Baptism is a Christian rite of admission and adoption invariably with the use of water, into Christianity. The synoptic gospels recount. Baptism is considered a sacrament in most churches, as an ordinance in others. Baptism is called christening, although some reserve the word "christening" for the baptism of infants, it has given its name to the Baptist churches and denominations. The usual form of baptism among the earliest Christians involved the candidate's immersion, either or partially. John the Baptist's use of a deep river for his baptising suggests immersion: The fact that he chose a permanent and deep river suggests that more than a token quantity of water was needed, both the preposition'in' and the basic meaning of the verb'baptize' indicate immersion. In v. 16, Matthew will speak of Jesus'coming up out of the water'. Phillip and the Eunuch went down and came up out of water. Baptism is likened unto a burial in Romans 6:3. "Dip" is translated from baptō. The traditional depiction in Christian art of John the Baptist pouring water over Jesus' head may therefore be based on Christian practice.
Pictorial and archaeological evidence of Christian baptism from the 3rd century onward indicates that a normal form was to have the candidate stand in water while water was poured over the upper body. Other common forms of baptism now in use include pouring water three times on the forehead, a method called affusion. Martyrdom was identified early in Church history as "baptism by blood", enabling the salvation of martyrs who had not been baptized by water; the Catholic Church identified a baptism of desire, by which those preparing for baptism who die before receiving the sacrament are considered saved. As evidenced in the common Christian practice of infant baptism, Christians universally regarded baptism as in some sense necessary for salvation, until Huldrych Zwingli denied its necessity in the 16th century. Quakers and the Salvation Army do not practice baptism with water. Among denominations that practice baptism by water, differences occur in the manner and mode of baptizing and in the understanding of the significance of the rite.
Most Christians baptize "in the name of the Father, of the Son, of the Holy Spirit", but some baptize in Jesus' name only. Much more than half of all Christians baptize infants; the term "baptism" has been used metaphorically to refer to any ceremony, trial, or experience by which a person is initiated, purified, or given a name. The English word baptism is derived indirectly through Latin from the neuter Greek concept noun baptisma, a neologism in the New Testament derived from the masculine Greek noun baptismos, a term for ritual washing in Greek language texts of Hellenistic Judaism during the Second Temple period, such as the Septuagint. Both of these nouns are derived from the verb baptizō, used in Jewish texts for ritual washing, in the New Testament both for ritual washing and for the new rite of baptisma; the Greek verb baptō, "dip", from which the verb baptizo is derived, is in turn hypothetically traced to a reconstructed Indo-European root *gʷabh-, "dip". The Greek words are used in a great variety of meanings.
Baptism has similarities to Tvilah, a Jewish purification ritual of immersing in water, required for, among other things, conversion to Judaism, but which differs in being repeatable, while baptism is to be performed only once. John the Baptist, considered a forerunner to Christianity, used baptism as the central sacrament of his messianic movement; the apostle Paul distinguished between the baptism of John, baptism in the name of Jesus, it is questionable whether Christian baptism was in some way linked with that of John. Christians consider Jesus to have instituted the sacrament of baptism; the earliest Christian baptisms were normally by immersion, complete or partial. Though other modes may have been used. Though some form of immersion was the most common method of baptism, many of the writings from the ancient church appeared to view the mode of baptism as inconsequential; the Didache 7.1–3 allowed for affusion practices in situations where immersion was not practical. Tertullian allowed for varying approaches to baptism if those practices did not conform to biblical or traditional mandates.
Cyprian explicitly stated that the amount of water was inconsequential and defended immersion and aspersion practices. As a result, there was no uniform or consistent mode of baptism in the ancient church prior to the fourth century. By the third and fourth centuries, baptism involved catechetical instruction as well as chrismation, laying on of hands, recitation of a creed. In the early middle ages infant baptism became common and the rite was simplified. In Western Europe Affusion became the normal mode of baptism between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries, though immersion was still practiced into the sixteenth. In the sixteenth century, Martin Luther retained baptism as a sacrament, but Swiss reformer Huldrych Zwingli considered baptism and the Lord's supper to be symbolic. Anabaptists denied the val
Laestadianism known as Laestadian Lutheranism and Apostolic Lutheranism, is a pietistic Lutheran revival movement started in Lapland in the middle of the 19th century. Named after Swedish Lutheran state church administrator and temperance movement leader Lars Levi Laestadius, it is the biggest pietistic revivalist movement in the Nordic countries, it has members in Finland, North America, Norway and Sweden. There are smaller congregations in Africa, South America and Central Europe. In addition Laestadians have missionaries in 23 countries; the number of Laestadians worldwide is estimated to be between 144,000 and 219,000. Most Laestadians in Finland are part of the national Lutheran Church of Finland, but in America, where there is no official Lutheran church, they founded their own denomination, which split into several sub-groups in the mid-20th century; because of doctrinal opinion differences and personality conflicts, the movement split into 19 branches, of which about 15 are active today.
The three large main branches are Conservative Laestadianism. These comprise about 90 percent of Laestadians. Other branches are small and some of them inactive. In Finland, the Elämän Sana group, as the most "mainline" of the different branches of Laestadianism, has been prominent within the hierarchy of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland: Two members have been elected bishops of Oulu, one has served as Chaplain General. All branches share many essential teachings including a central emphasis on the Lutheran doctrine of justification. Another core teaching concerns essential differences in lifestyle and beliefs between true believers on one hand, false Christians and unbelievers on the other; the leaders of the two largest Laestadian sub-groups, the Conservative Laestadians and Firstborn Laestadians, have for decades excluded each other and all other Laestadian sub-groups from the kingdom of Heaven though the denominations' core doctrines are nearly indistinguishable. The leadership of the smaller third main sub-group, the Federation, has continued to regard the other sub-groups as of living faith, after having unsuccessfully sought to preserve unity within Laestadianism when its larger counterparts' leaders in the 1930s called for, required, dissociation from the Federation and other Laestadian denominations.
The church teaches that every believer has the authority to testify that others' sins are forgiven, sometimes referred to as the audible declaration of the forgiveness of sins. Laestadians proclaim the forgiveness of sins "in Jesus' name and blood". Laestadianism holds that when a Christian has committed a sin, whether in thought or deed, she or he should confess the sin to another believer, thus it is a common practice among Laestadians in or out of church at any time, but during the church service prior to the rite of holy communion, to be confessing their sins to one another or to one of the church ministers performing the sacrament. A common declaration is, "Believe your sin forgiven in Jesus' name and blood." This procedure, ingrained in Laestadianism, differs from absolution in mainstream Lutheran churches in several aspects, including that the request for forgiveness need not be, most is not, to the minister. Because a Laestadian takes seriously the proposition that grace exists only for one whose sins have been forgiven, there is scarcely another rite in this movement that would rival the importance of the declaration of forgiveness.
This doctrine is a unique extension of the priesthood of the believer doctrine. When greeting each other, Laestadians say "God's Peace" in English. To take their leave of each other, they say "God's peace" in English. "Worldliness" is discouraged, Laestadians frown on pre-marital sex and on alcohol consumption except in the sacrament of holy communion. Conservative Laestadians frown upon worldly vices such as dancing, birth control, rhythmic music, make-up, movies and cursing; some conservative elements within the church go further in rejecting the ways of the world, for examples, refusing to buy insurance, prohibiting their children's participation in organized school sports, removing their car radios. Large numbers of Firstborn Apostolic Lutherans and many members of the most conservative congregations within the Word of Peace group, for examples, do not use birth control because they believe that a child is a gift from God; the central activities of Laestadians are annual or more frequent church conventions, including the Summer Services of Conservative Laestadians, attended by members from congregations far and wide.
Confessional Lutheranism is a name used by Lutherans to designate those who accept the doctrines taught in the Book of Concord of 1580 in their entirety because they are faithful to the teachings of the Bible. Confessional Lutherans maintain that faithfulness to the Book of Concord, a summary of the teachings found in Scripture, requires attention to how that faith is being preached and put into practice. Confessional Lutherans believe; the term Confessional Lutheran is used among the more conservative churches found in groupings such as the International Lutheran Council and the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference. Churches of the larger Lutheran World Federation subscribe to the Book of Concord as an exposition of faith, in so far as it agrees with their interpretation of the Bible. Two main confessional movements arose during the 19th century: the Old Lutherans and the Neo-Lutherans; the Old Lutherans originated from the Schism of the Old Lutherans, while Neo-Lutheranism arose in Germany in the 1830s from the Pietist driven Erweckung, or Awakening.
Neo-Lutheranism itself contained differing camps. It gave rise to those calling themselves confessional Lutherans. Neo-Lutheranism developed in reaction to Pietism on the one side and Rationalism on the other, both of which had arisen in the previous century. German clergymen like Martin Stephan, C. F. W. Walther, F. C. D. Wyneken and Wilhelm Loehe became a part of the movement as they studied the works of Martin Luther and the Book of Concord; the Old Lutheran and Neo-Lutheran movements spread to the United States with the Neo-Lutheran Wilhelm Loehe and the Old Lutheran free church leader Friedrich August Brünn both sending missionaries to newly arrived German immigrants in the Midwest and the immigration of groups like the Saxons, who settled in Missouri under Martin Stephan and C. F. W. Walther, the Germans who settled in Indiana under F. C. D. Wyneken, the Prussians under J. A. A. Grabau in Western New York and southeastern Wisconsin. Contemporary Lutheran church bodies that identify themselves as confessional tend to be either members of the International Lutheran Council, Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference, or certain other independent Lutheran bodies.
Among the members of the ILC are the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, the Lutheran Church–Canada, the Independent Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Germany and the Lutheran Church of Australia. Among the CELC are the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod and the Evangelical Lutheran Synod. Other confessional Lutherans include the Church of the Lutheran Confession, the American Association of Lutheran Churches, the Concordia Lutheran Conference, the Evangelical Lutheran Diocese of North America, member congregations of the Protes'tant Conference, member congregations of the Orthodox Lutheran Confessional Conference of Independent Congregations, member congregations of the United Lutheran Mission Association and Evangelical Lutheran Conference & Ministerium of North America. Additionally, the Association of Free Lutheran Congregations describes themselves as confessional; the autonomous congregations within the AFLC are only required to subscribe to the unaltered Augsburg Confession and Luther's Small Catechism, but many member congregations subscribe to more, or all, of the Book of Concord, while others do so unofficially in matters of doctrine and practice.
All internally trained AFLC pastors are taught a quia subscription of the Book of Concord, leaving the denomination as a whole "unofficially" confessional in matters of preaching and teaching. Though there are some churches in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America which would call themselves "confessional", many of said churches have decided to leave the ELCA due to the liberal leanings of the denomination, most notably their stances expressed in the 2009 ELCA convention; the ELCA as a whole does not use the title "confessional" to describe itself, but it and the other member churches of the Lutheran World Federation do ascribe to the unaltered Augsburg Confession and the other confessional documents in the Book of Concord as true interpretations of the Christian faith. In the Nordic countries, there are a few small churches that identify themselves as confessional Lutheran; these include the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Sweden. Lutheran church bodies and Lutheran individuals that identify themselves as confessional hold to a "quia" rather than a "quatenus" subscription to the Book of Concord, which contains the Apostles' Creed, Nicene Creed, Athanasian Creed, Luther's Small Catechism, Luther's Large Catechism, the Augsburg Confession, the Apology of the Augsburg Confession, the Smalcald Articles, the Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope, the Formula of the Concord.
Quia subscription implies that the subscriber believes that there is no contradiction between the Book of Concord and the Scriptures. Quatenus subscription implies that the subscriber leaves room for the possibility that there might be a contradiction of the Scriptures in the Book of Concord in which case the subscriber would hold to the Scriptures against the Book of Concord; some Confessional Lutherans maintain that this distinguishes them from other Lutheran bodies and Lutherans, they believe, hold to a quatenus subscription. Dr. C. F. W. Walther explains the meaning of confessional subscription: An u
Book of Concord
The Book of Concord or Concordia is the historic doctrinal standard of the Lutheran Church, consisting of ten credal documents recognized as authoritative in Lutheranism since the 16th century. They are known as the symbolical books of the Evangelical Lutheran Church; the Book of Concord was published in German on June 25, 1580 in Dresden, the fiftieth anniversary of the presentation of the Augsburg Confession to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg. The authoritative Latin edition was published in 1584 in Leipzig; those who accept it as their doctrinal standard recognize it to be a faithful exposition of the Bible. The Holy Scriptures are set forth in The Book of Concord to be the sole, divine source and norm of all Christian doctrine; the Book of Concord was compiled by a group of theologians led by Jakob Andreae and Martin Chemnitz at the behest of their rulers, who desired an end to the religious controversies in their territories that arose among Lutherans after the death of Martin Luther in 1546.
It was intended to replace German territorial collections of doctrinal statements, known as corpora doctrinæ like the Corpus doctrinæ Philippicum or Misnicum. This aim is reflected by the compilers' not calling it a corpus doctrinæ although it technically is one; the list of writings predating the Formula of Concord that would be included in The Book of Concord are listed and described in the "Rule and Norm" section of the Formula. Following the preface written by Andreae and Chemnitz the "Three Ecumenical Creeds" were placed at the beginning in order to show the identity of Lutheran teaching with that of the ancient Christian church; these creeds, the Apostles' Creed, Nicene Creed, Athanasian Creed, were formulated before the East-West Schism of 1054, but the Nicene Creed is the western version containing the filioque. The other documents come from the earliest years of the Lutheran Reformation, they are the Augsburg Confession, the Apology of the Augsburg Confession, both by Philipp Melanchthon, the Small and Large Catechisms of Martin Luther, his Smalcald Articles, Melanchthon's Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope, the Formula of Concord, composed shortly before the publishing of the Book of Concord and intended for the same purpose: the pacification and unification of the growing Lutheran movement.
The preface of the Book of Concord was considered to be the preface of the Formula of Concord as well. The Augsburg Confession has singular importance as the unanimous consensus and exposition of our Christian faith against the false worship and superstition of the papacy and against other sects, as the symbol of our time, the first and unaltered Augsburg Confession, delivered to Emperor Charles V at Augsburg during the great Diet in the year 1530... A recent book on Lutheranism asserts, "To this day... the Augsburg Confession... remains the basic definition of what it means to be a'Lutheran.'"The Apology, the Smalcald Articles, the Treatise, the Formula of Concord explain, defend, or serve as addenda to The Augsburg Confession. Preface The Three Ecumenical creeds; the Apostles' Creed The Nicene Creed The Athanasian Creed The Augsburg Confession of 1530 The Apology of the Augsburg Confession The Smalcald Articles of Martin Luther Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope The Small Catechism of Martin Luther Luther's Marriage Booklet and Baptism Booklet were included as part of the Small Catechism in a few of the 1580 editions of the German Book of Concord The Large Catechism of Martin Luther Epitome of the Formula of Concord The Solid or Thorough Declaration of the Formula of Concord.
The Catalog of Testimonies was added as an appendix in most of the 1580 editions. The simple Latin title of the Book of Concord, Concordia, is fitting for the character of its contents: Christian statements of faith setting forth what is believed and confessed by the confessors "with one heart and voice." This follows St. Paul's directive: "that you all speak the same thing, that there be no divisions among you, but that you be joined together in the same mind and in the same judgment.". The creeds and confessions that constitute the Book of Concord are not the private writings of their various authors: Inasmuch, however, as they are in complete agreement with Holy Scripture, in this respect differ from all other particular symbols, the Lutheran confessions are ecumenical and catholic in character, they contain the truths believed universally by true Christians everywhere, explicitly by all consistent Christians, implicitly by inconsistent and erring Christians. Christian truth, being one and the same the world over is none other than that, found in the Lutheran confessions.
To this day the Book of Concord is doctrinally normative among traditional and conservative Lutheran churches, which require their pastors and other rostered church workers to pledge themselves unconditionally to the Book of Concord. They identify themselves as "confessional Lutherans." They consider the Book of Concord the norma normata in relation to the Bible, which they consider the norma normans, i.e. the only source of Christian doctrine. In this view the Book of Concord, on the topics that it addresses, is what the church authoritatively understands God's authoritative word to say; this is called a "quia" subscription to the Lutheran confessions, i.e. one subscribes because the Book of Concord is a faithful exposition of the Scriptures
Sola Scriptura is a theological doctrine held by some Christian denominations that the Christian scriptures are the sole infallible rule of faith and practice. While the scriptures' meaning is mediated through many kinds of secondary authority, such as the ordinary teaching offices of a denominated church, the ecumenical creeds, the councils of the catholic church, so on - sola scriptura, on the other hand, rejects any original infallible authority other than the Bible. In this view, all secondary authority is derived from the authority of the scriptures and is therefore subject to reform when compared to the teaching of the Bible. Church councils, Bible commentators, private revelation, or a message from an angel or an apostle are not an original authority alongside the Bible in the sola scriptura approach. Sola scriptura is a formal principle of many Protestant Christian denominations, one of the five solae, it was a foundational doctrinal principle of the Protestant Reformation held by many of the Reformers, who taught that authentication of scripture is governed by the discernible excellence of the text as well as the personal witness of the Holy Spirit to the heart of each man.
Some evangelical and Baptist denominations state the doctrine of sola scriptura more strongly: scripture is self-authenticating, clear to the rational reader, its own interpreter, sufficient of itself to be the final authority of Christian doctrine. By contrast and Methodism considered forms of Protestantism, uphold the doctrine of prima scriptura, with scripture being illumined by tradition, in Methodism, experience as well, thus completing the four sides of the Wesleyan Quadrilateral; the Eastern Orthodox Church holds that to "accept the books of the canon is to accept the ongoing Spirit-led authority of the church's tradition, which recognizes, interprets and corrects itself by the witness of Holy Scripture". The Catholic Church regards the apostolic preaching and writing as equal since they believe that many of their traditions came from the Apostles; the Catholic Church describes this as "one common source... with two distinct modes of transmission", while some Protestant authors call it "a dual source of revelation".
Sola scriptura is one of the five solae, considered by some Protestant groups to be the theological pillars of the Reformation. The key implication of the principle is that interpretations and applications of the scriptures do not have the same authority as the scriptures themselves. Martin Luther said, "a simple layman armed with Scripture is greater than the mightiest pope without it"; the intention of the Reformation was to correct what he asserted to be the errors of the Catholic Church by appeal to the uniqueness of the Bible's textual authority. Catholic doctrine is based in sacred tradition, as well as scripture. Sola scriptura meant rejecting the infallible authority given to the magisterium to interpret both scripture and tradition. Sola scriptura, does not ignore Christian history, tradition, or the church when seeking to understand the Bible. Rather, it sees the church as the Bible's interpreter, the regula fidei as the interpretive context, scripture as the only final authority in matters of faith and practice.
As Luther said, "The true rule is this: God's Word shall establish articles of faith, no one else, not an angel can do so." Lutheranism teaches that the Bible of the Old and New Testaments is the only divinely inspired book and the only source of divinely revealed knowledge. Scripture alone is the formal principle of the faith in Lutheranism, the final authority for all matters of faith and morals because of its inspiration, clarity and sufficiency. Lutheranism teaches that the Bible does not contain the Word of God, but every word of it is, because of verbal inspiration, the word of God. Most Lutheran traditions acknowledge that understanding scriptures is complex given that the Bible contains a collection of manuscripts and manuscript fragments that were written and collected over thousands of years. For example, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America teaches that "Lutheran Christians believe that the story of God’s steadfast love and mercy in Jesus is the heart and center of what the Scriptures have to say."As Lutherans confess in the Nicene Creed, the Holy Spirit "spoke through the prophets".
The Apology of the Augsburg Confession identifies "Holy Scripture" with the Word of God and calls the Holy Spirit the author of the Bible. Because of this, Lutherans confess in the Formula of Concord, "we receive and embrace with our whole heart the prophetic and apostolic Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as the pure, clear fountain of Israel"; the apocryphal books were not written by inspiration. The prophetic and apostolic scriptures are said by the Lutheran church to be authentic as written by the prophets and apostles, that a correct translation of their writings is God's Word because it has the same meaning as the original Biblical Hebrew and Koine Greek. A mistranslation is not God's word, no human authority can invest it with divine authority. Scripture, regarded as the word of God, carries the full authority of God in Lutheranism: every single statement of the Bible calls for instant and unrestricted acceptance; every doctrine of the Bible is the teaching of God and
Old Lutherans were German Lutherans in the Kingdom of Prussia, notably in the Province of Silesia, who refused to join the Prussian Union of churches in the 1830s and 1840s. Prussia's king Frederick William III was determined to unify the Protestant churches, to homogenize their liturgy and their architecture. In a series of proclamations over several years the Church of the Prussian Union was formed, bringing together the majority group of Lutherans, the minority of Reformed; the main effect was that the government of Prussia had full control over church affairs, with the king recognized as the leading bishop. Attempted suppression of the Old Lutherans led many to emigrate to Australia and the United States, resulting in the creation of significant Lutheran denominations in those countries; the legacy of Old Lutherans survives in the Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church in modern Germany. In 1799 King Frederick William III of Prussia issued a decree for a new common liturgical Agenda to be published, for use in both the Lutheran and Reformed congregations.
To accomplish this, a commission to prepare a common agenda was formed. After more than 20 years of effort, a common liturgical agenda was published in 1821; the agenda was not well received by many Lutherans, as it was seen to compromise in the wording of the Words of Institution, to the point where the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist was not proclaimed. The Protestant congregations were directed in 1822 to use only the newly formulated agenda for worship; this non-compliance from Lutheran pastors around Prussia. The liturgical agenda was subsequently modified to appease many of the objections of the dissenting Lutherans, in 1830 Frederick William ordered all Protestant congregations in Prussia to celebrate the Lord's Supper using the new agenda. Rather than having the unifying effect that Frederick William desired, the decree created a great deal of dissent among Lutheran congregations. In a compromise with dissenters, who had now earned the name "Old Lutherans", in 1834 Frederick William issued a decree which stated that Union would only be in the areas of governance and liturgy, but the respective congregations could retain their confessional identities.
In addition to this, dissenters were forbidden from organizing sectarian groups. In defiance of this decree, a number of Lutheran pastors and congregations continued to use the old liturgical agenda and sacramental rites of the Lutheran church. Becoming aware of this defiance, officials sought out those. Pastors who were caught were suspended from their ministry. If suspended pastors were caught acting in a pastoral role, they were imprisoned. Among the leaders of the Old Lutherans was Johann Gottfried Scheibel. Scheibel was a professor of theology in Breslau from 1818 until 1830 when he was suspended from his post for his dissenting views. Scheibel came to prominence as a leader of the Old Lutherans in the dissent against the Prussian Union, he spoke and wrote against the Union, which resulted in suspension from his post as theological professor. Undaunted, Scheibel continued in his dissent, he was at Dresden in 1832. He moved to Hermsdorf, where he was asked to leave in 1836 on to Glauchau and Nuremberg.
He died at Nuremberg about the time. After Scheibel, Eduard Huschke became the leader of Old Lutherans. Other famous Old Lutherans included Henrik Steffens, H. E. F. Guericke and Rudolf Rocholl. Union caused a confessional Lutheran counter-reaction called Neo-Lutheranism. Upon Frederick William's death in 1840, persecution of the Old Lutherans eased substantially. However, Old Lutherans continued to find themselves marginalized the clergy who did not have many of the same rights and support accorded to clergy of the Union church. Old Lutherans formed several synods, which through various mergers resulted in the present-day Independent Evangelical-Lutheran Church. By 1835 many dissenting Old Lutheran groups were looking to emigration as a means to finding religious freedom; some groups emigrated to Australia and the United States in the years leading up to 1841. The first Lutherans to come to Australia in any significant number were immigrants from Prussia, who arrived in South Australia in 1838 with Pastor August Kavel.
These immigrants created three settlements at Klemzig and Glen Osmond. In 1841, a second wave of Prussian immigrants arrived, his group settled in Bethanien. The Lutherans in Western Australia established the Killalpaninna Mission Station at Cooper's Creek. Johann Flierl, the pioneer missionary of German New Guinea, served there for seven years; when he left for Kaiser-Wilhelmsland in 1885, his cousin named Johann Flierl, replaced him at the mission. There have been five waves of migration into the Lutheran Church in New Zealand: In the 1840s people came from Germany. In the 1860s a second wave of migrants from Germany settled in Marton in the Rangitikei; some had first settled in Australia. In the 1870s significant numbers arrived from the rest of Scandinavia. In the years after World War II many came from Europe. In the last 10–15 years there has been an influx of people from Africa and other parts of the world. Lutheran missionaries first arrived in New Zealand in 1843, just three years after the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi.
The first Lutheran Missionaries arrived in Ota
The Apostles' Creed, sometimes titled the Apostolic Creed or the Symbol of the Apostles, is an early statement of Christian belief—a creed or "symbol". It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical Churches of Western tradition, including the Catholic Church and Anglicanism, it is used by Presbyterians, Moravians and Congregationalists. The Apostles' Creed is Trinitarian in structure with sections affirming belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ His Son and the Holy Spirit; the Apostles' Creed was based on Christian theological understanding of the Canonical gospels, the letters of the New Testament and to a lesser extent the Old Testament. Its basis appears to be the old Roman Creed known as the Old Roman Symbol; because of the early origin of its original form, it does not address some Christological issues defined in the Nicene and other Christian Creeds. It thus says nothing explicitly about the divinity of the Holy Spirit.
Nor does it address many other theological questions which became objects of dispute centuries later. The earliest known mention of the expression "Apostles' Creed" occurs in a letter of AD 390 from a synod in Milan and may have been associated with the belief accepted in the 4th century, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, each of the Twelve Apostles contributed an article to the twelve articles of the creed; the word Symbolum, standing alone, appears around the middle of the third century in the correspondence of St. Cyprian and St. Firmilian, the latter in particular speaking of the Creed as the "Symbol of the Trinity", recognizing it as an integral part of the rite of baptism; the title Symbolum Apostolicum appears for the first time in a letter written by Ambrose, from a Council in Milan to Pope Siricius in about AD 390 "Let them give credit to the Creed of the Apostles, which the Roman Church has always kept and preserved undefiled". But what existed at that time was not what is now known as the Apostles' Creed but a shorter statement of belief that, for instance, did not include the phrase "maker of heaven and earth", a phrase that may have been inserted only in the 7th century.
The account of the origin of this creed, the forerunner and principal source of the Apostles' Creed, as having been jointly created by the Apostles under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, with each of the twelve contributing one of the articles, was current at that time. The earlier text evolved from simpler texts based on Matthew 28:19, part of the Great Commission, it has been argued that this earlier text was in written form by the late 2nd century. While the individual statements of belief that are included in the Apostles' Creed – those not found in the Old Roman Symbol – are found in various writings by Irenaeus, Novatian, Rufinus, Augustine and Eusebius Gallus, the earliest appearance of what we know as the Apostles' Creed was in the De singulis libris canonicis scarapsus of St. Pirminius, written between 710 and 714. Bettenson and Maunder state that it is first from Dicta Abbatis Pirminii de singulis libris canonicis scarapsus, c. 750. This longer Creed seems to have arisen in what is now Spain.
Charlemagne imposed it throughout his dominions, it was accepted in Rome, where the Old Roman Symbol or similar formulas had survived for centuries. It has been argued nonetheless that it dates from the second half of the 5th century, though no earlier; as can be seen from various creeds all quoted in full below, although the original Greek and Latin creeds both refer to “the resurrection of the flesh”, the versions used by several churches, like the Roman Catholic Church, the Church of England, Lutheran churches and Methodist churches, talk more of “the resurrection of the body”. Some have suggested that the Apostles' Creed was spliced together with phrases from the New Testament. For instance, the phrase "descendit ad inferos" echoes Ephesians 4:9, "κατέβη εἰς τὰ κατώτερα μέρη τῆς γῆς", it is of interest that this phrase first appeared in one of the two versions of Rufinus in AD 390 and did not appear again in any version of the creed until AD 650. This phrase and that on the communion of saints are articles found in the Apostles' Creed, but not in the Old Roman Symbol nor in the Nicene Creed.
Musical settings of the Symbolum Apostolorum as a motet are rare. The French composer Le Brung published one Latin setting in 1540, the Spanish composer Fernando de las Infantas published two in 1578. More in 1979 John Michael Talbot, a Third Order Franciscan and recorded "Creed" on his album, The Lord's Supper. In 1986 Graham Kendrick published the popular "We believe in God the Father" based on the Apostles' Creed. Rich Mullins and Beaker composed a musical setting titled "Creed", released on Mullins' 1993 album A Liturgy, a Legacy, & a Ragamuffin Band; the song "Creed" on Petra's 1990 album Beyond Belief is loosely based on the Apostles' Creed. GIA Publications published a hymn text in 1991 directly based on the Apostles' Creed, called "I Believe in God Almighty." It has been sung to hymn tunes from Wales, the Netherlands, Ireland. In 2014 Hillsong released a version of the Apostles' Creed under the title "This I Believe" on their album No Other Name. Keith Getty and Kristyn Getty released an expression of the Apostles' Creed under th