Anarti, Anartii or Anartoi were Celtic tribes, or, in the case of those sub-groups of Anartes which penetrated the ancient region of Dacia, Celts culturally assimilated by the Dacians. Ptolemys Geographia locates the Anartoi in Dacia, some groups of Anartes occupied parts of modern Slovakia and southeastern Poland. The Dacian town of Docidava was situated in the territory of the Anartes, the Anartophracti are mentioned by Ptolemy. This tribes name appears to be compound Latin-Greek name and may be related to the Anartoi resident in Dacia, the Anartofraktoi were a northern Dacian tribe, according to Braune or mixed Dacian-Celtic, according to Pârvan. In ancient sources, the earliest mention of the Anartes is in the Elogium of Tusculum, around AD172, the Anartes refused to assist the Romans in their war against the Marcomanni. According to Ioana Oltean, archaeological excavation has revealed that some Celtic tribes had migrated eastwards as far as Transylvania, where they were eventually assimilated by the Dacians.
Even though some groups of Anartes advanced as far as the Transylvanian plateau, puchowska kultura a Germani na pohroni v starsej dobe rimskej. Pp. 257–272 The Works of Tacitus
Roman Catholic Diocese of Speyer
The Diocese of Speyer is a diocese of the Catholic Church in Germany. The diocese is located in the South of the Rhineland-Palatinate and comprises the Saarpfalz district in the east of the Saarland, the bishops see is in the Palatinate city of Speyer. The current bishop is Karl-Heinz Wiesemann, see Bishop of Speyer for a list of previous bishops. As of 31 December 2006,44. 5% of the population of the diocese was Catholic, in a slightly different hierarchic structure it is one of the oldest Dioceses in Germany. A bishop of Speyer was first mentioned in a document in 346, through grants by the Holy Roman Emperor, the prince-bishops of Speyer established themselves as worldly as well as spiritual rulers. The diocese is directed by bishop Karl-Heinz Wiesemann, the diocese is structured in the following deaneries, with borders that are almost the same as the local county borders
Friedrich Kohlrausch (educator)
Heinrich Friedrich Theodor Kohlrausch was a German educator and historian. He was the father of physicist Rudolf Kohlrausch and surgeon Otto Kohlrausch and he was a student at the University of Göttingen, continuing his education at the universities of Berlin and Heidelberg. He was a teacher in Barmen, Düsseldorf and Münster, in 1830 he was appointed Generalschuldirektor by the Royal Hanoverian government. In this role he introduced several reforms and standards to the curriculum. Kohlrausch published several textbooks, including the 1816 Die deutsche Geschichte für Schule und Haus, other writings associated with Kohlrausch include, Die Geschichte und Lehre der Heiligen Schrift. Thurston, H. T. Colby, F. M. eds, parts of this article are based on a translation of an equivalent article at the German Wikipedia
The Gauls were Celtic peoples inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period. Their Gaulish language forms the branch of the Continental Celtic languages. The Gauls emerged around the 5th century BC as the bearers of the La Tène culture north of the Alps, Gaul was never united under a single ruler or government, but the Gallic tribes were capable of uniting their forces in large-scale military operations. They reached the peak of their power in the early 3rd century BC, after this, Gaul became a province of the Roman Empire, and the Gauls were culturally assimilated into a Gallo-Roman culture, losing their tribal identities by the end of the 1st century AD. The Gauls of Gallia Celtica according to the testimony of Caesar called themselves Celtae in their own language, the name Gaul itself may be derived from Latin Galli, or it may be derived from the Germanic word Walha. Gaulish culture developed out of the Celtic cultures over the first millennia BC, the Urnfield culture represents the Celts as a distinct cultural branch of the Indo-European-speaking people.
The spread of iron working led to the Hallstatt culture in the 8th century BC, the Hallstatt culture evolved into the La Tène culture in around the 5th century BC. The Greek and Etruscan civilizations and colonies began to influence the Gauls especially in the Mediterranean area, Gauls under Brennus invaded Rome circa 390 BC. Following the climate deterioration in the late Nordic Bronze Age, Celtic Gaul was invaded in the 5th century BC by tribes called Gauls originating in the Rhine valley. Gallic invaders settled the Po Valley in the 4th century BC, defeated Roman forces in a battle under Brennus in 390 BC and raided Italy as far as Sicily. A large number of Gauls served in the armies of Carthage during the Punic Wars, in the Aegean world, an invasion of Eastern Gauls appeared in Thrace, north of Greece, in 281 BC. However, according to the Roman legend of the gold of Delphi. One king Cerethrius invaded the Thracians, while another Gallic king Bolgios invaded Macedonia and Illyria where he killed the Macedonian king Ptolemy Keraunos, in 278 BC Gaulish settlers in the Balkans were invited by Nicomedes I of Bithynia to help him in a dynastic struggle against his brother.
They numbered about 10,000 fighting men and about the number of women and children. They were eventually defeated by the Seleucid king Antiochus I, in a battle where the Seleucid war elephants shocked the Galatians. While the momentum of the invasion was broken, the Galatians were by no means exterminated and continued to demand tribute from the Hellenistic states of Anatolia to avoid war,4,000 Galatians were hired as mercenaries by the Ptolemaic Egyptian king Ptolemy II Philadelphus in the 270 BC. According to Pausanias, soon after arrival the Celts plotted “to seize Egypt, ”, Galatians participated at the victorious in 217 BC Battle of Raphia under Ptolemy IV Philopator, and continued to serve as mercenaries for the Ptolemaic Dynasty until its demise in 30 BC. They sided with the renegade Seleucid prince Antiochus Hierax, who reigned in Asia Minor, after the defeat, the Galatians continued to be a serious threat to the states of Asia Minor
Its translation into Arabic in the 9th century and Latin in 1406 was highly influential on the geographical knowledge and cartographic traditions of the medieval Caliphate and Renaissance Europe. Versions of Ptolemys work in antiquity were probably proper atlases with attached maps, no Greek manuscript of the Geography survives from earlier than the 13th century. In Europe, maps were sometimes made using the coordinates provided by the text. Later scribes and publishers could copy these new maps, as Athanasius did for the emperor Andronicus II Palaeologus, the three earliest surviving texts with maps are those from Constantinople based on Planudess work. The first Latin translation of texts was made in 1406 or 1407 by Jacobus Angelus in Florence, Italy. It is not thought that his edition had maps, although Manuel Chrysoloras had given Palla Strozzi a Greek copy of Planudess maps in Florence in 1397, the Geography consists of three sections, divided among 8 books. Book I is a treatise on cartography, describing the methods used to assemble, from Book II through the beginning of Book VII, a gazetteer provides longitude and latitude values for the world known to the ancient Romans.
The rest of Book VII provides details on three projections to be used for the construction of a map of the world, varying in complexity and fidelity, Book VIII constitutes an atlas of regional maps. The maps include a recapitulation of some of the values given earlier in the work, Maps based on scientific principles had been made in Europe since the time of Eratosthenes in the 3rd century BC. Ptolemy improved the treatment of map projections and he provided instructions on how to create his maps in the first section of the work. The gazetteer section of Ptolemys work provided latitude and longitude coördinates for all the places and his Prime Meridian ran through the Fortunate Isles, the westernmost land recorded, at around the position of El Hierro in the Canary Islands. The maps spanned 180 degrees of longitude from the Fortunate Isles in the Atlantic to China, Ptolemy was aware that Europe knew only about a quarter of the globe. Ptolemys work included a large and less detailed world map and separate.
As early as the 1420s, these maps were complemented by extra-Ptolemaic regional maps depicting. The original treatise by Marinus of Tyre that formed the basis of Ptolemys Geography has been completely lost, a world map based on Ptolemy was displayed in Augustodunum in late Roman times. Pappus, writing at Alexandria in the 4th century, produced a commentary on Ptolemys Geography, for instance, Grant Parker argues that it would be highly implausible for them to have constructed the Bay of Bengal as precisely as they did without the accounts of sailors. Muslim cartographers were using copies of Ptolemys Almagest and Geography by the 9th century, a 1037 copy of these are the earliest extant maps from Islamic lands. Nallino suggests that the work was not based on Ptolemy but on a world map
The Dacians were an Indo-European people, part of or related to the Thracians. Dacians were the ancient inhabitants of Dacia, located in the area in and around the Carpathian Mountains and this area includes the present-day countries of Romania and Moldova, as well as parts of Ukraine, Eastern Serbia, Northern Bulgaria, Slovakia and Southern Poland. The Dacians were known as Geta in Ancient Greek writings, and as Dacus or Getae in Roman documents and it was Herodotus who first used the ethnonym Getae in his Histories. In Greek and Latin, in the writings of Julius Caesar and Pliny the Elder and Dacians were interchangeable terms, or used with some confusion by the Greeks. Latin poets often used the name Getae, vergil called them Getae four times, and Daci once, Lucian Getae three times and Daci twice, Horace named them Getae twice and Daci five times, while Juvenal one time Getae and two times Daci. In AD113, Hadrian used the poetic term Getae for the Dacians, modern historians prefer to use the name Geto-Dacians.
Strabo describes the Getae and Dacians as distinct but cognate tribes and this distinction refers to the regions they occupied. Strabo and Pliny the Elder state that Getae and Dacians spoke the same language, by contrast, the name of Dacians, whatever the origin of the name, was used by the more western tribes who adjoined the Pannonians and therefore first became known to the Romans. According to Strabos Geographica, the name of the Dacians was Δάοι Daoi. The name Daoi was certainly adopted by foreign observers to designate all the inhabitants of the north of Danube that had not yet been conquered by Greece or Rome. The ethnographic name Daci is found under various forms within ancient sources, Greeks used the forms Δάκοι Dakoi and Δάοι Daoi. The form Δάοι Daoi was frequently used according to Stephan of Byzantium, latins used the forms Davus, and a derived form Dacisci. There are similarities between the ethnonyms of the Dacians and those of Dahae, an Indo-European people located east of the Caspian Sea, scholars have suggested that there were links between the two peoples since ancient times.
The historian David Gordon White has, stated that the Dacians, appear to be related to the Dahae. The name Daci, or Dacians is a collective ethnonym, Dio Cassius reported that the Dacians themselves used that name, and the Romans so called them, while the Greeks called them Getae. Opinions on the origins of the name Daci are divided, one hypothesis is that the name Getae originates in the Indo-European *guet- to utter, to talk. Another hypothesis is that Getae and Daci are Iranian names of two Iranian-speaking Scythian groups that had assimilated into the larger Thracian-speaking population of the Dacia. In the 1st century AD, Strabo suggested that its stem formed a name borne by slaves, Greek Daos
The ancient sources are equivocal about how far east it extended. All agree that the Black Forest, which extended east from the Rhine valley, across the Rhine to the west extended the Silva Carbonaria and the forest of the Ardennes. All these old-growth forests of antiquity represented the original post-glacial temperate broadleaf forest ecosystem of Europe, the Mittelgebirge seem to correspond more or less to a stretch of the Hercynian mountains. Hercynian has a Proto-Celtic derivation, from perkuniā, Julius Pokorny lists Hercynian as being derived from *perkʷu- oak. He further identifies the name as Celtic, Proto-Celtic regularly loses initial *p preceding a vowel, hence Hercynia. The corresponding Germanic forms have an f- by Grimms Law, Old English firgen = mountains, the assimilated *kwerkwu- would be regular in Italo-Celtic, and Pokorny associates the Celtiberian ethnonym Querquerni, found in Hispania in Galicia. It is possible that the name of the Harz Mountains in Germany is derived from Hercynian, the Old High German name Fergunna apparently refers to the Erzgebirge and Virgundia to a range between Ansbach and Ellwangen.
The name of Pforzheim in southwest Germany and the village of Hercingen are derived from Hercynian. Hercyne was the name of a small rapid stream in Boeotia that issued from two springs near Lebadea, modern Livadeia, and emptied into Lake Copais. It did not have any association with the Hercynian Forest. The name is cited dozens of times in classical authors. The Hercynian Forest is Pomponius Melas silvis ac paludibus invia, trackless forest and swamps, the earliest reference is in Aristotles. He refers to the Arkýnia mountains of Europe, but tells us only that, remarkably in his experience, during the time of Julius Caesar, this forest blocked the advance of the Roman legions into Germania. His few statements are the most definitive, in De Bello Gallico he says that the forest stretches along the Danube from the territory of the Helvetii to Dacia. Its implied northern dimension is nine days march and its eastern dimension is indefinitely more than sixty days march. The concept fascinated him, even the old tales of unicorns, caesars references to moose and aurochs and of elk without joints which leaned against trees to sleep in the endless forests of Germania, were probably interpolations in his Commentaries.
Caesars name for the forest is the one most used, Hercynia Silva, pliny the Elder, in Natural History, places the eastern regions of the Hercynium jugum, the Hercynian mountain chain, in Pannonia and Dacia. He gives us some dramaticised description of its composition, in which the close proximity of the forest trees causes competitive struggle among them, but even he—if the passage in question is not an interpolated marginal gloss—is subject to the legends of the gloomy forest
The Upper Rhine is the section of the Rhine in the Upper Rhine Plain between Basle in Switzerland and Bingen in Germany. The river is marked by Rhine-kilometres 170 to 529, the Upper Rhine is one of four sections of the river between Lake Constance and the North Sea. The countries and states along the Upper Rhine are Switzerland, the largest cities along the river are Basle, Strasbourg, Mannheim and Mainz. The Upper Rhine was straightened between 1817 and 1876 by Johann Gottfried Tulla and made navigable between 1928 and 1977, the Treaty of Versailles allows France to use the Upper Rhine for hydroelectricity in the Grand Canal dAlsace. On the left bank are the French region of Alsace and the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate, on the bank are the German states of Baden-Württemberg. The first few kilometres are in the Swiss city of Basle, around 35 million years ago, a rift valley of about 300 kilometres long and 50 kilometres wide came into being between the present cities of Basle and Frankfurt.
This was due to stresses in the Earths crust and mantle. The moat has been filled up again by sedimentation. On the edges we find mountain ridges, the rift flanks. On the eastern side, they are the Black Forest and Odenwald mountains, in the west the Vosges, during the tertiary, the High Rhine continued west from Basle and flowed via the Doubs and the Saône, into the Rhône. The rift diverted the Rhine into the newly formed Upper Rhine Valley, the two largest tributaries come from the right, the Neckar in Mannheim, the Main across from Mainz. In 1685, Louis XIV started a project to move the Upper Rhine, change its course, by 1840, the river had been moved up to 1.5 kilometres to the east, taking territory away from Baden. Around 1790, large parts of the Rhine Valley were deforested, creating arable land, the length of the Upper Rhine was reduced by 81 kilometres. Some cut-off river arms and ox-bows remain, they are called the Old Rhine or Gießen. The Rhine between Basle and Iffezheim is almost entirely canalised, on a stretch of 180 kilometres, there are 10 dams, provided with hydropower stations and locks.
Only when there is a supply of water, the old river bed will receive more water than the canal. The straightening and channeling reduced the water table by up to 16 metres and thus had an effect on flora. Gravel is missing from the river, due to the dams and this has caused erosion below the dam at Iffezheim
Publius Cornelius Tacitus was a senator and an historian of the Roman Empire. The surviving portions of his two major works—the Annals and the Histories—examine the reigns of the Roman emperors Tiberius, Claudius and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors. These two works span the history of the Roman Empire from the death of Augustus, in AD14, to the years of the First Jewish–Roman War, There are substantial lacunae in the surviving texts, including a gap in the Annals that is four books long. Tacitus is considered to be one of the greatest Roman historians, details about his personal life are scarce. What little is known comes from scattered hints throughout his work, the letters of his friend and admirer Pliny the Younger, and an inscription found at Mylasa in Caria. Tacitus was born in 56 or 57 to an equestrian family, one scholars suggestion of Sextus has gained no approval. Most of the aristocratic families failed to survive the proscriptions which took place at the end of the Republic.
The claim that he was descended from a freedman is derived from a speech in his writings which asserts that many senators and knights were descended from freedmen, but this is generally disputed. His father may have been the Cornelius Tacitus who served as procurator of Belgica and Germania, Pliny the Elder mentions that Cornelius had a son who aged rapidly, which implies an early death. There is no mention of Tacitus suffering such a condition, the friendship between the younger Pliny and Tacitus leads some scholars to conclude that they were both the offspring of wealthy provincial families. The province of his birth remains unknown, though various conjectures suggest Gallia Belgica, Gallia Narbonensis and his marriage to the daughter of Narbonensian senator Gnaeus Julius Agricola implies that he came from Gallia Narbonensis. Tacitus dedication to Fabius Iustus in the Dialogus may indicate a connection with Spain, no evidence exists, that Plinys friends from northern Italy knew Tacitus, nor do Plinys letters hint that the two men had a common background.
Pliny Book 9, Letter 23 reports that, when he was asked if he was Italian or provincial, he gave an unclear answer, since Pliny was from Italy, some infer that Tacitus was from the provinces, probably Gallia Narbonensis. His ancestry, his skill in oratory, and his depiction of barbarians who resisted Roman rule have led some to suggest that he was a Celt. This belief stems from the fact that the Celts who had occupied Gaul prior to the Roman invasion were famous for their skill in oratory, and had been subjugated by Rome. As a young man, Tacitus studied rhetoric in Rome to prepare for a career in law and politics, like Pliny, in 77 or 78, he married Julia Agricola, daughter of the famous general Agricola. Little is known of their life, save that Tacitus loved hunting. He started his career under Vespasian, but entered political life as a quaestor in 81 or 82 under Titus
Speyer is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate, with approximately 50,000 inhabitants. Located beside the river Rhine, Speyer is 25 km south of Ludwigshafen, founded by the Romans, it is one of Germanys oldest cities. The first known names were Noviomagus and Civitas Nemetum, after the Teutonic tribe, around AD500 the name Spira first appeared in written documents and, as well as the French, this is still reflected in the names Spira and Espira used in Italian and Spanish. The citys name may be the origin of the Ashkenazi Jewish name, Speyer is dominated by the Speyer Cathedral, a number of churches and the Altpörtel. In the cathedral, beneath the altar, are the tombs of eight Holy Roman emperors. In 10 BC, the first Roman military camp is established, in AD150, the town appears as Noviomagus on the world map of the Greek geographer Ptolemy. In 346, a bishop for the town is mentioned for the first time, 4th century, Speyer appears on the Peutinger Map. In 1030, emperor Conrad II starts the construction of Speyer Cathedral, in 1076, emperor Henry IV embarks from Speyer, his favourite town, for Canossa.
In 1084, establishment of the first Jewish community in Speyer, in 1294, the bishop loses most of his previous rights, and from now on Speyer is a Free Imperial Town of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1349, the Jewish community of Speyer is wiped out, between 1527 and 1689, Speyer is the seat of the Imperial Chamber Court. In 1526, at the Diet of Speyer interim toleration of Lutheran teaching, in 1529, at the Diet of Speyer the Lutheran states of the empire protest against the anti-Reformation resolutions. In 1635, Marshal of France Urbain de Maillé-Brézé, together with Jacques Nompar de Caumont, duc de La Force, conquers Heidelberg, in 1689, the town is heavily damaged by French troops. Between 1792 and 1814, Speyer is under French jurisdiction, in 1816, Speyer becomes the seat of administration of the Palatinate and of the government of the Rhine District of Bavaria, and remains so until the end of World War II. Between 1883 and 1904, the Memorial Church is built in remembrance of the Protestation of 1529, in 1947, the State Academy of Administrative Science is founded.
In 1990, Speyer celebrates its 2000th anniversary
Rouffach is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. Rouffach lies along the Alsatian wine route and its vineyards produce one of the finest Alsatian wines, the Grand Cru Vorbourg. Rouffach is situated on the Lauch River,15 km south of Colmar and 28 km north of Mulhouse, the most important transportation routes between the towns are the N83 and the railway line Strasbourg-Mulhouse-Basel. in pago qui vocatur Rubiaco, Rubiacum 12th century, Rufiacum 13th century. In records of the diocese of Strasbourg it is called Upper Mundat, the name derives from the Gallo-Roman males name Rubbius or Rubius ending with Celtic suffix -āko > -acum. Similar place-names in France, Robiac, in the 5th century, the walled village beneath the stronghold of Isenburg was a residence of the Merovingian kings. More certainly the fief was one of the most ancient belonging to Strasbourg and it finally became the main town of an episocopal fief, which included Eguisheim. The city quickly developed and a wall was built around it, the golden age ended abruptly with the Thirty Years War, when the town was devastated by the Swedes.
Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria held court in the city when he was in Alsace. At the end of the war, when Alsace was conquered by France, the fief was abolished. The city again achieved prosperity, chiefly due to growing and the production of kirsch from the cherry orchards connected with the chateau. During the time of Nazi annexation, a Nationalpolitische Erziehungsanstalt was housed in a sanatorium of the city. Rouffach is a station on the Romanesque Route of Alsace, the Notre-Dame de l’Assomption Church of yellow sandstone was built in the Romanesque and Gothic styles. The transept is from the half of the 11th century. Construction on the building continued until 1508, the double steeple facade was never completed, the northern steeple is 56 m high, the southern steeple is only 42 m high. The tip of the steeple reaches a height of 68 m. The building suffered damage during the French Revolution and appears relatively plain today. The voluminous structure of the church and the existence of medieval styles of construction are all the more apparent to the observer.
The rose window in the facade is one of the most ambitiously designed in Alsace, the church of the Franciscans was built at the end of the 15th century. Numerous buildings from the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance still give the city a medieval character, the Witch Tower, built in the 13th to the 15th centuries, served as a prison
Seltz is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department of the Grand Est region in north-eastern France. It is located on the Sauer river near its confluence with the Rhine, the former Celtic settlement of Saliso near a crossing of the Rhine river was mentioned as the Roman castrum Saletio in the Notitia Dignitatum about 425. Later a part of the German stem duchy of Swabia, Emperor Otto I granted the area to his wife Adelaide of Burgundy in 968, saint Adelaide established Selz Abbey in 991 and died here eight years later. In 1357 Emperor Charles IV of Luxembourg raised Selz to an Imperial city and it however lost its immediate status in 1414, when it was mediatised by Elector Palatine Louis III of Wittelsbach. Seltz finally was annexed by France in 1680, Église Saint-Étienne de Seltz was last built in 1954-6. Seltz is twinned with, Austria Santa Adélia, Brazil Communes of the Bas-Rhin department Commune website INSEE commune file