Vortigern spelled Vortiger, Vortigan and Vortigen, was a 5th-century warlord in Britain, known as a king of the Britons, at least connoted as such in the writings of Bede. His existence is nonetheless contested by scholars, information about him is obscure, he may have been the "superbus tyrannus" said to have invited Hengist and Horsa to aid him in fighting the Picts and the Scots. However, they revolted, forming the Kingdom of Kent, it is said that he took refuge in North Wales, that his grave was in Dyfed or the Llŷn Peninsula. Gildas denigrated Vortigern for his misjudgement and blamed him for the loss of Britain, he is cited at the beginning of the genealogy of the early Kings of Powys. The 6th-century cleric and historian Gildas wrote De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae in the first decades of the 6th century. In Chapter 23, he tells how "all the councillors, together with that proud usurper" made the mistake of inviting "the fierce and impious Saxons" to settle in Britain. According to Gildas a small group came at first and was settled "on the eastern side of the island, by the invitation of the unlucky usurper".
This small group invited more of their countrymen to join them, the colony grew. The Saxons demanded that "their monthly allotments" be increased and, when their demands were refused, broke their treaty and plundered the lands of the Romano-British, it is not clear. Most editions published presently omit the name. Two manuscripts name him: MS. A, refers to Uortigerno. X calls him Gurthigerno. Gildas never addresses Vortigern as the king of Britain, he is termed a usurper, but not responsible for inviting the Saxons. To the contrary, he is portrayed as being aided by or aiding a "Council", which may be a government based on the representatives of all the "cities" or a part thereof. Gildas does not consider Vortigern as bad. Gildas adds several small details that suggest either he or his source received at least part of the story from the Anglo-Saxons; the first is when he describes the size of the initial party of Saxons, stating that they came in three cyulis, "as they call ships of war". This may be the earliest recovered word of English.
The second detail is his repetition that the visiting Saxons were "foretold by a certain soothsayer among them, that they should occupy the country to which they were sailing three hundred years, half of that time, a hundred and fifty years, should plunder and despoil the same." Both of these details are unlikely to have been invented by a Brittonic source. Modern scholars have debated the various details of Gildas' story. One topic of discussion has been about the words Gildas uses to describe the Saxons' subsidies and whether they are legal terms used in a treaty of foederati, a late Roman political practice of settling allied barbarian peoples within the boundaries of the empire to furnish troops to aid the defence of the empire, it is not known. It is not known whether Gildas' reference to "the eastern side of the island" refers to Kent, East Anglia, the Kingdom of Northumbria or the entire east coast of Britain. Gildas describes how their raids took them "sea to sea, heaped up by the eastern band of impious men.
The first extant text considering Gildas' account is Bede. He paraphrases Gildas in his Ecclesiastical History of the English People and The Reckoning of Time, adding several details most the name of this "proud tyrant", whom he first calls Vertigernus and Vurtigernus; the Vertigernus form may reflect a lost version of Gildas. Bede gives names in the Historia to the leaders of the Saxons and Horsa identifying their tribes as the Saxons and Jutes. Another significant detail that Bede adds to Gildas' account is calling Vortigern the king of the British people. Bede supplies the date, 449, traditionally accepted but has been considered suspect since the late 20th century: "Marcian being made emperor with Valentinian, the forty-sixth from Augustus, ruled the empire seven years." Michael Jones notes. In H. E. 1.15 the adventus occurs within the period 449–455. 446, is given. These dates are calculated approximations; the Historia Brittonum was attributed until to Nennius, a monk from Bangor and was compiled during the early 9th century.
The writer mentions a great number of sources. Nennius wrote more negatively of Vortigern, accusing him of incest, oa
LibriVox is a group of worldwide volunteers who read and record public domain texts creating free public domain audiobooks for download from their website and other digital library hosting sites on the internet. It was founded in 2005 by Hugh McGuire to provide "Acoustical liberation of books in the public domain" and the LibriVox objective is "To make all books in the public domain available, for free, in audio format on the internet". On 6 August 2016, the project completed project number 10,000. and from 2009–2017 was producing about 1,000 items per year. Most releases are in the English language, but many non-English works are available. There are multiple affiliated projects. LibriVox is affiliated with Project Gutenberg from where the project gets some of its texts, the Internet Archive that hosts their offerings. LibriVox was started in August 2005 by Montreal-based writer Hugh McGuire, who set up a blog, posed the question; the first recorded book was The Secret Agent by Joseph Conrad.
The main features of the way LibriVox works have changed little since its inception, although the technology that supports it has been improved by the efforts of its volunteers with web-development skills. LibriVox is an invented word inspired by Latin words liber in its genitive form libri and vox, giving the meaning BookVoice; the word was coined because of other connotations: liber means child and free, unrestricted. As the LibriVox forum says: "We like to think LibriVox might be interpreted as'child of the voice', and'free voice'; the other link we like is'library' so you could imagine it to mean Library of Voice."There has been no decision or consensus by LibriVox founders or the community of volunteers for a single pronunciation of LibriVox. It is accepted. LibriVox is a volunteer-run, free content, Public Domain project, it has legal personality. The development of projects is managed through an Internet forum, supported by an admin team, who maintain a searchable catalogue database of completed works.
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LibriVox has garnered significant interest, in particular from those interested in the promotion of volunteer-led content and alternative approaches to copyright ownership on the Internet. It has received support from the Internet Project Gutenberg. Intellectual freedom and commons proponent Mike Linksvayer described it in 2008 as "perhaps the most interesting collaborative culture project this side of Wikipedia"; the project has been featured in press around the world and has been recommended by the BBC's Click, MSNBC's The Today Show, Wired, the US PC Magazine and the UK Metro and Sunday Times newspapers. A frequent concern of listeners is the site's policy of allowing any recording to be published as long as it is understandable and faithful to the source text; this means. While some listeners may object to those books with chapters read by multiple readers, others find this to be a non-issue or a feature, though many books are narrated by a single reader. Virtual volunteering Voice acting LibriVox siteLibriVox home page and LibriVox Catalogue of Audio BooksArticlesXeni Tech story from NPR's Day to Day, "Amateur Audio Books Cat
William of Malmesbury
William of Malmesbury was the foremost English historian of the 12th century. He has been ranked among the most talented English historians since Bede. Modern historian C. Warren Hollister described him as "a gifted historical scholar and an omnivorous reader, impressively well versed in the literature of classical and earlier medieval times as well as in the writings of his own contemporaries. Indeed William may well have been the most learned man in twelfth-century Western Europe."William was born about 1095 or 1096 in Wiltshire. His father was his mother English, he spent his whole life in England and his adult life as a monk at Malmesbury Abbey in Wiltshire, England. Though the education William received at Malmesbury Abbey included a smattering of logic and physics, moral philosophy and history were the subjects to which he devoted the most attention; the evidence shows that Malmesbury had first-hand knowledge of at least four hundred works by two hundred-odd authors. During the course of his studies, he amassed a collection of medieval histories, which inspired in him the idea for a popular account of English history modelled on the Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum of Bede.
William's obvious respect for Bede is apparent within the preface of his Gesta Regum Anglorum, where he professes his admiration for the man. In fulfilment of this idea, William completed in 1125 his Gesta Regum Anglorum, consciously patterned on Bede, which spanned from AD 449 to 1120, he edited and expanded it up to the year 1127, releasing a revision dedicated to Robert, Earl of Gloucester. This "second edition" of the Gesta Regum, "disclosing in his second thoughts the mellowing of age", is now considered one of the great histories of England. William wrote of William the Conqueror in Historia Anglorum: He was of just stature, extraordinary corpulence, fierce countenance, his anxiety for money is the only thing. This he sought all opportunities of scraping together, he cared not how. I have here no excuse whatever to offer, unless it be, as one has said, that of necessity he must fear many, whom many fear. William's first edition of the book was followed by the Gesta Pontificum Anglorum in 1125.
For this vivid descriptive history of abbeys and bishoprics, dwelling upon the lives of the English prelates saints, notably the learned wonder-working Aldhelm, abbot of Malmesbury, William travelled in England. He stayed at Glastonbury Abbey for a time, composing On the Antiquity of the Glastonbury Church for his friend, the abbot Henry of Blois, the Bishop of Winchester. Around this time, William formed an acquaintance with Bishop Roger of Salisbury, who had a castle at Malmesbury, it is possible that this acquaintance, coupled with the positive reception of his Gesta Regum earned him the offered position of Abbot of Malmesbury Abbey in 1140. William, preferred his duties as librarian and scholar and declined the offer, his one public appearance was made at the council of Winchester in 1141, in which the clergy declared for the Empress Matilda. Beginning about 1140, William continued his chronicles with the Historia Novella, or "modern history", a three-book chronicle that ran from 1128 to 1142, including important accounts of The Anarchy of King Stephen's reign.
This work breaks off with an unfulfilled promise that it would be continued: William died before he could redeem his pledge. William wrote a history of his abbey and several saints' lives. William is considered by many, including John Milton, to be one of the best English historians of his time, remains known for strong documentation and his clear, engaging writing style. A strong Latin stylist, he shows literary and historiographical instincts which are, for his time, remarkably sound, he is an authority of considerable value from 1066 onwards. Some scholars criticise him for his atypical annalistic form, calling his chronology less than satisfactory and his arrangement of material careless. Much of William's work on Wulfstan, Bishop of Worcester, is thought to derive from a first-hand account from Coleman, a contemporary of Wulfstan. William translated the document from Old English into Latin. William's works are still considered invaluable and, despite these shortcomings, he remains one of the most celebrated English chroniclers of the twelfth century.: De Gestis Regum Anglorum, Libri V.
The Picts were a confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods. Where they lived and what their culture was like can be inferred from the geographical distribution of Brittonic place name elements and Pictish stones; the name Picts appears in written records from Late Antiquity to the 10th century, when they are thought to have merged with the Gaels. They lived to the north of the rivers Forth and Clyde, spoke the Pictish language, related to the Celtic Brittonic language spoken by the Britons who lived to the south of them. Picts are assumed to have been the descendants of the Caledonii and other tribes that were mentioned by Roman historians or on the world map of Ptolemy. Pictland called Pictavia by some sources merged with the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata to form the Kingdom of Alba. Alba expanded, absorbing the Brittonic kingdom of Strathclyde and Northumbrian Lothian, by the 11th century the Pictish identity had been subsumed into the "Scots" amalgamation of peoples.
Pictish society was typical of many Iron Age societies in northern Europe, having "wide connections and parallels" with neighbouring groups. Archaeology gives some impression of the society of the Picts. While little in the way of Pictish writing has survived, Pictish history since the late 6th century is known from a variety of sources, including Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, saints' lives such as that of Columba by Adomnán, various Irish annals; the term Pict is thought to have originated as a generic exonym used by the Romans in relation to people living north of the Forth–Clyde isthmus. The Latin word Picti first occurs in a panegyric written by Eumenius in AD 297 and is taken to mean "painted or tattooed people". Pict is Peohta in Old English, Pecht in Scots and Peithwyr in Welsh; some think. In writings from Ireland, the name Cruthin, Cruthni, Cruithni or Cruithini was used to refer both to the Picts and to another group of people who lived alongside the Ulaid in eastern Ulster.
It is accepted that this is derived from *Qritani, the Goidelic/Q-Celtic version of the Britonnic/P-Celtic *Pritani. From this came Britanni, the Roman name for those now called the Britons. What the Picts called themselves is unknown, it has been proposed that they called themselves Albidosi, a name found in the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba during the reign of Máel Coluim mac Domnaill, but this idea has been disputed. A unified "Pictish" identity may have consolidated with the Verturian hegemony established following the Battle of Dun Nechtain in 685 AD. A Pictish confederation was formed in Late Antiquity from a number of tribes—how and why is not known; some scholars have speculated that it was in response to the growth of the Roman Empire. The Chronicon Pictum, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the early histographers such as Isidore of Seville, Bede, Geoffrey of Monmouth, etc. all present the Picts as conquerors of Alba from Scythia. However, little credence is now given to that view. Pictland had been described by Roman writers and geographers as the home of the Caledonii.
These Romans used other names to refer to tribes living in that area, including Verturiones and Venicones. But they may have heard these other names only second- or third-hand, from speakers of Brittonic or Gaulish languages, who may have used different names for the same group or groups. Pictish recorded history begins in the Dark Ages. At that time, the Gaels of Dál Riata controlled what is now Argyll, as part of a kingdom straddling the sea between Britain and Ireland; the Angles of Bernicia, which merged with Deira to form Northumbria, overwhelmed the adjacent British kingdoms, for much of the 7th century Northumbria was the most powerful kingdom in Britain. The Picts were tributary to Northumbria until the reign of Bridei mac Beli, when, in 685, the Anglians suffered a defeat at the Battle of Dun Nechtain that halted their northward expansion; the Northumbrians continued to dominate southern Scotland for the remainder of the Pictish period. Dál Riata was subject to the Pictish king Óengus mac Fergusa during his reign, though it had its own kings beginning in the 760s, does not appear to have recovered its political independence from the Picts.
A Pictish king, Caustantín mac Fergusa, placed his son Domnall on the throne of Dál Riata. Pictish attempts to achieve a similar dominance over the Britons of Alt Clut were not successful; the Viking Age brought great changes in Britain and Ireland, no less in Scotland than elsewhere, with the Vikings conquering and settling the islands and various mainland areas, including Caithness and Galloway. In the middle of the 9th century Ketil Flatnose is said to have founded the Kingdom of the Isles, governing many of these territories, by the end of that century the Vikings had destroyed the Kingdom of Northumbria weakened the Kingdom of Strathclyde, founded the Kingdom of York. In a major battle in 839, the Vikings killed the King of Fortriu, Eógan mac Óengusa, the King of Dál Riata Áed mac Boanta, many others. In the aftermath, in the 840s, Cínaed mac Ailpín became king of the Picts. During the reign of Cínaed's grandson, Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the Kingdom of Alba rather than the Kingdom of the Picts, but it is not known whether this was because a new kingdom was established or Alba was a closer
Dictionary of National Biography
The Dictionary of National Biography is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published since 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and online, with 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives. Hoping to emulate national biographical collections published elsewhere in Europe, such as the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, in 1882 the publisher George Smith, of Smith, Elder & Co. planned a universal dictionary that would include biographical entries on individuals from world history. He approached Leslie Stephen editor of the Cornhill Magazine, owned by Smith, to become the editor. Stephen persuaded Smith that the work should focus only on subjects from the United Kingdom and its present and former colonies. An early working title was the Biographia Britannica, the name of an earlier eighteenth-century reference work; the first volume of the Dictionary of National Biography appeared on 1 January 1885.
In May 1891 Leslie Stephen resigned and Sidney Lee, Stephen's assistant editor from the beginning of the project, succeeded him as editor. A dedicated team of sub-editors and researchers worked under Stephen and Lee, combining a variety of talents from veteran journalists to young scholars who cut their academic teeth on dictionary articles at a time when postgraduate historical research in British universities was still in its infancy. While much of the dictionary was written in-house, the DNB relied on external contributors, who included several respected writers and scholars of the late nineteenth century. By 1900, more than 700 individuals had contributed to the work. Successive volumes appeared quarterly with complete punctuality until midsummer 1900, when the series closed with volume 63; the year of publication, the editor and the range of names in each volume is given below. Since the scope included only deceased figures, the DNB was soon extended by the issue of three supplementary volumes, covering subjects who had died between 1885 and 1900 or, overlooked in the original alphabetical sequence.
The supplements brought the whole work up to the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901. Corrections were added. After issuing a volume of errata in 1904, the dictionary was reissued with minor revisions in 22 volumes in 1908 and 1909. In the words of the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, the dictionary had "proved of inestimable service in elucidating the private annals of the British", providing not only concise lives of the notable deceased, but additionally lists of sources which were invaluable to researchers in a period when few libraries or collections of manuscripts had published catalogues or indices, the production of indices to periodical literatures was just beginning. Throughout the twentieth century, further volumes were published for those who had died on a decade-by-decade basis, beginning in 1912 with a supplement edited by Lee covering those who died between 1901 and 1911; the dictionary was transferred from its original publishers, Elder & Co. to Oxford University Press in 1917.
Until 1996, Oxford University Press continued to add further supplements featuring articles on subjects who had died during the twentieth century. The supplements published between 1912 and 1996 added about 6,000 lives of people who died in the twentieth century to the 29,120 in the 63 volumes of the original DNB. In 1993 a volume containing missing biographies was published; this had an additional 1,000 lives, selected from over 100,000 suggestions. This did not seek to replace any articles on existing DNB subjects though the original work had been written from a Victorian perspective and had become out of date due to changes in historical assessments and discoveries of new information during the twentieth century; the dictionary was becoming less and less useful as a reference work. In 1966, the University of London published a volume of corrections, cumulated from the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. There were various versions of the Concise Dictionary of National Biography, which covered everyone in the main work but with much shorter articles.
The last edition, in three volumes, covered everyone who died before 1986. In the early 1990s Oxford University Press committed itself to overhauling the DNB. Work on what was known until 2001 as the New Dictionary of National Biography, or New DNB, began in 1992 under the editorship of Colin Matthew, professor of Modern History at the University of Oxford. Matthew decided that no subjects from the old dictionary would be excluded, however insignificant the subjects appeared to a late twentieth-century eye. Suggestions for new subjects were solicited through questionnaires placed in libraries and universities and, as the 1990s advanced and assessed by the editor, the 12 external consultant editors and several hundred associate editors and in-house staff. Digitization of the DNB was performed by the Alliance Photosetting Company in India; the new dictionary would cover British history, "broadly defined", up to 31 December 2000. The research project was conceived as a collaborative one, with in-house staff co-ordinating the work of
John Allen Giles
Rev. John Allen Giles was an English historian, he was known as a scholar of Anglo-Saxon language and history. He revised Stevens' translation of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People, he was a fellow at Oxford. The son of William Giles and his wife Sophia, née Allen, he was born on 26 October 1808 at Southwick House, in the parish of Mark, Somerset. At the age of sixteen he entered Charterhouse School as a Somerset scholar. From Charterhouse he was elected to a Bath and Wells scholarship at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, on 26 November 1824. In Easter term 1828 he obtained a double first class, shortly afterwards graduated B. A. proceeding M. A. in 1831, in which year he gained the Vinerian scholarship, took his D. C. L. degree in 1838. His election to a fellowship at Corpus on 15 November 1832 followed his college scholarship as a matter of course. Giles wished to become a barrister, but was persuaded by his mother to take orders, was ordained to the curacy of Cossington, Somerset.
The following year he vacated his fellowship, was married. In 1834 he was appointed to the head-mastership of Camberwell Collegiate School, on 24 November 1836 was elected head-master of the City of London School; the school did not do well under him, he resigned on 23 January 1840. He was succeeded by George Ferris Whidborne Mortimer, he retired to a house which he built near Bagshot, there took pupils, wrote. After a few years Giles became curate of Bampton, where he continued taking pupils, edited and wrote a great number of books. Among them was one entitled Christian Records, published in 1854, which related to the age and authenticity of the books of the New Testament. Samuel Wilberforce as bishop of Oxford, required him, on pain of losing his curacy, to suppress this work, break off with another literary undertaking. After some letters, which were published, he complied with the bishop's demand. In September 1846 Giles secured an introduction to Ampère from Sainte-Beuve,and subsequently contributed amongst other works six volumes of Bede to Migne's Patrologia Latina.
On 6 March 1855 Giles was tried at the Oxford spring assizes before Lord Campbell, on the charges of having entered in the marriage register book of Bampton parish church a marriage under date 3 October 1854, which took place on the 5th, having himself performed the ceremony out of canonical hours, soon after 6 a.m.. He pleaded not guilty, but it was clear that he had committed the offence to cover the pregnancy of one of his servants, whom he married to her lover, Richard Pratt, a shoemaker's apprentice. Pratt's master, one of Giles's parishioners, instituted the proceedings. Giles spoke on his own behalf, declared that he had published 120 volumes, his bishop spoke for him. He was found guilty, but recommended to mercy. Lord Campbell sentenced him to a year's imprisonment in Oxford Castle. After three months' imprisonment he was released by royal warrant on 4 June. After two or three years Giles took the curacy, with sole charge, of Perivale in Middlesex, after five years became curate of Harmondsworth, near Slough.
At the end of a year he resigned this curacy, went to live at Cranford, where he took pupils, after a while moved to Ealing. He did not resume clerical work until he was presented in 1867 to the living of Sutton, which he held for seventeen years, until his death on 24 September 1884. Much of Giles's work was hasty, done for booksellers, his Scriptores Græci minores was published in 1831, his Latin Grammar reached a third edition in 1833. He published a Greek Lexicon in 1839. Between 1837 and 1843 Giles published the Patres Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ, a series of thirty-four volumes, containing the works of Aldhelm, Bæda, Lanfranc, Archbishop Thomas, John of Salisbury, Peter of Blois, Gilbert Foliot, other authors. Giles published his translation of Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia Regum Britanniae in 1842 and it includes the Prophecies of Merlin. Several volumes of the Caxton Society's publications were edited by him, chiefly between 1845 and 1854. Among these were Anecdota Bædæ et aliorum, Benedictus Abbas, de Vita S. Thomæ, Chronicon Angliae Petriburgense, La révolte du Conte de Warwick, Vitæ quorundam Anglo-Saxonum.
His Scriptores rerum gestarum Willelmi Conquestoris was published in 1845. Giles contributed to Bohn's Antiquarian Library translations of Matthew Paris, Bede's Ecclesiastical History, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, other works. In 1845 he published Times of Thomas Becket, 2 vols. Translated into French, 1858. In 1848, he produced Six Old English Chronicles which reprinted published material. In 1847–8 appeared his History of Bampton, 2 vols. and in 1852 his History of Witney and some neighbouring Parishes. While at Bampton, in 1850 he published Hebrew Records on the age and authenticity of the books of the Old Testament, in 1854 Christian Records on the Age and Authenticity of the Books of the New Testament, in which he contended, in a preface dated 26 October 1853, that the "Gospels and Acts were not in existence before the year 150", remarks that "the objections of ancient philosophers, Celsus and others, were drowned in the tide of orthodox resentment". A review of Giles' 1854 Christian Records, states, "His object