Joseph Salvatore Lovano is an American jazz saxophonist, alto clarinetist and drummer. He has earned a Grammy Award and several mentions on Down Beat magazine's critics' and readers' polls, he is married to jazz singer Judi Silvano with whom he performs. Lovano was a longtime member of a trio led by drummer Paul Motian. Lovano was born in Ohio, to Sicilian-American parents, his father's family came from Alcara Li Fusi in Sicily, his mother's family came from Cesarò in Sicily. In Cleveland, Lovano's father exposed him to jazz throughout his early life, teaching him the standards, as well as how to lead a gig, pace a set, be versatile enough to find work. Lovano switched to tenor saxophone five years later. John Coltrane, Dizzy Gillespie, Sonny Stitt were among his earlier influences. After graduating from Euclid High School in 1971, he went to Berklee College of Music, where he studied under Herb Pomeroy and Gary Burton. Lovano received an honorary doctor of music degree from the college in 1998.
After Berklee he worked with Lonnie Smith. He spent three years with the Woody Herman orchestra moved to New York City, where he played with the big band of Mel Lewis, he plays lines that convey the rhythmic drive and punch of an entire horn section. In the mid 1980s Lovano began working in a quartet with John Scofield and in a trio with Bill Frisell and Paul Motian. In 1993, he played on the album Anything Went by a native of Cleveland. In the late 1990s, he formed the Saxophone Summit with Michael Brecker. Streams of Expression was a tribute to free jazz. Lovano and pianist Hank Jones released an album together in June 2007, entitled Kids, he played the tenor saxophone on the 2007 McCoy Tyner album Quartet. In 2008 Lovano formed the quintet Us Five with Esperanza Spalding on bass, pianist James Weidman, two drummers, Francisco Mela and Otis Brown III. Folk Art was an album of compositions by Lovano that the band hoped to interpret in the spirit of the avant-garde jazz and loft jazz of the 1960s.
Bird Songs was a tribute to Charlie Parker. West African guitarist Lionel Loueke appeared on the album Cross Culture. Lovano played percussion instruments he had collected since the 1970s. Peter Slavov replaced Esperanza Spalding on six tracks, all of them written by Lovano except for "Star Crossed Lovers" by Billy Strayhorn. "The idea wasn't just to play at the same time, but to collectively create music within the music," Lovano wrote in the liner notes to Cross Culture. "Everyone is leading and following," and "the double drummer configuration adds this other element of creativity."Lovano has taught at the Berklee College of Music. He taught Jeff Coffin after Coffin was given a NEA Jazz Studies Grant in 1991. Downbeat magazine gave its Jazz Album of the Year Award to Lovano for Quartets: Live at the Village Vanguard. Lovano has played Borgani saxophones since 1991 and since 1999, he has his own series called Borgani-Lovano. Official website Joe Lovano at NPR Music Podcast featuring "The One You Love to Hate" performed by Joe Lovano NAMM Oral History Interview October 15, 2014 Joe Lovano discography at Discogs
Steve Wilson (jazz musician)
Steve Wilson is an American jazz multi-instrumentalist, best known in the musical community as a flutist and an alto and soprano saxophonist. He plays the clarinet and the piccolo. Wilson has maintained a busy career working as a session musician, has contributed to many musicians of note both in the recording studios, but as a sideman on tours. Over the years he has participated in engagements with several musical ensembles, as well as his own solo efforts. Wilson has not confined himself to the stage, he has held teaching positions in several Universities, as well as holding jazz clinics. As a teenager, Wilson played in blues and funk bands. After a year accompanying singer Stephanie Mills, he attended Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond where he majored in music. In 1987 he moved to New York City, he performed with the American Jazz Orchestra, the Mingus Big Band, the Smithsonian Jazz Orchestra. In 1988 he toured Europe with Lionel Hampton. Early in his career he was a member of Out of the Blue, a group which featured young Blue Note Records artists.
Wilson was the subject of a 1996 New York Times profile, entitled "A Sideman's Life". That year he joined the Dave Holland Quintet. From 1998–2001 he was a member of Chick Corea's Origin sextet, he played and recorded on Japanese composer Yoko Kanno's debut album, Song to Fly and part of The Seatbelts' New York Musicians during that period. In 1997 he formed the Steve Wilson Quartet with pianist Bruce Barth, double bassist Ed Howard, drummer Adam Cruz; the group recorded two albums. He headed a larger ensemble, which performed jazz and original compositions, he has performed in a duo with drummer Lewis Nash. In May 2007 he performed as a soloist for Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip during the Jamestown, Virginia quadricentennial. Wilson is on the faculty at the Manhattan School of Music, City College of New York, State University of New York at Purchase, Columbia University, he has been an artist-in-residence at the University of North Carolina, Hamilton College, Old Dominion University, with the CITYFOLK arts program in Dayton, Ohio.
A septet formed that year in honor of the 70th anniversary of Blue Note Records. The group recorded an album in 2008, entitled Mosaic, released in 2009 on Blue Note/EMI, toured the United States in promotion of the album from January until April 2009; the group plays the music of Blue Note Records from various artists, with arrangements by members of the band and Renee Rosnes. In 2010, Wilson celebrated his 50th birthday at Jazz Standard in New York City, he led six bands in six nights, with jazz musicians that included Karrin Allyson, Bruce Barth, Adam Cruz, Carla Cook, Ed Howard, Lewis Nash, Ugonna Okegwo, Jeff "Tain" Watts, Freddie Hendrix, Christian McBride, Mulgrew Miller, Linda Oh, Geoffrey Keezer, John Wikan. One special feature was the inclusion of a string section to play music from Bird with Strings, it was composed of Diane Monroe, Nardo Poy, Joyce Hammann, Chern Hwei, Troy Stuart. The Wall Street Journal wrote a full-length feature article. In 2017 Wilson released a vinyl lp titled Sit Back, Relax & Unwind, recorded and mastered with analog technology.
The band on the album was Ray Angry, Ben Williams and Willie Jones III and it was released by JMI Recordings. New York Summit with Mulgrew Miller, James Genus Step Lively with Cyrus Chestnut, Freddie Bryant, Dennis Irwin Generations with Mulgrew Miller, Ray Drummond Passages with Nicolas Payton, Bruce Barth, Ed Howard, Adam Cruz Soulful Song with Rene Marie, Carla Cook, Bruce Barth, Ed Howard, Adam Cruz Home Co-leader with Bruce Barth, Recorded Live in Columbia, MO Sit Back, Relax & Unwind Carl Allen/Rodney Whitaker, Get Ready Karrin Allyson, In Blue Karrin Allyson, Ballads: Remembering John Coltrane DMP Big Band, Tribute to Duke Ellington DMP Big Band, Carved in Stone Rob Bargad, Better Times Kenny Barron, The Traveler Bruce Barth, Morning Call Bruce Barth, In Focus Bruce Barth, Hope Springs Eternal Bruce Barth and West Noah Baerman, Soul Force Louie Bellson, Live from NYC David Berkman, Handmade David Berkman, Communication Theory Chris Berger, Conversations Paul Bollenback, Soul Grooves Jimmy Bosch, Singing Trombone Don Braden, After Dark Michael Brecker, Wide Angles Donald Brown, Car Tunes Donald Brown, Send One Our Love Bill Bruford, Earthworks Underground Orchestra Freddie Bryant, Take your Dance into Battle Freddie Bryant, Boogaloo Brasiliero, Freddie Bryant, Laverne Butler, A Foolish Thing To Do Charlie Byrd, Don Byron, Bug Music, Ron Carter, Great Big Band, Billy Childs, Map to the Treasure: Reimagining Laura Nyro Billy Childs, The Child Within, Avishai Cohen, Chick Corea, Corea Concerto, Chick Corea, Rendezvous in New York, Chick Corea, Elektric Band: To The Stars, Chick Corea & Origin, Live at the Blue Note, Chick Corea & Origin, A Week at the Blue Note, Chick Corea & Origin, Chick Corea & Origin, Roz Corral, Telling Tales, Steve Davis, Portrait in Sound, Dena DeRose, Introducing Dena DeRose, Dena DeRose, Ano
Jon Faddis is an American jazz trumpet player, conductor and educator, renowned for both his playing and for his expertise in the field of music education. Upon his first appearance on the scene, he became known for his ability to mirror the sound of trumpet icon Dizzy Gillespie, his mentor along with pianist Stan Kenton and trumpeter Bill Catalano. Jon Faddis was born in Oakland, California, in 1953. At 18, he joined Lionel Hampton's big band before joining the Thad Jones/Mel Lewis Orchestra as lead trumpet. After playing with Charles Mingus in his early twenties, Faddis became a noted studio musician in New York City, appearing on many pop recordings in the late 1970s and early 1980s. One such recording was "Disco Inferno" with the Players Association in which he plays trumpet recorded in 1977 on the LP "Born to Dance". In the mid-1980s, he left the studios to continue to pursue his solo career, which resulted in albums such as Legacy, Into the Faddisphere and Hornucopia; as a result of his growth as a musician and individual artist, he became the director and main trumpet soloist of the Dizzy Gillespie 70th Birthday Big Band and Dizzy's United Nation Orchestra.
From 1992 to 2002, Faddis led the Carnegie Hall Jazz Band at Carnegie Hall, conducting more than 40 concerts in ten years, during which time the CHJB presented over 135 musicians, featured over 70 guest artists, premiered works by over 35 composers and arrangers at Carnegie Hall. Faddis led the Dizzy Gillespie Alumni All-Stars and the Dizzy Gillespie Alumni All-Stars Big Band from their inception through 2004, when he was appointed artistic director of the Chicago Jazz Ensemble, based at Columbia College Chicago in Illinois. Faddis led the CJE from autumn 2004 though spring 2010, premiering significant new works, pioneering educational initiatives in Chicago public schools focusing on Louis Armstrong's music, bringing the CJE into new venues, while concurrently leading the Jon Faddis Jazz Orchestra of New York; as of May 2010, Faddis leads the JFJONY, while continuing to lead the Jon Faddis Quartet and the JFQ+2. The JFJONY headlined The Kennedy Center's New Year's Eve performance in December 2010.
In 2006, the Jon Faddis Quartet released the CD Teranga, featuring guests including Clark Terry, Russell Malone, Gary Smulyan, Frank Wess. In 1999, Faddis released the Grammy-nominated Remembrances, composed entirely of ballads and featured work from Argentinian composer/arranger Carlos Franzetti. In 1997, Faddis composed the jazz opera Lulu Noire, presented at USA in Charleston, South Carolina, as well as at the American Music Theater Festival in Philadelphia. Faddis appeared in the 1998 movie Blues Brothers 2000. In the film, he plays trumpet with The Louisiana Gator Boys. Faddis is a noted educator for jazz and the trumpet. For over a decade, Faddis has taught – and continues to teach – at The Conservatory of Music at Purchase College-SUNY, in Westchester, New York, where he teaches trumpet, an ensemble. Remaining true to the tradition of honoring mentors, he leads master classes and workshops around the world. In July 2011 he played a tribute to Miles Davis at the Prague Castle, hosted by the Czech President, Václav Klaus, accompanied by Lenny White on drums, Jaroslav Jakubovič on baritone saxophone, Tom Barney on bass and Emil Viklický on piano.
Faddis has been a resident of New Jersey. Faddis is the uncle of Madlib and Oh No, acclaimed hip-hop producers. 1974: Jon & Billy 1976: Youngblood 1978: Good and Plenty 1985: Legacy 1989: Into the Faddisphere 1991: Hornucopia 1995: The Carnegie Hall Jazz Band 1997: Swing Summit: Passing on the Torch 1997: Eastwood After Hours: Live at Carnegie Hall 1998: Remembrances 2006: Teranga Jon Faddis Official Website
A jazz band is a musical ensemble that plays jazz music. Jazz bands vary in the quantity of its members and the style of jazz that they play but it is common to find a jazz band made up of a rhythm section and a horn section; the size of a jazz band is related to the style of jazz they play as well as the type of venues in which they play. Smaller jazz bands known as combos, are common in night clubs and other small venues and will be made up of three to seven musicians. Jazz bands can vary in size to a smaller trio or quartet; the term jazz trio can refer to a three piece band with double bass player and a drummer. Some bands use vocalists. Jazz bands have a bandleader. In a big band setting, there is more than one player for a type of instrument. Jazz bands and their composition have changed many times throughout the years just as the music itself changes with each performers personal interpretation and improvisation, one of the greatest appeals of going to see a jazz band. Small jazz bands of three to four musicians are referred to as combos and can be found in small night club venues.
In modern jazz, an acoustic bass player is always present in a small band, complemented by any other combination of instruments. It's common for musicians in a combo to perform their music from memory; the improvisational nature of these performances make every show unique. In jazz, there are several types of trios. One type of jazz trio is formed with a bass player and a drummer. Another type of jazz trio that became popular in the 1950s and 1960s is the organ trio, composed of a Hammond organ player, a drummer, a third instrumentalist. In organ trios, the Hammond organ player performs the bass line on the organ bass pedals while playing chords or lead lines on the keyboard manuals. Other types of trios include the "drummer-less" trio, which consists of a piano player, a double bassist, a horn or guitar player. In the latter type of trio, the lack of a chordal instrument means that the horn player and the bassist have to imply the changing harmonies with their improvised lines. Jazz quartets add a horn to one of the jazz trios described above.
Larger jazz ensembles, such as quintets or sextets add other soloing instruments to the basic quartet formation, such as different types of saxophones or an additional chordal instrument. The Modern Jazz Quartet was a jazz combo established in 1952 that played a style of jazz influenced by classical music; the lineup of larger jazz ensembles can vary depending on the style of jazz being performed. In a 1920s-style Dixieland jazz band, a larger ensemble would be formed by adding a banjo player, woodwind instruments, as with the clarinet, or additional horns to one of the smaller groups. In a 1940s-style Swing big band, a larger ensemble is formed by adding "sections" of like instruments, such as a saxophone section and a trumpet section, which perform arranged "horn lines" to accompany the ensemble. In a 1970s-style jazz fusion ensemble, a larger ensemble is formed by adding additional percussionists or sometimes a saxophone player would "double" or "triple" meaning that they would be proficient at the clarinet, flute or both.
By the addition of soloing instruments. The rhythm section consists of the percussion, double bass or bass guitar, at least one instrument capable of playing chords, such as a piano, Hammond organ or vibraphone; the standard rhythm section is piano and drums, augmented by guitar at times in small combos and in large ones. Some large swing era orchestras employed an additional piano and banjo; the horn section consists of a woodwind section and a brass section, which play the melody and main accompaniment. The standard small combo limits itself to one trumpet and one saxophone at times augmented by a second saxophone or a trombone. Typical horns found in a big jazz band include 4–5 trumpets, 5–6 woodwind instruments, 3–4 trombones; the banjo has been used in jazz since the earliest jazz bands. The earliest use of the banjo in a jazz band was by Frank Duson in 1917, however Laurence Marrero claims it became popular in 1915. There are three common types of banjo, the plectrum banjo, tenor banjo, cello banjo.
Over time, the four stringed tenor banjo became the most common banjo used in jazz. The drum-like sound box on the banjo made it louder than the acoustic guitars that were common with early jazz bands, banjos were popular for recording. Jazz bass is the use of the double bass or bass guitar, to improvise accompaniment and solos in a jazz band. Players began using the double bass in jazz in the 1890s, to supply the low-pitched walking basslines. Beginning in the early 1950s, some jazz bass players began to use the electric bass guitar in place of the double bass. Most jazz bassists specialize in either the electric bass. Jazz drumming is the art of playing percussion the drum set, in jazz styles ranging from 1910s-style Dixieland jazz to 1970s-era jazz-rock fusion and 1980s-era Latin jazz. Stylistically, this aspect of performance was sha
Brian Blade is an American jazz drummer, session musician, singer-songwriter. Blade was raised in Shreveport, Louisiana; the first music he experienced was gospel and songs of praise at the Zion Baptist Church where his father, Brady L. Blade, Sr. has been the pastor for fifty-two years. In elementary school, music appreciation classes were an important part of his development and at age nine, he began playing the violin. Inspired by his older brother, Brady Blade, Jr., the drummer at Zion Baptist Church, Brian shifted his focus to the drums throughout middle and high school. During high school, while studying with Dorsey Summerfield, Jr. Blade began listening to the music of John Coltrane, Charlie Parker, Miles Davis, Art Blakey, Thelonious Monk, Elvin Jones, Joni Mitchell. By the age of eighteen, Brian moved to New Orleans to attend Loyola University. From 1988 through 1993, he studied and played with most of the master musicians living in New Orleans, including John Vidacovich, Ellis Marsalis, Steve Masakowski, Bill Huntington, Mike Pellera, John Mahoney, George French, Germaine Bazzle, David Lee, Jr. Alvin Red Tyler, Tony Dagradi and Harold Battiste.
In 1997, Blade formed The Fellowship Band with pianist Jon Cowherd, bassist Chris Thomas, saxophonists Myron Walden and Melvin Butler, guitarist Jeff Parker, pedal steel guitarist Dave Easley and guitarist Kurt Rosenwinkel. The band released its debut album, Brian Blade Fellowship, in 1998, Perceptual in 2000, Season of Changes in 2008, Landmarks in 2014, Body and Shadow in 2017. Reviewing the band's 2014 Landmarks album, John Kelman wrote: As the Fellowship Band has grown, it has moved away from overt traditional references though they're an undercurrent throughout. Instead, as it explores milestones both inner and outer, Landmarks further speaks with the singular voice that the Fellowship Band has built upon since inception. Blending folkloric references, hints of church and spiritual concerns, jazz modality and countrified touchstones, Landmarks is the perfect name for Brian Blade & The Fellowship Band's fourth album, it may have come after a long gap in time. While continuing to work with the Fellowship Band, since 2000 Blade has been a member of Wayne Shorter's quartet.
He has recorded with Daniel Lanois, Joni Mitchell, Ellis Marsalis, Marianne Faithfull, Emmylou Harris, Billy Childs, Herbie Hancock, Bob Dylan. In 2009, Blade released Mama Rosa, his first album as a singer-songwriter, with songs dedicated to his grandmother and family; the album featured Daniel Lanois, vocalists Kelly Jones and Daryl Johnson, bassist Chris Thomas, guitarists Kurt Rosenwinkel and Geoffrey Moore, pedal steel guitarists Greg Leisz and Patrick Smith, pianists Aaron Embry and Jon Cowherd. It was co-produced by Adam Samuels; the live band includes Steven Nistor on drums. On April 30, 2016, Blade played at the White House in Washington, D. C. as part of The International Jazz Day Global Concert. 2013: ECHO Jazz Award "International Artist of the Year Drums/Percussion", for Quiver. Blade uses vintage Gretsch, Ludwig and Slingerland drums, he plays. He has used a variety of cymbals over the years, including multiple ride cymbals made from Roberto Spizzichino, vintage A Zildjians, a 22" Zildjian K Constantinople Light Ride.
His acoustic guitar is a mid-1950s Gibson LG-3. 1998: Brian Blade Fellowship 2000: Perceptual 2008: Season of Changes 2009: Mama Rosa 2014: Landmarks 2017: Body and Shadow 2007: Friendly Travelers 2008: Friendly Travelers Live 2001: Real Book Stories 2004: Air and Vitamins 2012: Quiver 2013: Trilogy 2015: Children of the Light 2001: South 2004: Welcome to Life 2005: Afinidad 2007: Océanos with Edward Simon 2009: Third Occasion 2011: Graylen Epicenter 1992: Black Hope 1995: Triology 1996: Pursuance: Music of John Coltrane 2006: Beyond the Wall 1994: Black Art 1995: The New Bop 1999: Smokin' Java 2007: Truth and Reconciliation 2002: Come Away with Me 2004: Feels Like Home 2016: Day Breaks 2003: Shine 2004: Rockets 2005: Belladonna 2008: Here Is What Is 2010: Black Dub 2014: Flesh And Machine 1998: Painting with Words and Music 1998: Taming the Tiger 2002: Travelogue 2007: Shine 2003: Real Book Stories 2014: Driftwood 2016: Rising Grace 2001: Communion 2003: Songs, Stories & Spirituals 2006: Line by Line 2009: Remembrance 2014: Viva Hermeto!
1994: MoodSwing 1995: Spirit of the Moment – Live at the Village Vanguard 1996: Freedom in the Groove 1998: Timeless Tales 2002 Yaya3 2002: Elastic with Joshua Redman Elastic Band 2005: Momentum (Nonesuch] 2007: Back East 2009: Compass 2013: Walking Shadows 2018: Still Dreaming 2002: Footprints Live! 2003: Alegria 2005: Beyond the Sound Barrier 2013: Without a Net 2018: Emanon 2005: Afinidad 2006: Unicity 2009: Poesia 2013: Trio Li
Jazz violin is the use of the violin or electric violin to improvise solo lines. Early jazz violinists included Eddie South, who played violin with Jimmy Wade's Dixielanders in Chicago. Joe Venuti was best known for his work with guitarist Eddie Lang during the 1920s. Georgie Stoll was a jazz violinist who became an orchestra film music director. Improvising violinists include Stéphane Grappelli, Noel Pointer, Jean-Luc Ponty. While not jazz violinists, Darol Anger and Mark O'Connor have spent significant parts of their careers playing jazz, while Sara Caswell, Scott Tixier, Jeremy Kittel are fluent in both progressive and traditional styles of jazz. Violins appear in string ensembles or big bands supplying orchestral backgrounds to many jazz recordings; the violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. It is the smallest and highest-pitched member of the violin family of string instruments, which includes the viola and double bass. A violinist produces sound by either drawing a bow across one or more strings, plucking the strings, or a variety of other techniques.
In jazz fusion, violinists may use an electric violin plugged into an instrument amplifier with electronic effects. Jazz violin began in New Orleans in the early 1900s. Arrangements for ragtime orchestras had parts for violins in which they were as important as the other instruments. Bandleaders Alphonso Trent and Andy Kirk employed violinists in their territory bands. Stuff Smith played violin as a member of Trent's band in the 1920s and tinkered with ways to increase the volume of the quiet instrument. Claude Williams alternated between violin when he worked with Count Basie. In Chicago, Eddie South was music director for Jimmy Wade. South was accompanied by Juice Wilson. Violin is one instrument Edgar Sampson performed on as a member of the Fletcher Henderson band in the 1930s. Angelina Rivera was a classically trained violinist who worked with Josephine Baker and Spencer Williams. W. C. Handy conducted an orchestra with a violin section. String sections existed in the big bands of Paul Whiteman, Artie Shaw, Tommy Dorsey, Earl Hines, though violin sections didn't improvise.
Bandleaders who were violinists included Leon Abbey, Clarence Black, Carroll Dickerson, Erskine Tate. Violin became a solo instrument in jazz through the efforts of Stuff Smith, Eddie South, Stephane Grappelli, Joe Venuti. Venuti was in a popular duo with guitarist Eddie Lang beginning in the 1920s. Grappelli became popular as a member of the Quintette du Hot Club de France with guitarist Django Reinhardt. Darnell Howard recorded violin solos with the Hines band, as did trumpeter Ray Nance for the Duke Ellington Orchestra. Jean-Luc Ponty is a virtuoso French jazz composer. By the mid-1960s he had moved towards recording with Grappelli and Stuff Smith, his attraction to jazz was influenced by the music of Miles Davis and John Coltrane, which led him to adopt the electric violin. Critic Joachim Berendt wrote, "Since Ponty, the jazz violin has been a different instrument" and of his "style of phrasing that corresponds to early and middle John Coltrane" and his "brilliance and fire". In 1967 he visited the U.
S. for the Monterey Jazz FestivalPonty worked with Grappelli, the Mahavishnu Orchestra, Frank Zappa, appeared on more than 70 recordings. His symphonic approach to jazz fusion made him a popular fusion artist of the 1970s. In 1972, he featured prominently on Elton John's Honky Chateau album. In 1977, he pioneered the use of the 5-string electric violin, with a lower C string, he sometimes uses a 6-string electric violin called the violectra, with low C and F strings – not to be confused with the violectra he played from the late 1960s to the mid-80s which had 4 strings, but tuned an octave lower. Ponty was among the first to combine the violin with MIDI, electronic distortion boxes, phase shifters, wah-wah pedals; this resulted in his signature synthesizer-like sound. In 2005, Ponty formed the acoustic jazz fusion supergroup Trio! with Stanley Clarke and Béla Fleck. The violin is well-represented in improvisational music. Mark Feldman is one of the leading performers in modern and contemporary jazz violin, along with Jean-Luc Ponty, Mat Maneri.
Regina Carter tops both readers' and critic's polls while playing in an earthy, R&B-influenced style. Zach Brock and Scott Tixier are examples of the younger generation of jazz violinists gaining wider recognition. Ola Kvernberg, Bjarke Falgren and Ari Poutiainen represent Northern Europe. In jazz-rock fusion styles, jazz violinists may use an electric violin. Jazz fusion groups use rock instruments such as electric guitar, bass guitar, electric keyboards, drums. Moreover, the use of an electric violin allows the violinist to apply effects such as a wah pedal, reverb, or a distortion fuzzbox, to create unusual new sounds. An electric violin is a violin equipped with an electric signal output of its sound, is considered to be a specially constructed instrument which can either be an electro-acoustic violin capable of producing both acoustic sound and electric signal or an electric violin capable of producing only electric signal. To be effective as an acoustic violin, electro-acoustic violins retain much of the resonati
Bebop or bop is a style of jazz developed in the early to mid-1940s in the United States, which features songs characterized by a fast tempo, complex chord progressions with rapid chord changes and numerous changes of key, instrumental virtuosity, improvisation based on a combination of harmonic structure, the use of scales and occasional references to the melody. Bebop developed as the younger generation of jazz musicians expanded the creative possibilities of jazz beyond the popular, dance-oriented swing style with a new "musician's music", not as danceable and demanded close listening; as bebop was not intended for dancing, it enabled the musicians to play at faster tempos. Bebop musicians explored advanced harmonies, complex syncopation, altered chords, extended chords, chord substitutions, asymmetrical phrasing, intricate melodies. Bebop groups used rhythm sections in a way. Whereas the key ensemble of the swing era was the big band of up to fourteen pieces playing in an ensemble-based style, the classic bebop group was a small combo that consisted of saxophone, piano, double bass, drums playing music in which the ensemble played a supportive role for soloists.
Rather than play arranged music, bebop musicians played the melody of a song with the accompaniment of the rhythm section, followed by a section in which each of the performers improvised a solo returned to the melody at the end of the song. Some of the most influential bebop artists, who were composer-performers, are: tenor sax players Dexter Gordon, Sonny Rollins, James Moody; the term "bebop" is derived from nonsense syllables used in scat singing. It appears again in a 1936 recording of "I'se a Muggin'" by Jack Teagarden. A variation, "rebop", appears in several 1939 recordings; the first, known print appearance occurred in 1939, but the term was little-used subsequently until applied to the music now associated with it in the mid-1940s. Thelonious Monk claims that the original title "Bip Bop" for his tune "52nd Street Theme", was the origin of the name bebop; some researchers speculate that it was a term used by Charlie Christian because it sounded like something he hummed along with his playing.
Dizzy Gillespie stated that the audiences coined the name after hearing him scat the then-nameless tunes to his players and the press picked it up, using it as an official term: "People, when they'd wanna ask for those numbers and didn't know the name, would ask for bebop." Another theory is that it derives from the cry of "Arriba! Arriba!" used by Latin American bandleaders of the period to encourage their bands. At times, the terms "bebop" and "rebop" were used interchangeably. By 1945, the use of "bebop"/"rebop" as nonsense syllables was widespread in R&B music, for instance Lionel Hampton's "Hey! Ba-Ba-Re-Bop". Bebop grew out of the culmination of trends, occurring within swing music since the mid-1930s: less explicit timekeeping by the drummer, with the primary rhythmic pulse moving from the bass drum to the high hat cymbal; the path towards rhythmically streamlined, solo-oriented swing was blazed by the territory bands of the southwest with Kansas City as their musical capital. Ability to play sustained, high energy, creative solos was valued for this newer style and the basis of intense competition.
Swing-era jam sessions and "cutting contests" in Kansas City became legendary. The Kansas City approach to swing was epitomized by the Count Basie Orchestra, which came to national prominence in 1937. One young admirer of the Basie orchestra in Kansas City was a teenage alto saxophone player named Charlie Parker, he was enthralled by their tenor saxophone player Lester Young, who played long flowing melodic lines that wove in and out of the chordal structure of the tune but somehow always made musical sense. Young was daring with his rhythm and phrasing as with his approach to harmonic structures in his solos, he would repeat simple two or three note figures, with shifting rhythmic accents expressed by volume, articulation, or tone. His phrasing was far removed from the four bar phrases that horn players had used until then, they would be extended to an odd number of measures, overlapping the musical stanzas suggested by the harmonic structure. He would take a breath in the middle of a phrase, using the pause, or "free space," as a creative device.
The overall effect was that his solos were something floating above the rest of the music, rather than something springing from it at intervals suggested by the ensemble sound. When the Basie orchestra burst onto the national scene with its 1937 recordings and nationally broadcast New York engagements, it gained a national following, with legions of saxophone players striving to imitate Young, drummers striving to imitate Jo Jones, piano players striving to imitate