Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre
Syriac Orthodox Church
The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch, or Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, is an Oriental Orthodox Church with autocephalous patriarchate established by Severus of Antioch in Antioch in 518, tracing its founding to Antioch by Saint Peter and Saint Paul in the 1st century, according to its tradition. The Church uses the Divine Liturgy of Saint James, associated with St. James, the "brother" of Jesus and patriarch among the Jewish Christians at Jerusalem. Syriac is the liturgical language of the Church based on Syriac Christianity; the primate of the church is the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch Ignatius Aphrem II since 2014, seated in Cathedral of Saint George, Bab Tuma, Syria. The church claims apostolic succession through the pre-Chalcedonian Patriarchate of Antioch to the Early Christian communities established by Saint Peter in Antioch, Roman Empire, in Apostolic era, as described in the Acts of the Apostles. Saint Evodius was bishop of Antioch until 66 AD, was succeeded by Saint Ignatius of Antioch.
In A. D 169 Theophilus of Antioch wrote sole surviving work consists of three apologetic tracts to Autolycus. Patriarch Babylas of Antioch was considered the first saint recorded as having had his remains moved or "translated" for religious purposes. Eustathius of Antioch supported Athanasius of Alexandria who opposed the followers of the condemned doctrine of Arius at the First Council of Nicaea. During the time of Meletius of Antioch the church split due to his deposition for Homoiousian leanings which resulted in the Meletian Schism, which saw several groups and several claimants to the see of Antioch; the patriarchate was forced to move from Antioch in A. D. 518 due to emperor Justin I, who enforced a uniform Chalcedonian Christian orthodoxy throughout the empire. In circa 518, the Syriac Orthodox Church continued to recognize Patriarch Severus of Antioch as the legitimate patriarch despite his deposition by the Byzantine Empire while those who sought communion with Rome accepted the Council of Chalcedon and the formula of Pope Hormisdas, recognized the new Chalcedonian patriarch of Antioch Paul the Jew.
Patriarch Severus of Antioch was a significant bishop in the organisation of the Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch, Byzantine Empire, after he was expelled from Antioch in 518. Bishop Jacob Baradaeus is credited for ordaining the majority of the miaphysite hierarchy while facing heavy persecution in the 6th century. Around 1665, many Saint Thomas Christians of Kerala, affirmed allegiance to the Syriac Orthodox Church, establishing the Malankara Syrian Church reuniting with the See of Antioch for the first time since the schism of the Church of the East from the jurisdiction of Antioch in 484 after the execution of Babowai. In the Fertile Crescent, controversy occurred in 1783 when a few members of its hierarchy entered in full communion with the Catholic Church, establishing the Syriac Catholic Church as part of the Eastern Catholic Churches. Despite this, the Syriac Orthodox Church remains larger in members and clergy than the Syriac Catholic Church. Although established in Antioch, due to persecution, first by the Chalcedonian Romans followed by the Muslim Arabs, the church's patriarchate was subsequently seated in Mor Hananyo Monastery, Ottoman Empire, whereafter Homs, Damascus, since 1959.
A diaspora has spread from the Levant and Turkey throughout the world, notably in Sweden, United Kingdom, Austria, United States, Guatemala, Brazil and New Zealand. The church's members are divided in 26 archdioceses, 11 patriarchal vicariates, its original area is present-day Syria and Iraq. The Syriac Orthodox Church participates in ecumenical discussions, being a member of the World Council of Churches since 1960, of the Middle East Council of Churches since 1974; the precise differences in theology that caused the Chalcedonian controversy is said to have arisen "only because of differences in terminology and culture and in the various formulae adopted by different theological schools to express the same matter", according to a common declaration statement between Patriarch Ignatius Jacob III of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch and Pope Paul VI of the Roman Catholic Church on Wednesday 27 October 1971 and again in the common declaration statement between Patriarch Ignatius Zakka I Iwas of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch and Pope John Paul II of the Roman Catholic Church on Saturday 23 June 1984.
The church is referred to as the Jacobite Church, but it rejects this name due to its Apostolic origin. The Syriac Orthodox Church is part of Oriental Orthodoxy, a distinct communion of churches claiming to continue the patristic and Apostolic Christology before the schism following the Council of Chalcedon in 451; the Syriac Orthodox Church claims the status as the most ancient Christian church in the world by apostolic succession from the Patriarchate of Antioch. According to Saint Luke, "The disciples were first called Christians in Antioch". Saint Peter and Saint Paul are regarded as the co-founders of the Patriarchate of Antioch in AD 37, with Saint Peter serving as its first bishop and considered the first patriarch of and by the Syriac Orthodox Church having been selected by the founder of the church Jesus Christ; when Saint Peter left Antioch and Ignatius presided over the Patriarchate of Antioch. Because of the significance attributed t
Iraq the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Assyrians, Shabakis, Armenians, Mandeans and Kawliya. Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan and Mandeanism present; the official languages of Iraq are Kurdish. Iraq has a coastline measuring 58 km on the northern Persian Gulf and encompasses the Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain, the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range and the eastern part of the Syrian Desert. Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf; these rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land. The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers known as Mesopotamia, is referred to as the cradle of civilisation.
It was here that mankind first began to read, create laws and live in cities under an organised government—notably Uruk, from which "Iraq" is derived. The area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC. Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian, Sumerian and Babylonian empires, it was part of the Median, Hellenistic, Sassanid, Rashidun, Abbasid, Mongol, Safavid and Ottoman empires. The country today known as Iraq was a region of the Ottoman Empire until the partition of the Ottoman Empire in the 20th century, it was made up of three provinces, called vilayets in the Ottoman language: Mosul Vilayet, Baghdad Vilayet, Basra Vilayet. In April 1920 the British Mandate of Mesopotamia was created under the authority of the League of Nations. A British-backed monarchy joining these vilayets into one Kingdom was established in 1921 under Faisal I of Iraq; the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the UK in 1932. In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created.
Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party from 1968 until 2003. After an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was removed from power, multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005; the US presence in Iraq ended in 2011, but the Iraqi insurgency continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country. Out of the insurgency came a destructive group calling itself ISIL, which took large parts of the north and west, it has since been defeated. Disputes over the sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan continue. A referendum about the full sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan was held on 25 September 2017. On 9 December 2017, then-Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi declared victory over ISIL after the group lost its territory in Iraq. Iraq is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of one autonomous region; the country's official religion is Islam. Culturally, Iraq has a rich heritage and celebrates the achievements of its past in both pre-Islamic as well as post-Islamic times and is known for its poets.
Its painters and sculptors are among the best in the Arab world, some of them being world-class as well as producing fine handicrafts, including rugs and carpets. Iraq is a founding member of the UN as well as of the Arab League, OIC, Non-Aligned Movement and the IMF; the Arabic name العراق al-ʿIrāq has been in use since before the 6th century. There are several suggested origins for the name. One dates to the Sumerian city of Uruk and is thus of Sumerian origin, as Uruk was the Akkadian name for the Sumerian city of Urug, containing the Sumerian word for "city", UR. An Arabic folk etymology for the name is "well-watered. During the medieval period, there was a region called ʿIrāq ʿArabī for Lower Mesopotamia and ʿIrāq ʿAjamī, for the region now situated in Central and Western Iran; the term included the plain south of the Hamrin Mountains and did not include the northernmost and westernmost parts of the modern territory of Iraq. Prior to the middle of the 19th century, the term Eyraca Arabic was used to describe Iraq.
The term Sawad was used in early Islamic times for the region of the alluvial plain of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, contrasting it with the arid Arabian desert. As an Arabic word, عراق means "hem", "shore", "bank", or "edge", so that the name by folk etymology came to be interpreted as "the escarpment", viz. at the south and east of the Jazira Plateau, which forms the northern and western edge of the "al-Iraq arabi" area. The Arabic pronunciation is. In English, it is either or, the American Heritage Dictionary, the Random House Dictionary; the pronunciation is heard in US media. In accordance with the 2005 Constitution, the official name of the state is the "Republic of Iraq". Between 65,000 BC and 35,000 BC northern Iraq was home to a Neanderthal culture, archaeological remains of which have been discovered at Shanidar Cave This same region is the location of a number of pre-Neolithic cemeteries, dating from 11,000 BC. Since 10,000 BC, Iraq was one of centres of a Caucasoid Neolithic culture (k
The Assyrian–Chaldean-Syriac diaspora refers to Assyrians living in communities outside their ancestral homeland. The Eastern Aramaic-speaking Assyrians are descendants of the ancient Assyrians, are one of the few ancient Semitic ethnicities in the Near East who resisted Arabisation and Islamisation during and after the Arab conquest of Iraq, Syria and Iran; the indigenous Assyrian homeland is within the borders of northern Iraq, southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, much northeastern Syria, a region corresponding with Assyria from the 25th century BC to the seventh century AD. Assyrians are predominantly Christians; the terms "Syriac", "Chaldean" and "Chaldo-Assyrian" can be used to describe ethnic Assyrians by their religious affiliation, indeed the terms "Syriac" and "Syrian" are much derivatives of the original "Assyrian", geographically and ethnically meant Assyrian. Before the Assyrian genocide, the Assyrian people were unmoved from their native lands which they had occupied for about five thousand years.
Although a handful of Assyrians had migrated to the United Kingdom during the Victorian era, the Assyrian diaspora began in earnest during World War I as the Ottoman Empire conducted both large scale genocide and ethnic cleansing against the Assyrian people with the aid of local Kurdish and Arab tribes. This genocide was coordinated alongside the Armenian genocide, Greek genocide and Great Famine of Mount Lebanon. Further atrocities such as the Simele Massacres of the 1930's stimulated migration. Additional emigration occurred in the 1980s, as Assyrian communities fled the violence of the Kurdish–Turkish conflict and the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran. During the 1990s and 2000s, Assyrians left the Middle East to evade persecution in Ba'athist Iraq and from Sunni and Shia fundamentalists; the exodus continues, as Assyrians flee Iraq and northeast Syria due to genocide by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and other Sunni Islamist groups. From 1937 to 1959, the Assyrian population in the USSR grew by 587.3 percent.
Assyrians came to the Soviet Union in three large waves. The first wave was after the Treaty of Turkmenchay in 1828, that delineated a border between Russia and Persia; the second was as a result of the Assyrian genocide during and after World War I. Soviet troops withdrew in 1946, left the Assyrians exposed to retaliation identical to that received from the Turks 30 years earlier. Soviet authorities persecuted Assyrian religious and community leaders in the same way that they persecuted Russians who remained members of the Russian Orthodox Church. Although Assyrians tended to assimilate into the Armenian community in the Soviet Union, their cultural identity found new expression under glasnost. Most Assyrians are members of the Assyrian Church of the East. 1897 census: 5,300 "Assyrians" 1919 refugee status:7,000–8,000 "Assyrian" refugees in Tbilisi 2,000 Assyrians in Yerevan 15,000 Assyrians from Hakkari, 10,000 from Urmia and Salmas in the Russian region of Rostov1926 census: 9,808 Assyrians 1959 census: 21,083 Assyrians 1970 census: 24,294 Assyrians 1979 census: 25,170 Assyrians 1989 census: 26,289 Assyrians 1989 census: 9,600 Assyrians, of whom 4,742 spoke the Syriac language.
S. 16,783 arrived before 1980. 10,250 from 1980 to 1990 27,494 listed Syriac as the "Language Spoken at Home" Unemployment: 9.1 Percent 2000 census: 82,355 Assyrians/Chaldeans/Syrians34,484 in Michigan:Sterling Heights: 5,515 West Bloomfield: 4,874 Southfield: 3,684 Warren: 2,625 Farmington Hills 2,499 Troy: 2,047 Detroit, Michigan 1,963 Oak Park 1,864 Madison Heights: 1,428 Orchard Lake Village: 241 22,671 in California: 15,685 in IllinoisChicago: 7,121 Niles, Illinois: 3,410 Maine Park: 1,035 Syriac speakers: 46,932 According to the Joshua Project, there are about 3,000 Assyrians in Uruguay. Assyrians arrived in Belgium as refugees from the Turkish towns of Midyat and Mardin in Tur Abdin. Most belong to the Syriac Orthodox Church, but some belong to the Assyrian Church of the East and the Chaldean Catholic Church, their three main settlements are in the Brussels municipalities of Saint-Josse-ten-Noode and Etterbeek, Liège and Mechelen. Two more councilmen were elected in Etterbeek on October 8, 2006: the Liberal Sandrine Es and the Christian Democrat Ibrahim Hanna.
Flemish author August Thiry wrote Mechelen aan de Tigris (Mechelen on the
Maaloula or Maҁlūlā is a town in the Rif Dimashq Governorate in Syria. The town is located 56 km to the northeast of Damascus and built into the rugged mountainside, at an altitude of more than 1500 m, it is known as one of three remaining villages where Western Neo-Aramaic is spoken, the other two being the nearby villages Jubb'adin and Bakhah. Maʿlūlā is from the Aramaic word maʿʿəlā, meaning'entrance'; the name is written in English and other Indo-European languages in multiple different ways, e.g. Maaloula, Ma'loula, Maalula, Ma'lula, Malula. However, "Maaloula" is the most common one. According to the Syria Central Bureau of Statistics, Maaloula had a population of 2,762 in the 2004 census. However, during summer, it increases to about 10,000, due to people coming from Damascus for holidays. Half a century ago, 15,000 people lived in Maaloula. Religiously, the population consists of Muslims. For the Muslim inhabitants, the legacy is all the more remarkable given that they were not Arabised, unlike most other Syrians who like them were Islamised over the centuries but adopted Arabic and shifted to an Arab ethnic identity.
With two other nearby towns al-Sarkha and Jubb'adin, Maaloula is the only place where a Western Aramaic language is still spoken, which it has been able to retain amidst the rise of Arabic due to its distance from other major cities and its isolating geological features. However, modern roads and transportation, as well as accessibility to Arabic-language television and print media - and for some time until also state policy - have eroded that linguistic heritage; as the last remaining area where Western Neo-Aramaic is still spoken, the three villages represent an important source for anthropological linguistic studies regarding first century Western Aramaic. According to scholarly consensus, the language of Jesus was a Western Aramaic dialect. Despite frequent misstatements in the media, the Neo-Aramaic spoken in Maaloula and Jubb'adin is no longer identical to the dialect which Jesus of Nazareth spoke, firstly it evolved from a separate Western Aramaic dialect than the Galilean dialect of Jesus, secondly, as a part of natural language evolution it has undergone significant changes since the first century AD in a similar way that Old English and Middle English may be unintelligible to Modern English speakers.
There are two important monasteries in Maaloula: the Eastern Catholic Mar Sarkis and Greek Orthodox Mar Thecla. Saint Sarkis Monastic Complex of Maaloula is one of the oldest surviving monasteries in Syria, it was built on the site of a pagan temple, has elements which go back to the fifth to sixth century Byzantine period. Saint Sarkis is the Assyrian name for Saint Sergius, a Roman soldier, executed for his Christian beliefs; this monastery still maintains its solemn historical character. The monastery has two of the oldest icons in one depicting the Last Supper; this monastery holds the remains of Thecla, which the second-century Acts of Paul and Thecla accounts a noble virgin and pupil of St. Paul. According to legend not in the Acts, Thecla was being pursued by soldiers of her father to capture her because of her Christian faith, she came upon a mountain, after praying, the mountain split open and let her escape through. The town gets its name from this entrance in the mountain. However, there are many variations to this story among the residents of Maaloula.
There are the remains of numerous monasteries, churches and sanctuaries. There are some. Many pilgrims come to Maaloula, both Muslim and Christian, they go there to gain blessings and make offerings. Maaloula became the scene of battle between Al-Qaeda linked jihadist Al-Nusra Front and the Syrian Army in September 2013. Syrian rebels took over the town on October 21. Around 13 people were killed, with many more wounded. On October 28, government forces recaptured the town. Maaloula was taken over by al-Nusra Front, opposing the Syrian government, again on December 3, 2013; the Front took 12 orthodox nuns as hostages. The nuns were moved between different locations and ended up in Yabroud where they stayed for three months. Officials from Qatar and Lebanon negotiated a deal for their release; those negotiations produced an agreement on a prisoner exchange under which around 150 Syrian women detained by the government were freed. After the nuns were freed on the 9th of March 2014, they stated that they were treated well by their captors.
On 14 April 2014, with the help of Hezbollah and SSNP, the Syrian Army once more took control of Maaloula. This government success was part of a string of other successes in the strategic Qalamoun region, including the seizure of the former rebel bastion of Yabroud in the previous month; the people of Maaloula celebrated as a new statue of the Virgin Mary was erected in its centre, replacing the figure destroyed in rebel attacks in 2013. On 13 June 2015, Syrian officials unveiled the new statue of the Virgin Mary, draped in a white robe topped with a blue shawl, her hands lifted in prayer; the fiberglass figure stood at just over 3 metres tall and was placed on the base of the original statue. The statue is titled as Lady of Peace. Béziers, France Western Neo-Aramaic A web site dedicated to Maaloula New York Times article on Aramaic language in Maaloula and other villages in Syria Syrian village clin
Chaldean Neo-Aramaic, or Chaldean, is a Northeastern Neo-Aramaic language spoken throughout a large region stretching from the plain of Urmia, in northwestern Iran, to the Nineveh plains, in northern Iraq, together with parts of southeastern Turkey. Chaldean Neo-Aramaic is related to Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, where it is at times considered a dialect of that language. Most Assyrian Christians in Iraq and the Khabour River Valley in Syria speak either the Chaldean Neo-Aramaic or Assyrian Neo-Aramaic variety, two varieties of Christian Neo-Aramaic or Sureth. Despite the two terms seeming to indicate a separate religious or ethnic identity, both languages and their native speakers originate from and are indigenous to the same Upper Mesopotamian region. Imperial Aramaic was adopted as the second language of the Neo-Assyrian Empire by Tiglath-Pileser III in the 8th century BC in account of the Aramaic population in areas conquered west of the Euphrates. On the Western periphery of Assyria there had been widespread Aramean-Akkadian bilingualism at least since the mid-9th century BC.
Aramaic would supplant Akkadian throughout the entire empire. Chaldean Neo-Aramaic is one of a number of modern Northeastern Aramaic languages spoken by Syriac Christians native to the northern region of Iraq from Kirkuk through the Nineveh plains and Mosul to Dohuk, Urmia in northwestern Iran, northeastern Syria and in southeast Turkey Hakkari, Harran, Tur Abdin and Diyarbakir; the Assyrian Christian dialects have been influenced by Classical Syriac, the literary language of the Church of the East and the Chaldean Catholic Church in antiquity. Therefore, Christian Neo-Aramaic has a dual heritage: literary Syriac and colloquial Neo-Assyrian Eastern Aramaic; the related dialects are collectively called Soureth, or Syriac in Iraqi Arabic. Jews and Syriac-Aramean Christians speak different dialects of Aramaic that are mutually unintelligible. Chaldean Neo-Aramaic and Assyrian Neo-Aramaic originate in the Nineveh Plains and Upper Mesopotamia, a region, an integral part of ancient Assyria between the 9th century BC and 7th century BC.
Chaldean Neo-Aramaic bears a resemblance to the Assyrian tribal dialects of Tyari and Barwar in the Hakkari Province, although the Assyrian dialects do not use the pharyngeals /ħ/ and /ʕ/. Loanwords of Arabic and Kurdish origin exist in the language, as with Assyrian; the Chaldean dialects are characterised by the presence of the fricatives /θ/ and /ð/ which correspond to /t/ and /d/ in other Assyrian dialects. However, the standard or educational form of Chaldean would realize the consonants /θ/ and /ð/ as /tˤ/. Most Chaldean Neo-Aramaic varieties would use the phoneme of /f/, which corresponds to /p/ in most of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic dialects. In some Chaldean dialects /r/ is realized as. In others, it is either a trill. Unlike in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, the guttural sounds of and are used predominantly in Chaldean varieties. Chaldean Neo-Aramaic is written in the Madenhaya version of the Syriac alphabet, used for classical Syriac; the School of Alqosh produced religious poetry in the colloquial Neo-Aramaic rather than classical Syriac in the 17th century prior to the founding of the Chaldean Catholic Church and the naming of the dialect as Chaldean Neo-Aramaic, the Dominican Press in Mosul has produced a number of books in the language.
Alternatively, the Syriac Latin alphabet may be used to transliterate the Syriac script into Latin. Aramaic language Eastern Aramaic languages Syriac language Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Chaldean Catholic Church Syriac Orthodox Church Syriac Christianity Syriac alphabet Terms for Syriac Christians Name of Syria List of loanwords in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Chaldea Babylonia Heinrichs, Wolfhart. Studies in Neo-Aramaic. Scholars Press: Atlanta, Georgia. ISBN 1-55540-430-8. Maclean, Arthur John. Grammar of the dialects of vernacular Syriac: as spoken by the Eastern Syrians of Kurdistan, north-west Persia, the Plain of Mosul: with notices of the vernacular of the Jews of Azerbaijan and of Zakhu near Mosul. Cambridge University Press, London. Dani Khalil - a Chaldean homicide detective in Low Winter Sun Eastern Syriac script for Chaldean Neo-Aramaic at Omniglot Semitisches Tonarchiv: Dokumentgruppe "Aramäisch/Neuostaramäisch"
Kurdistan or Greater Kurdistan is a defined geo-cultural historical region wherein the Kurdish people form a prominent majority population and Kurdish culture and national identity have been based. Kurdistan encompasses the northwestern Zagros and the eastern Taurus mountain ranges; the territory corresponds to Kurdish irredentist claims. Contemporary use of the term refers to the following areas: southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq, northwestern Iran, northern Syria; some Kurdish nationalist organizations seek to create an independent nation state consisting of some or all of these areas with a Kurdish majority, while others campaign for greater autonomy within the existing national boundaries. Iraqi Kurdistan first gained autonomous status in a 1970 agreement with the Iraqi government, its status was re-confirmed as an autonomous entity within the federal Iraqi republic in 2005. There is a province by the name Kurdistan in Iran. Kurds fighting in the Syrian Civil War were able to take control of large sections of northern Syria as government forces, loyal to President Bashar al-Assad, withdrew to fight elsewhere.
Having established their own government, they called for autonomy in a federal Syria after the war. The exact origins of the name Kurd are unclear; the suffix -stan is Persian for region. Literal translation "Region of Kurds". "Kurdistan" was formerly spelled Curdistan. One of the ancient names of Kurdistan is Corduene. Various groups, among them the Guti, Hurrians and Armenians, lived in this region in antiquity; the original Mannaean homeland was situated east and south of the Lake Urmia centered around modern-day Mahabad. The region came under Persian rule during the reign of Cyrus the Great and Darius I; the Kingdom of Corduene, which emerged from the declining Seleucid Empire, was located to the south and south-east of Lake Van between Persia and Mesopotamia and ruled northern Mesopotamia and southeastern Anatolia from 189 BC to AD 384 as vassals of the vying Parthian and Roman Empire. Corduene became a vassal state of the Roman Republic in 66 BC and remained allied with the Romans until AD 384.
After 66 BC, it passed another 5 times between Persia. Corduene was situated to the east of Tigranocerta, that is, to the east and south of present-day Diyarbakır in south-eastern Turkey; some historians have correlated a connection between Corduene with the modern names of Kurds and Kurdistan. Some of the ancient districts of Kurdistan and their corresponding modern names: Corduene or Gordyene Sophene Zabdicene or Bezabde Basenia Moxoene Nephercerta Artemita One of the earliest records of the phrase land of the Kurds is found in an Assyrian Christian document of late antiquity, describing the stories of Assyrian saints of the Middle East, such as Abdisho; when the Sasanian Marzban asked Mar Abdisho about his place of origin, he replied that according to his parents, they were from Hazza, a village in Assyria. However they were driven out of Hazza by pagans, settled in Tamanon, which according to Abdisho was in the land of the Kurds. Tamanon lies just north of the modern Iraq-Turkey border, while Hazza is 12 km southwest of modern Erbil.
In another passage in the same document, the region of the Khabur River is identified as land of the Kurds. According to Al-Muqaddasi and Yaqut al-Hamawi, Tamanon was located on the south-western or southern slopes of Mount Judi and south of Cizre. Other geographical references to the Kurds in Syriac sources appear in Zuqnin chronicle, writings of Michael the Syrian and Bar hebraeus, they mention city of Qardu and country of Qardawaye. In the tenth and eleventh centuries, several Kurdish principalities emerged in the region: in the north the Shaddadids and the Rawadids, in the east the Hasanwayhids and the Annazids and in the west the Marwanids to the south of Diyarbakır and north of Jazira. Kurdistan in the Middle Ages was a collection of semi-independent and independent states called emirates, it was nominally under indirect religious influence of Khalifs or Shahs. A comprehensive history of these states and their relationship with their neighbors is given in the text of Sharafnama, written by Prince Sharaf al-Din Bitlisi in 1597.
The emirates included Baban, Soran and Garmiyan in the south. The earliest medieval attestation of the toponym Kurdistan is found in a 12th-century Armenian historical text by Matteos Urhayeci, he described a battle near Siverek in 1062 as to have taken place in Kurdistan. The second record occurs in the prayer from the colophon of an Armenian manuscript of the Gospels, written in 1200. A use of the term Kurdistan is found in Empire of Trebizond documents in 1336 and in Nuzhat-al-Qulub, written by Hamdollah Mostowfi in 1340. According to Sharafkhan Bitlisi in his Sharafnama, the boundaries of the Kurdish land begin at the Strait of Hormuz in the Persian Gulf and stretch on an line to the end of Malatya and Marash. Evliya Çelebi, who traveled in Kurdistan between 1640 and