A cyborg, short for "cybernetic organism", is a being with both organic and biomechatronic body parts. The term was coined in 1960 by Nathan S. Kline; the term cyborg is not the same thing as biorobot or android. While cyborgs are thought of as mammals, including humans, they might conceivably be any kind of organism. D. S. Halacy's Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman in 1965 featured an introduction which spoke of a "new frontier", "not space, but more profoundly the relationship between'inner space' to'outer space' – a bridge...between mind and matter."In popular culture, some cyborgs may be represented as visibly mechanical or as indistinguishable from humans. Cyborgs in fiction play up a human contempt for over-dependence on technology when used for war, when used in ways that seem to threaten free will. Cyborgs are often portrayed with physical or mental abilities far exceeding a human counterpart, such as RoboCop. According to some definitions of the term, the physical attachments humanity has with the most basic technologies have made them cyborgs.
In a typical example, a human with an artificial cardiac pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator would be considered a cyborg, since these devices measure voltage potentials in the body, perform signal processing, can deliver electrical stimuli, using this synthetic feedback mechanism to keep that person alive. Implants cochlear implants, that combine mechanical modification with any kind of feedback response are cyborg enhancements; some theorists cite such modifications as contact lenses, hearing aids, or intraocular lenses as examples of fitting humans with technology to enhance their biological capabilities. As cyborgs are on the rise some theorists argue there is a need to develop new definitions of aging and for instance a bio-techno-social definition of aging has been suggested; the term is used to address human-technology mixtures in the abstract. This includes not only used pieces of technology such as phones, the Internet, etc. but artifacts that may not popularly be considered technology.
When augmented with these technologies and connected in communication with people in other times and places, a person becomes capable of much more than they were before. An example is a computer, which gains power by using Internet protocols to connect with other computers. Another example, becoming more and more relevant is a bot-assisted human or human-assisted-bot, used to target social media with likes and shares. Cybernetic technologies include highways, electrical wiring, electrical plants and other infrastructure that we hardly notice, but which are critical parts of the cybernetics that we work within. Bruce Sterling in his universe of Shaper/Mechanist suggested an idea of alternative cyborg called Lobster, made not by using internal implants, but by using an external shell. Unlike human cyborgs that appear human externally while being synthetic internally, Lobster looks inhuman externally but contains a human internally; the computer game Deus Ex: Invisible War prominently featured cyborgs called Omar, where "Omar" is a Russian translation of the word "Lobster".
The concept of a man-machine mixture was widespread in science fiction before World War II. As early as 1843, Edgar Allan Poe described a man with extensive prostheses in the short story "The Man That Was Used Up". In 1911, Jean de La Hire introduced the Nyctalope, a science fiction hero, the first literary cyborg, in Le Mystère des XV. Edmond Hamilton presented space explorers with a mixture of organic and machine parts in his novel The Comet Doom in 1928, he featured the talking, living brain of an old scientist, Simon Wright, floating around in a transparent case, in all the adventures of his famous hero, Captain Future. He uses the term explicitly in the 1962 short story, "After a Judgment Day," to describe the "mechanical analogs" called "Charlies," explaining that "yborgs, they had been called from the first one in the 1960s...cybernetic organisms." In the short story "No Woman Born" in 1944, C. L. Moore wrote of Deirdre, a dancer, whose body was burned and whose brain was placed in a faceless but beautiful and supple mechanical body.
The term was coined by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline in 1960 to refer to their conception of an enhanced human being who could survive in extraterrestrial environments: Their concept was the outcome of thinking about the need for an intimate relationship between human and machine as the new frontier of space exploration was beginning to open up. A designer of physiological instrumentation and electronic data-processing systems, Clynes was the chief research scientist in the Dynamic Simulation Laboratory at Rockland State Hospital in New York; the term first appears in print five months earlier when The New York Times reported on the Psychophysiological Aspects of Space Flight Symposium where Clynes and Kline first presented their paper. A book titled Cyborg: Digital Destiny and Human Possib
VHS is a standard for consumer-level analog video recording on tape cassettes. Developed by Victor Company of Japan in the early 1970s, it was released in Japan on September 9, 1976 and in the United States on August 23, 1977. From the 1950s, magnetic tape video recording became a major contributor to the television industry, via the first commercialized video tape recorders. At that time, the devices were used only in expensive professional environments such as television studios and medical imaging. In the 1970s, videotape entered home use, creating the home video industry and changing the economics of the television and movie businesses; the television industry viewed videocassette recorders as having the power to disrupt their business, while television users viewed the VCR as the means to take control of their hobby. In the 1970s and early 1980s, there was a format war in the home video industry. Two of the standards, VHS and Betamax, received the most media exposure. VHS won the war, dominating 60 percent of the North American market by 1980 and emerging as the dominant home video format throughout the tape media period.
Optical disc formats began to offer better quality than analog consumer video tape such as VHS and S-VHS. The earliest of these formats, LaserDisc, was not adopted. However, after the introduction of the DVD format in 1997, VHS's market share began to decline. By 2008, DVD had replaced VHS as the preferred low-end method of distribution; the last known company in the world to manufacture VHS equipment, Funai of Japan, ceased production in July 2016. After several attempts by other companies, the first commercially successful VTR, the Ampex VRX-1000, was introduced in 1956 by Ampex Corporation. At a price of US$50,000 in 1956, US$300 for a 90-minute reel of tape, it was intended only for the professional market. Kenjiro Takayanagi, a television broadcasting pioneer working for JVC as its vice president, saw the need for his company to produce VTRs for the Japan market, at a more affordable price. In 1959, JVC developed a two-head video tape recorder, by 1960 a color version for professional broadcasting.
In 1964, JVC released the DV220. In 1969, JVC collaborated with Sony Corporation and Matsushita Electric in building a video recording standard for the Japanese consumer; the effort produced the U-matic format in 1971, the first format to become a unified standard. U-matic was successful in business and some broadcast applications, but due to cost and limited recording time few of the machines were sold for home use. Soon after and Matsushita broke away from the collaboration effort, in order to work on video recording formats of their own. Sony started working on Betamax, while Matsushita started working on VX. JVC released the CR-6060 in 1975, based on the U-matic format. Sony and Matsushita produced U-matic systems of their own. In 1971, JVC engineers Yuma Shiraishi and Shizuo Takano put together a team to develop a consumer-based VTR. By the end of 1971 they created an internal diagram titled "VHS Development Matrix", which established twelve objectives for JVC's new VTR; these included: The system must be compatible with any ordinary television set.
Picture quality must be similar to a normal air broadcast. The tape must have at least a two-hour recording capacity. Tapes must be interchangeable between machines; the overall system should be versatile, meaning it can be scaled and expanded, such as connecting a video camera, or dub between two recorders. Recorders should be affordable, easy to have low maintenance costs. Recorders must be capable of being produced in high volume, their parts must be interchangeable, they must be easy to service. In early 1972, the commercial video recording industry in Japan took a financial hit. JVC restructured its video division, shelving the VHS project. However, despite the lack of funding and Shiraishi continued to work on the project in secret. By 1973 the two engineers had produced a functional prototype. In 1974, the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry, desiring to avoid consumer confusion, attempted to force the Japanese video industry to standardize on just one home video recording format.
Sony had a functional prototype of the Betamax format, was close to releasing a finished product. With this prototype, Sony persuaded the MITI to adopt Betamax as the standard, allow it to license the technology to other companies. JVC believed that an open standard, with the format shared among competitors without licensing the technology, was better for the consumer. To prevent the MITI from adopting Betamax, JVC worked to convince other companies, in particular Matsushita, to accept VHS, thereby work against Sony and the MITI. Matsushita agreed out of concern that Sony might become the leader in the field if its proprietary Betamax format was the only one allowed to be manufactured. Matsushita regarded Betamax's one-hour recording time limit as a disadvantage. Matsushita's backing of JVC persuaded Hitachi and Sharp to back the VHS standard as well. Sony's release of its Betamax unit to the Japanese market in 1975 placed further pressure on the MITI to side with the company. However, the collaboration of
Jackie Earle Haley
Jack Earle Haley is an American actor. His earliest roles included Moocher in Breaking Away and Kelly Leak in The Bad News Bears, The Bad News Bears in Breaking Training and The Bad News Bears Go to Japan. After spending many years as a producer and director of television commercials, he revived his acting career with a supporting role in All the King's Men; this was followed by his performance as pedophile Ronald James McGorvey in Little Children, for which he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. Subsequent notable roles include the vigilante Rorschach in Watchmen, horror icon Freddy Krueger in the remake of A Nightmare on Elm Street and Grewishka, a huge cyborg criminal, in Alita: Battle Angel, he stars as Odin Quincannon in Preacher and The Terror in The Tick. Haley was born and raised in Northridge, the son of Haven Earle "Bud" Haley, a radio show host/disc jockey and actor. Haley has appeared in numerous films, including Damnation Alley, John Schlesinger's The Day of the Locust, Losin' It, as well as guest roles on TV.
A well known child actor, he starred as Kelly Leak in the comedy The Bad News Bears. He starred in The Bad News Bears in Breaking Training and The Bad News Bears Go to Japan, he played Moocher in Peter Yates's acclaimed 1979 film Breaking Away and in the short-lived TV series of the same name. Throughout the 1970s, he played a tough, pimply, long-haired misfit. Haley shot a pilot for an American version of the popular British comedy The Young Ones titled Oh, No! Not THEM!. In 1974 he played Norm a misfit kid in the 12th episode of the Saturday morning children's show, Shazam! It is rumored that in 1984, Haley's friend Johnny Depp accompanied him to auditions for Wes Craven's A Nightmare on Elm Street. Haley's acting career went dormant during most of the 1990s and early 2000s, when he moved to San Antonio and turned to directing, finding success as a producer and director of television commercials. With the recommendation of Sean Penn, Haley returned to acting in 2006, first appearing in Steven Zaillian's All the King's Men alongside Penn as Sugar Boy, his bodyguard, before giving a critically acclaimed performance as a paroled sex offender in Todd Field's Little Children.
He stated that his preparation for the role was influenced by the relationship shared between his mother and his brother True, who battled a heroin addiction before he died of an overdose. Haley was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for this portrayal and in 2007 was invited to join the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Haley owns a production company, JEH Productions, in San Antonio, Texas. In 2008, he appeared in Semi-Pro and starred in Winged Creatures with Kate Beckinsale, Guy Pearce and Dakota Fanning, he stars in Zack Snyder's 2009 adaptation of the Alan Moore graphic novel, Watchmen, as Rorschach, a masked vigilante working to find the identity of a costumed hero killer, a role which earned Haley praise from many reviewers. The film reunited him with Little Children co-star Patrick Wilson who played Nite Owl II, former partner of Rorschach. In 2010, Haley appeared in Shutter Island, directed by Martin Scorsese, playing a patient of a hospital for the criminally insane.
Haley played the role of Freddy Krueger in the A Nightmare on Elm Street remake. He has signed on to play the role in three installments in the series. Haley was a series regular on Human Target as Guerrero, an ally of the main character, Christopher Chance; the series premiered on January 17, 2010 on Fox, lasted for two seasons before being cancelled in May 2011. He played Willie Loomis in the 2012 film adaptation of Dark Shadows, directed by Tim Burton, played Confederate States Vice President Alexander H. Stephens in Lincoln, directed by Steven Spielberg. More he has played the supervillain "The Terror" in Amazon's re-boot of The Tick. Haley's first marriage was to Sherry Vaughan in 1979, he has two children: a son, a daughter, Olivia, by his second wife, Jennifer Hargrave. He married his third wife, Amelia Cruz, in 2004; the couple reside in Texas. Official website Jackie Earle Haley on IMDb
An endoskeleton is an internal support structure of an animal, composed of mineralized tissue. An endoskeleton is a skeleton, on the inside of a body; the endoskeleton develops in the deeper body tissues. The vertebrate endoskeleton is made up of two types of tissues. During early embryonic development the endoskeleton is composed of cartilage; the notochord in most vertebrates is replaced by the vertebral column and cartilage is replaced by bone in most adults. In three phyla and one subclass of animals, endoskeletons of various complexity are found: Chordata, Echinodermata and Coleoidea. An endoskeleton may function purely for support, but serves as an attachment site for muscle and a mechanism for transmitting muscular forces. A true endoskeleton is derived from mesodermal tissue; such a skeleton is present in chordates. The poriferan'skeleton' consists of microscopic calcareous or siliceous spicules or a spongin network; the Coleoidae do not have a true endoskeleton in the evolutionary sense.
Yet they do have cartilaginous tissue in their body if it is not mineralized in the head, where it forms a primitive cranium. The endoskeleton gives shape and protection to the body and provides a means of locomotion. Exoskeleton Hydrostatic skeleton
Thomas "Thom" Mathews is an American actor, best known for his roles as Freddy in The Return of the Living Dead and Tommy Jarvis in the Friday the 13th franchise. His other film roles include Dangerously Close, Return of the Living Dead Part II, Nemesis. Mathews began his acting career in the early 1980s as a model and commercial actor, starring in national television commercials for Le Tigre and Tostitos. From 1982 to 1984, Mathews guest starred on a string of soap operas including Falcon Crest and Paper Dolls. In 1984, Mathews portrayed Erik in the romantic comedy film The Woman in Red although he was uncredited, his first major role was Freddy in the 1985 cult film The Return of the Living Dead. The following year, Mathews starred in Friday the 13th Part VI: Jason Lives, being the third actor to portray Tommy Jarvis after Corey Feldman and John Shepherd. In 1987, he starred as Francis Kelly in the television film The Dirty Dozen: The Deadly Mission; the same year, Mathews starred in the film Down Twisted and guest starred on the sitcom Mr. President.
In 1988, he starred as Joey in Return of the Living Dead Part II and Charmin' in Alien from L. A.. In 1989, Mathews guest starred on an episode of CBS Summer Playhouse. In 1990, he portrayed Tim Murphy in the television film Rock Hudson, Sonny Hilderbrand in the television pilot Sporting Chance, David in the film Midnight Cabaret; the following year, Mathews starred in the films Bloodmatch and Born to Ride and the television short The Letters from Moab. In 1992, he starred in the film Nemesis. In 1994, he portrayed Bill in Kickboxer 4 and Dan Donahue in In the Living Years; the following year, Mathews starred in Heatseeker. The same year, he guest starred on an episode of ER. In 1996, Mathews starred in the television films If Looks Could Raven Hawk, he reprised the role of Tommy Jarvis twice in 2017, providing his voice and likeness to the video game Friday the 13th: The Game and making a cameo appearance in the unofficial fan film Never Hike Alone. Mathews now owns a construction company and Trowel.
Sharon and Ozzy Osbourne hired his company to remodel their home during the filming of their MTV reality show The Osbournes. On May 10, 2014, Mathews married Karla Jensen in Mexico. Thom Mathews on IMDb
Cyborg known as Slinger is a 1989 American martial-arts cyberpunk film directed by Albert Pyun. Jean-Claude Van Damme stars as Gibson Rickenbacker, a mercenary who battles a group of murderous marauders led by Fender Tremolo along the East coast of the United States in a post-apocalyptic future; the film is the first in Pyun's Cyborg Trilogy. It was followed by 1993's Knights and Omega Doom in 1997. Cyborg was followed by sequels Cyborg Cyborg 3: The Recycler. A plague known as the living death cripples civilization. A small group of surviving scientists and doctors — located in Atlanta, home of the CDC — work on a cure to save what remains of humanity. To complete their work they need information stored on a computer system in New York City. Pearl Prophet volunteers for the dangerous courier mission and is made into a cyborg through surgical augmentation. Pearl, accompanied by bodyguard Marshall Strat, retrieves the data in New York but is pursued by the vicious Fender Tremolo and his gang of pirates.
Fender wants the cure. Strat, badly injured while fighting the pirates, tells Pearl to leave him and find a mercenary, known as a "slinger", who can escort her to safety, she is saved by a slinger named Gibson Rickenbacker. After she explains her situation, they are overrun by Fender's gang, Gibson is knocked out by falling debris. Fender demands that she die. Fender's gang steals their boat, they head south for Atlanta via the Intracoastal Waterway with the captive Pearl. Gibson, tracking the pirates, arrives at the scene of slaughter that night. A shadowy figure attacks him, she turns out to be a young woman who mistook him as a pirate. Nady, whose family was wiped out by the plague, joins Gibson. Gibson is less concerned with a cure for the plague than with killing Fender. Gibson and Nady trek southward through the wastelands. Concerned for Nady, Gibson unsuccessfully attempts to convince her to stay away. After declining sex with Nady, Gibson reveals that all he cares about is revenge against Fender, who killed his lover and destroyed his chance to have a normal life and family.
Intercepting Fender and his crew near Charleston, South Carolina, Gibson defeats most of his men, but Fender shoots him with an air rifle. Now nursing a gunshot wound, Gibson realizes, he ends up alone with Pearl and Nady. Pearl refuses to go with him — she calculates that Gibson is not strong enough to defeat Fender and will be unable to get her to Atlanta safely, she says she will go along with Fender and lure him to his death in Atlanta, where she has resources at her disposal. Tired and badly outnumbered, Gibson flees with Nady through the sewer into a salt marsh, where they are pursued by the rest of the pirates and separated from each other. Gibson is beaten by Fender and crucified high on the mast of a beached, derelict ship. Haley still leaves with Fender. Gibson spends the night on the cross. In the morning, near death, he kicks the mast with his dangling foot in a last fit of rage; the mast snaps, sending him crashing to his arms still tied and nailed to the cross. Nady appears out of the marsh to free him.
Gibson and Nady intercept Fender once again in this time better prepared. Fender's gang is taken down one by one. During their fight, Nady rushes Fender with a knife. Gibson in turn stabs Fender in the chest. Thinking him dead, Gibson embraces Haley, during the battle turned decisively against Fender. However, Fender gets back up, they continue to battle in a nearby shed, where Gibson kills Fender by impaling him on a meat hook. Gibson and Haley escort Pearl before heading back off. Jean-Claude Van Damme as Gibson Rickenbacker Deborah Richter as Nady Simmons Vincent Klyn as Fender Tremolo Dayle Haddon as Pearl Prophet Alex Daniels as Marshall Strat Blaise Loong as Furman Vux / Pirate / Bandit Ralf Möller as Brick Bardo Haley Peterson as Haley Terrie Batson as Mary Jackson'Rock' Pinckney as Tytus / Pirate Cannon Films intended to make a sequel to the 1987 He-Man film Masters of the Universe and a live-action Spider-Man film. Both projects were planned to be shot by Albert Pyun. Cannon, was in financial trouble and had to cancel deals with both Mattel and Marvel Entertainment Group, the owners of He-Man and Spider-Man, respectively.
Cannon had spent $2 million on costumes and sets for both films and decided to start a new project in order to recoup that money. Pyun wrote the storyline for Cyborg in one weekend. Pyun had Chuck Norris in mind for the lead, but co-producer Menahem Golan cast Jean-Claude Van Damme; the film was filmed in 23 days. The film was shot in Wilmington, North Carolina. Several of the characters' names are references to well-known manufacturers and models of guitars and other musical instruments. Gibson Rickenbacker: Gibson, Rickenbacker Fender Tremolo: Fender, Tremolo arm Marshall Strat: Marshall Amplifiers, Fender Stratocaster Les: Gibson Les Paul Pearl Prophet: Pearl drums, Prophet 5 synthesizer Nady Simmons: Nady Systems, Inc. and Simmons electric drumsAfter the success of Bloodsport, Cannon films offered Jean-Claude Van Damme the lead in Delta Force 2, American Ninja 3 or Cyborg. He chose the latter although he admitted "I didn't like so much."Jac
Cary-Hiroyuki Tagawa is a Japanese-born American and Russian actor, sports physiologist, martial artist and stuntman who has appeared on television in Star Trek: The Next Generation, Thunder in Paradise, Nash Bridges, Baywatch: Hawaiian Wedding and The Man in the High Castle. His roles have included the voice of Sin Tzu for the video game Batman: Rise of Sin Tzu, Earth Alliance security officer Morishi in Babylon 5, the evil soul-stealing sorcerer Shang Tsung in a film adaptation of the video game Mortal Kombat and the evil mastermind Heihachi Mishima in the film adaptation of Tekken, he portrays Nobusuke Tagomi in The Man in the High Castle, the Amazon original series adaptation of the novel by Philip K. Dick. Tagawa was born in Tokyo, the son of a Japanese actress and a Japanese-American father who served in the United States Army and was stationed at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, Fort Polk and Fort Hood, Texas, his mother tongues are English and Japanese but he speaks some Korean and Spanish.
Tagawa was raised in various cities. He and his family settled in Southern California, where he began acting in high school while attending Duarte High School, he was an exchange student in Japan. His breakthrough as an actor came. In 1989, he played an undercover agent of the Hong Kong Narcotics Board in the James Bond film Licence to Kill. In 1991, he starred alongside Dolph Lundgren and Brandon Lee in the action film Showdown in Little Tokyo, where he played the role of Yakuza boss Yoshida, he starred alongside James Hong and Jeff Speakman in the same year in the film The Perfect Weapon, where he played Kai, an assistant to the Korean mafia families. He appeared in the movie Mortal Kombat as the shapeshifting sorcerer Shang Tsung, he appeared as the deadly pirate leader Kabai Sengh in The Phantom. Tagawa is among the actors and directors interviewed in the documentary The Slanted Screen, directed by Jeff Adachi, about the representation of Asian and Asian-American men in Hollywood. Tagawa played Heihachi Mishima in Tekken, the film adaptation of the video game franchise.
In 2006, he provided the voice of Brushogun in Teen Titans: Trouble in Tokyo. He was in its sequel Johnny Kapahala: Back on Board. In between those two films, Tagawa played Attar's mentor Krull in Tim Burton's version of Planet of the Apes. Tagawa reprised his role as Shang Tsung for the second season of the YouTube series Mortal Kombat: Legacy; this new version of the character was unrelated to Tagawa's previous work as Tsung. He played Satoshi Takeda in Revenge, a powerful CEO in Japan and Emily Thorne's former mentor in her quest for revenge. In season 2, Tagawa took over the role from Hiroyuki Sanada, unable to continue due to scheduling conflicts. Tagawa plays the role of Shogun Tokugawa Tsunayoshi https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tokugawa_Tsunayoshi in the film "47 Ronin" 2013 https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/47_Ronin_ In 2015, Tagawa was cast as one of the lead characters, Nobusuke Tagomi, the Trade Minister of the Pacific States of America in Amazon's The Man in the High Castle based on Philip K. Dick's novel of the same name.
In November 2015, both he and Taimak were honorees for the Fists of Legends Legacy Award at the Urban Action Showcase & Expo. In 2013, Tagawa started working with Ivan Okhlobystin. On November 12, 2015, he was baptized as Panteleymon in the Russian Orthodox Joy of All Who Sorrow church in Moscow. In 2016, he acquired Russian citizenship. Paul, Louis. "Cary-Hiroyuki Tagawa". Tales From the Cult Film Trenches. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. Pp. 254–261. ISBN 978-0-7864-2994-3. Cary-Hiroyuki Tagawa on IMDb