversion of a stables building by Caruso St John won a RIBA regional award. Downing students remain prominent in the University world, it is a politically active college, with politically active members and alumni occupying different parts of the British political spectrum, from the far left to the extreme right. In this sense, it is quite different from other colleges, as the student body of many of the politically active colleges tend to incline toward one party or another. Downing has a particular reputation for law; the Griffin has been the undergraduate student magazine for over 100 years. The college fields teams in a range of sports including, men's football, men's and women's rugby and Ultimate Frisbee.
Downing College Boat Club is successful too, with the Women's first boat gaining Lents Headship of the river in the 1994 Lent Bumps, more the Mays Headship in the 2014 and 2015 May Bumps. The men's first boat has held the headship several times in the 1980s and 1990s while gaining the Mays headship in 1996 and the Lents Headship in 2014, on each occasion recognising the tradition of "burning the boat", while the rowers of the winning boat jump the flames, they both hold positions at or near the top in both University bumps races. The college is renowned for its strong legal tradition, being built up by Clive Parry, his pupil and successor John Hopkins and Graham Virgo. Legal notables who have been honorary fellows of the college include the late Sir John Smith, the pre-eminent criminal lawyer of his generation. Downing College website Downing JCR (J
Chittagong known as Chattogram, is a major coastal city and financial centre in southeastern Bangladesh. The city has a population of more than 2.5 million while the metropolitan area had a population of 4,009,423 in 2011, making it the second-largest city in the country. It is the capital of an eponymous Division; the city is located on the banks of the Karnaphuli River between the Chittagong Hill Tracts and the Bay of Bengal. Chittagong plays a vital role in the Bangladeshi economy; the Port of Chittagong is the principal maritime gateway to the country. The port is the busiest international seaport on the Bay of Bengal and the third busiest in South Asia; the Chittagong Stock Exchange is one of the country's two stock markets. Several Chittagong-based companies are among the largest industrial conglomerates and enterprises in Bangladesh; the port city is the largest base of the Bangladesh Bangladesh Coast Guard. Chittagong is the headquarters of the Eastern Zone of the Bangladesh Railway, having been the headquarters of British India's Assam Bengal Railway and East Pakistan's Pakistan Eastern Railway.
A controversial ship breaking industry on the outskirts of the city, which supplies local steel but causes pollution, has come under international scrutiny. Chittagong is an ancient seaport due to its natural harbor, it was noted as one of the largest Eastern ports by the Roman geographer Ptolemy in the 1st century. The harbor has been a gateway through southeastern Bengal in the Indian subcontinent for centuries. Arab sailors and traders, who once explored the Bay of Bengal, set up a mercantile station in the harbor during the 9th century. During the 14th century, the port became a "mint town" of the Sultanate of Bengal, with the status of an administrative center. During the 16th century, Portuguese historian João de Barros described Chittagong as "the most famous and wealthy city of the Kingdom of Bengal". Portuguese Chittagong was the first European colonial settlement in Bengal. A naval battle in 1666 between the Mughal Empire and Arakan resulted in the expulsion of Portuguese pirates. British colonization began in 1760 when the Nawab of Bengal ceded Chittagong to the East India Company.
During World War II, Chittagong was a base for Allied Forces engaged in the Burma Campaign. The port city began to expand and industrialize during the 1940s after the Partition of British India. During the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, Chittagong was site of the country's declaration of independence. Chittagong has a high degree of religious and ethnic diversity among Bangladeshi cities, despite having an overwhelming Bengali Muslim majority. Minorities include Bengali Hindus, Bengali Christians, Bengali Buddhists, the Chakmas, the Marmas, the Bohmong, the Rohingyas and Rakhines. Modern Chittagong is Bangladesh's second most significant urban center after Dhaka. In 2018, the government of Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina decided to change the city's name to a version of its Bengali spelling without public consultation, drawing protests and concern; the etymology of Chittagong is uncertain. One explanation credits the first Arab traders for shatt ghangh where shatt means "delta" and ghangh stood for the Ganges.
The Burmese tradition is that an Arakanese king, invading in the 9th century, gave the city the name Tsit-ta-gung. Another legend dates the name to the spread of Islam, when a Muslim lit a chati at the top of a hill in the city and called out for people to come to prayer. However, the local name of the city Chatga, a corruption of Chatgao or Chatigao, Chottogram bears the meaning of "village or town of Chatta." The port city has been known by various names in history, including Chatigaon, Chattagrama, Chattala and Porto Grande De Bengala. In April 2018, the Bangladesh government decided that the English spelling would change from Chittagong to Chattogram to make the name sound similar to the Bangla spelling. Stone age fossils and tools unearthed in the region indicate that Chittagong has been inhabited since Neolithic times, it is an ancient port city, with a recorded history dating back to the 4th century BC. Its harbour was mentioned in Ptolemy's world map in the 2nd century as one of the most impressive ports in the East.
The region was part of the ancient Bengali Harikela kingdoms. The Candra dynasty once dominated the area, was followed by the Varman dynasty and Deva dynasty. Chinese traveler Xuanzang described the area as "a sleeping beauty rising from mist and water" in the 7th century. Arab Muslim traders frequented Chittagong from the 9th century. In 1154, Al-Idrisi wrote of a busy shipping route between Basra and Chittagong, connecting it with the Abbasid capital of Baghdad. Many Sufi missionaries played an instrumental role in the spread of Islam. Sultan Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah of Sonargaon conquered Chittagong in 1340, making it a part of Sultanate of Bengal, it was the principal maritime gateway to the kingdom, reputed as one of the wealthiest states in the Indian subcontinent. Medieval Chittagong was a hub for maritime trade with China, the Maldives, Sri Lanka, the Middle East and East Africa, it was notable for its medieval trades in pearls, muslin, bullion and gunpowder. The port was a major shipbuilding hub.
Ibn Battuta visited the port city in 1345. Niccolò de' Conti, from Venice visited around the same time as Battuta. Chinese admiral Zheng He's treasure fleet an