Ebenezer Sunder Singh
Ebenezer Sunder Singh is an Indian-born visual artist based in Brooklyn, New York. Singh works as a painter, sculptor and filmmaker, he has been credited as one of the best contemporary figurative artists to emerge from India in recent years. Singh was born in the temple town of Tamil Nadu in India, his formative years were influenced by the twin heritages of his hometown, which houses both Christian cathedrals and the famous Hindu Nellaiappar Temple. Singh went on to graduate from Government College of Fine Arts, where he had begun to show his work in state-level exhibitions, he studied under pioneers in the field of South Indian figurative art, such as A. P. Santhanaraj and L. Mumusamy. Following his move to the United States, Singh received his MFA in Visual Art from the Lesley University College of Art and Design, where he studied the visual modes of photography and video art under renowned visual artists Julia Scher and Judith Barry. Singh's early career began at Cholamandal Artists' Village, the largest artists' commune in India.
His primary visual influences were based on Dravidian temple art and its mythological capacity for figuration, but he soon imbued this with elements of the Italian Transavantgarde movement following his exposure to the works of Naples-born painter Francesco Clemente. Singh debuted his paintings and sculptures at a 1996 solo exhibition titled The Hollow Men, The Stuffed Men at Easel Art Gallery. Singh was chosen to represent India in 1998 at the International Artists Camp held in Sri Lanka, where he worked and exhibited his works alongside German painter Thomas Scheibitz; the following year, Singh received the Charles Wallace Grant and traveled to England, where his illustration and printmaking works were exhibited at Kingston University in a show titled Neti... Neti... Drawing on metaphysical themes of redemptive resurrection and transcendentalism, Singh continued to build an individualistic oeuvre. In the Indian art sphere, Pundole Art Gallery in Mumbai showcased Singh's figurative works, as did Anant Art Gallery, Threshold Art Gallery and New Delhi's contemporary art hub Palette Art Gallery.
In 2001, he exhibited his paintings and sculptures at the Museum of Asian Art in Berlin, Germany in a series titled Inspirationen. The Museum of Asian Art acquired twelve of Singh's paintings and sculptures for its permanent collection, as did the National Gallery of Modern Art in New Delhi, which collected three of his paintings. Singh was awarded the Artist's Fulbright Fellowship as part of the Fulbright Program and researched on the cathartic symbolism of religious iconography in the context of the east-west subaltern dialogue. For the next decade, Singh continued to exhibit his contemporary figurative works in venues as varied as Barcelona, Budapest and Mumbai with pieces as multifaceted as self-portrait photography works and sequined fiberglass sculptures. Singh's photographic self-portraits were chosen to be a part of a traveling exhibition titled Self and the Other - Portraiture in Contemporary Indian Photography that toured through Barcelona and Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain in 2010. Art historian Deepak Ananth described Singh's series Wake Me Up When I Am Dead as being "radical and subversive...
Ebenezer's self-portraits reveal a complex iconography, unafraid of their political undertones and repercussions." Singh's video art has received considerable recognition, with pieces such as Master of Arts and Narashimha Avatar being included in short film festivals and exhibitions. Austin Peay State University in Tennessee showcased Singh's videos in its annual Terminal Short Video Festival in 2011. In an exhibition titled Radiate: Art of the South Asian Diaspora, Singh's sculptures and visual works were exhibited at Gallery 400 in the University of Illinois at Chicago and at the Windsor Art Center in Connecticut. Singh's most recent collaborations with his figurative contemporaries manifested in a 2014 exhibition titled When Marco Polo Saw Elephants, a show reviewed by art critic Susan Dunne of the Hartford Courant. Singh is represented by the R L Fine Arts Gallery in New York City. Singh's works are described as metaphysical, bold explications on memory and symbolic iconography, his discrete and fluid connotations of color on multiple media show figures that "oscillate between feelings of fear and hope" Indian art critic Nancy Adajania describes Singh's work, saying, "Ebenezer uses his own body as a measure of his expression, allowing it to soar only to be grounded by its reflection: embracing a cosmic totality only to be cut by the swirling swathe of death...it liberates him from the distractions of excessive visual stimuli, to concentrate on the live material of the body that burns a thirsty flaming yellow, turns green with lust and envy and blue with spiritual awaking.""Consistently drawing on themes such as redemption, guilt and male valor, Singh channels his spontaneity on canvas and sculpture."
He exposes preconceived notions on the seemingly'superhuman' ideal of male virility and societal masculinity. Moved by Nietzschean impulses and Jungian musings on the human psyche, his stylistic intents on canvas and sculpture are expressive and charged, as noted by art critic and Director and Chief Curator of the Kiran Nadar Museum of Art, Roobina Karode. Writing about Singh's charcoal drawings and fiberglass sculptures in a solo exhibition titled Thus Spake Zarathustra she said, "Ebenezer’s drawings are intensely evocative with their charged malleability... Ebenezer masters the controlled messiness of the medium for its raw appeal and expressivity." Holy Smoke and Other Works, R L Fine Arts, New York, USA - 2010 Thus Spake Zarathustra, Pu
Brett Whiteley, AO was an Australian artist. He is represented in the collections of all the large Australian galleries, was twice winner of the Archibald and Sulman prizes, he held many exhibitions, lived and painted in Australia as well as Italy, England and the United States. Growing up in Longueville, a suburb of Sydney, Whiteley was educated at Scots School and Scots College, Bellevue Hill, he started drawing at a early age. While he was a teenager, he painted on weekends in the Central West of New South Wales and Canberra with such works as The soup kitchen. Throughout 1956 to 1959 at the National Art School in East Sydney, Whiteley attended drawing classes. In 1959 he won an art scholarship sponsored by the Italian government and judged by Russell Drysdale, he left Australia for Europe on 23 January 1960. After meeting Bryan Robertson, the director of the Whitechapel Gallery, Whiteley was included in the 1961 group show'Recent Australian Painting,' where his Untitled red painting was bought by the Tate Gallery.
He was the youngest living artist to have work purchased by a record that still stands. In 1962, Whiteley married Wendy Julius, their only child, daughter Arkie Whiteley, was born in London in 1964. While in London, Whiteley painted works in several different series: bathing, the zoo and the Christies, his paintings during these years were influenced by the modernist British art of the sixties – the works of William Scott and Roger Hilton – and were of brownish abstract forms. It was these abstract works which led to him being recognised as an artist, at a time when many other Australian artists were exhibiting in London, but from 1963 he moved away from abstraction towards figuration, his farewell to abstraction, Summer at Sigean, was a record of his honeymoon in France. He painted Woman in bath as part of a series of works he was doing of bathroom pictures, it has black on one side and has an image of his wife Wendy in a bathtub, seen from behind. Another in the series was a more abstracted Woman in the bath II, which owed a debt to his yellow and red abstract paintings of the early sixties.
In 1964, while in London, Whiteley became fascinated by the murderer John Christie, who had committed murders in the area near where Whiteley was staying in Ladbroke Grove. He painted a series of paintings based on these events, including Head of Christie. Whiteley's intention was to portray the violence of the events, but not to go too far in showing something which people would not want to see. During this time, Whiteley painted works based on the animals at the London Zoo, such as Two Indonesian giraffes, which he found sometimes difficult; as he said: "To draw animals, one has to work at white heat because they move so much, because it is sometimes painful to feel what one guesses the animal'feels' from inside." Whiteley made images of the beach, such as his yellowish painting and collage work The beach II, which he painted on a brief visit to Australia before his return to London and his winning of a fellowship to America. Whiteley appears as a character in the book Falling Towards England by Clive James under the name Dibbs Buckley.
His wife Wendy appears as "Delish". In 1967 Whiteley won a Harkness Fellowship Scholarship to work in New York, he met other artists and musicians while he lived at the Hotel Chelsea, where he befriended musicians Janis Joplin and Bob Dylan. His first impression of New York was shown in the painting First sensation of New York City, which showed streets with fast moving vehicles, street signs, hot dog vendors, tall buildings; the Hotel Chelsea displayed several of Whiteley's paintings from the time he lived there, including Portrait of New York, hung behind the reception desk. One way that America influenced him is in the scale of his works, he was much influenced by the peace movement at the time and came to believe that if he painted one huge painting which would advocate peace the Americans would withdraw their troops from Vietnam. Whiteley became active in the great peace movements of the 1960s, with the protests against America's involvement in the war in Vietnam; the resulting work was called The American dream, an enormous work that used painting and collage and anything else he could find on the 18 wooden panels.
It took a great deal of his effort, taking about a year of full-time work. It started with a peaceful, serene ocean scene on one side, that worked its way to destruction and chaos in a mass of lighting, red colours and explosions on the other side, it was his comment on the direction the world might be headed and his response to a pointless war which could end in a nuclear holocaust. Many of the ideas from the work may have come from his experiences with alcohol and other drugs, he believed that many of his ideas came from these experiences, he used drugs as a way of bringing the ideas from his subconscious. He sometimes took more than his body could handle, had to be admitted to hospital for alcohol poisoning twice. Around him at the Hotel Chelsea, other artists and musicians took heroin, which Whiteley did not take at that time; the painting, produced was made of a fantastic array of elements, including collage and flashing lights, with a total length of nearly 22 metres. However Marlborough-Gerson, his gallery, refused to show the work, he was so distraught that he decided to leave New York, he'fled' to Fiji.
One image which uses van Gogh's style in a unique way is The night café. He took the van Gogh painting and stretched the lines of the room to a single vanishing point, creating an image which appears fast moving and vibrant
Markus Lüpertz is a German painter, graphic artist and writer. He publishes a magazine, plays jazz piano, he is one of the best-known German contemporary artists. His subjects are characterized by archaic monumentality. Lüpertz insists on capturing the object of representation with an archetypal statement of his existence, his art work is associated to neo-expressionism. Known for his excentricity, German press has stylized him as a "painter prince". Lüpertz was born in Reichenberg in the Reichsgau Sudetenland of Nazi-occupied Czechoslovakia in 1941, his family moved to Rheydt in the Rhineland, in West Germany, when he was seven years old, in 1948. He was dismissed for an alleged lack of talent from an early apprenticeship as a painter of wine bottle labels, his second teacher, a commercial artist, went bankrupt. Lüpertz studied from 1956 to 1961, with Laurens Goosens, his studies, he worked in mining underground, road construction, spent a semester at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf. His short presence at the Academy ended as a "huge fiasco", a "physical conflict that escalated a lot" led to his exmatriculation.
"As an unloved, as an outcast, I have been expelled from this house," Lüpertz remembered in retrospect, this "embarrassing defeat" of his student days. Since 1961 he worked in Düsseldorf as a freelance artist. Lüpertz first sought the adventure and joined the French Foreign Legion, but he deserted shortly after, before he could be sent to Algeria. In 1962, he moved to West Berlin, avoiding military service, where he began his actual painting career. There he was one of the founders, together with Karl Horst Hödicke, Hans -Jürgen Diehl, Wolfgang Petrick, Peter Sorge and eleven other artists, of the gallery Grossgörschen, in 1964. In 1969, Kalus Gallwitz, director of the Baden-Baden Kunsthalle, presented works by Lüpertz in his talent show. In 1970, Lüpertz received the Villa Romana Prize and spent a year in Florence, Italy, as part of the associated scholarship, he was awarded the German Association of Critics Prize in 1974. Lüpertz organized the same year the 1st Biennale of Berlin. In 1975, he published his first poetry book, 9 × 9.
After working as a guest lecturer in 1973, he accepted the professorship of painting at the Academy of Fine Arts in Karlsruhe in 1974. He published the poetry collection "And I, I play..." in 1981. In 1983 he took over a professorship at the Summer Academy in Austria, he spent a time in the United States in 1984. He remained a professor in Karlsruhe until 1986. In 1986, he received a professorship at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf, was appointed rector in 1988, he led one of the leading German art academies for a long tenure of more than 20 years. He filled vacancies at the academy with internationally known artists, including A. R. Penck, Jannis Kounellis, Rosemarie Trockel, Jörg Immendorff, Albert Oehlen, Peter Doig and Tony Cragg. At the Venice Biennale in 1993, he was invited to the German Pavilion, together with Georg Baselitz and Anselm Kiefer, he was replaced as rector by Tony Cragg, in June 2009. Lüpertz was elected to the North Rhine-Westphalian Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2009. Since 2014 he is a lecturer at the Academy of Fine Arts at the Alte Spinnerei.
Lüpertz planned to start a private art academy in the former villa of banker Henckel am Pfingstberg in Potsdam, but decided to cancel the project. In 2011, Lüpertz exhibited a new body of work entitled Pastoral Thoughts at the Michael Werner gallery in New York City. According to the brochure, these are "New works by the celebrated and controversial German artist explore themes of history and abstraction in paintings derived from landscape motifs." The exhibition was labeled: "is the artist’s first major New York showing since 2005," and was accompanied by a illustrated catalogue. Lüpertz works in Berlin, Karlsruhe, Düsseldorf and Florence, he has his studio in Teltow. He has five children. Lüpertz converted to Roman Catholicism. Lüpertz created his first paintings around 1960. In contrast to the prevailing abstract tendencies of his time, the young Lüpertz designed simple representational motifs in an expressive manner, his early works show a powerful imagery with monumental representations of forms.
In his painting he combined contradictory motifs. As a palpable ambiguity, he incorporated the doubts of modernity into tradition into his pictorial constructions and sought the way out of the overpowering abstraction. In 1962 he developed his "dithyrambic painting" in Berlin and began the Mickey Mouse series and a year the Donald Duck series. In 1964, he held his exhibition of term taken from Friedrich Nietzsche. In this paintings, Lüpertz combined the opposites of abstraction into a synthesis. Lüpertz sees the picturesque universe shaped by a continuous rhythm to which everything is subordinated, he published his "Dithyrambic Manifesto", in 1966, followed by a second manifesto titled "The Grace of the Twentieth Century", in 1968. From 1969 to 1977, he painted predominantly German motifs, namely symbolic objects such as steel helmets, flags or monumental antlers in large formats; the paintings were executed in earthy colors and thematized the unmanaged German national pathos, where unfortunate memories of the Third Reich era were evoked.
This phase was followed by another one, from 1977 to 1984, based on the abstract painting of the 1950s. His paintings from this period are completely free from motives, the play with surface and volume-forming forms and the richness of the picturesque surface are used fruitfully; these tendencies ended in favor of a new spatiality. From 1985 to 1990, Lüpertz devoted himself
Anselm Kiefer is a German painter and sculptor. He studied with Peter Dreher during the 1970s, his works incorporate materials such as straw, clay and shellac. The poems of Paul Celan have played a role in developing Kiefer's themes of German history and the horror of the Holocaust, as have the spiritual concepts of Kabbalah. In his entire body of work, Kiefer argues with the past and addresses taboo and controversial issues from recent history. Themes from Nazi rule are reflected in his work, his works are characterised by an unflinching willingness to confront his culture's dark past, unrealised potential, in works that are done on a large, confrontational scale well suited to the subjects. It is characteristic of his work to find signatures and/or names of people of historical importance, legendary figures or historical places. All of these are encoded sigils. Kiefer has lived and worked in France since 1992. Since 2008, he has lived and worked in Paris and in Alcácer do Sal, Portugal. In 2018, he was awarded Austrian citizenship.
The son of a German art teacher, Kiefer was born in Donaueschingen two months before the end of World War II. In 1951, his family moved to Ottersdorf, he attended public school in Rastatt, graduating high school in 1965, he entered University of Freiburg, studied pre-Law and Romance languages. However, after 3 semesters he switched to Art, studying at Art academies in Freiburg, Düsseldorf. In Karlsruhe, he studied under an important realist and figurative painter, he received an Art degree in 1969. Kiefer moved to Düsseldorf in 1970. In 1971 he moved in southwestern Germany, where he established a studio, he remained there until 1992. In 1992 he relocated to France. Kiefer began his career as a photographer with performances in which he, in paramilitary costume, mimicked the Nazi salute on various locations in France and Italy calling for Germans to remember and to acknowledge the loss to their culture through the mad xenophobia of the Third Reich. In 1969, at Galerie am Kaiserplatz, Karlsruhe, he presented his first single exhibition "Besetzungen" with a series of photographs about controversial political actions.
Kiefer is best known for his paintings, which have grown large in scale with additions of lead, broken glass, dried flowers or plants, resulting in encrusted surfaces and thick layers of impasto. By 1970, while studying informally under Joseph Beuys at Kunstakademie Düsseldorf, his stylistic leanings resembled Georg Baselitz's approach, he worked with glass, straw and plant parts. The use of these materials meant that his art works became temporary and fragile, as Kiefer himself was well aware; the fragility of his work contrasts with the stark subject matter in his paintings. This use of familiar materials to express ideas was influenced by Beuys, who used fat and carpet felt in his works, it is typical of the Neo-Expressionist style. Kiefer returned to the area of his birthplace in 1971. In the years that followed, he incorporated German mythology in particular in his work, in the next decade he studied the Kabbalah, as well as Qabalists like Robert Fludd, he went on extended journeys throughout the USA and the Middle East.
Besides paintings, Kiefer created sculptures, watercolors and woodcuts, using woodcuts in particular to create a repertoire of figures he could reuse in all media over the next decades, lending his work its knotty thematic coherence. Throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, Kiefer made numerous paintings, watercolors and books on themes interpreted by Richard Wagner in his four-opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen. In the early 1980s, he created more than thirty paintings, painted photographs, watercolors that refer in their titles and inscriptions to the Romanian Jewish writer Paul Celan's poem "Todesfuge". A series of paintings which Kiefer executed between 1980 and 1983 depict looming stone edifices, referring to famous examples of National Socialist architecture buildings designed by Albert Speer and Wilhelm Kreis; the grand plaza in To the Unknown Painter refers to the outdoor courtyard of Hitler's Chancellery in Berlin, designed by Speer in 1938 in honor of the Unknown Soldier. In 1984–85, he made a series of works on paper incorporating manipulated black-and-white photographs of desolate landscapes with utility poles and power lines.
Such works, like Heavy Cloud, were an indirect response to the controversy in West Germany in the early 1980s about NATO's stationing of tactical nuclear missiles on German soil and the placement of nuclear fuel processing facilities. By the mid-1980s, Kiefer's themes widened from a focus on Germany's role in civilisation to the fate of art and culture in general, his work became more sculptural and involved not only national identity and collective memory, but occult symbolism and mysticism. The theme of all the work is the trauma experienced by entire societies, the continual rebirth and renewal in life. During the 1980s his paintings became more physical, featured unusual textures and materials; the range of his theme
James Sidney Edouard, Baron Ensor was a Belgian painter and printmaker, an important influence on expressionism and surrealism who lived in Ostend for his entire life. He was associated with the artistic group Les XX. Ensor's father, James Frederic Ensor, born in Brussels to English parents, was a cultivated man who studied engineering in England and Germany. Ensor's mother, Maria Catherina Haegheman, was Belgian. Ensor himself lacked interest in academic study and left school at the age of fifteen to begin his artistic training with two local painters. From 1877 to 1880, he attended the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, where one of his fellow students was Fernand Khnopff. Ensor first exhibited his work in 1881. From 1880 until 1917, he had his studio in the attic of his parents' house, his travels were few: three brief trips to France and two to the Netherlands in the 1880s, a four-day trip to London in 1892. During the late 19th century much of his work was rejected as scandalous his painting Christ's Entry Into Brussels in 1889.
The Belgium art critic Octave Maus famously summed up the response from contemporaneous art critics to Ensor's innovative work: "Ensor is the leader of a clan. Ensor is the limelight. Ensor concentrates certain principles which are considered to be anarchistic. In short, Ensor is a dangerous person who has great changes.... He is marked for blows, it is at him. It is on his head that are dumped the most aromatic containers of the so-called serious critics." Some of Ensor's contemporaneous work reveals his defiant response to this criticism. For example, the 1887 etching "Le Pisseur" depicts the artist urinating on a grafitied wall declaring "Ensor est un fou" or "Ensor is a Madman."But his paintings continued to be exhibited, he won acceptance and acclaim. In 1895 his painting The Lamp Boy was acquired by the Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium in Brussels, he had his first solo exhibition in Brussels. By 1920 he was the subject of major exhibitions. Alfred H. Barr, Jr. the founding director of the Museum of Modern Art in New York, after considering Ensor's 1887 painting Tribulations of Saint Anthony, declared Ensor the boldest painter working at that time.
In the first decade of the 20th century, his production of new works was diminishing, he concentrated on music—although he had no musical training, he was a gifted improviser on the harmonium, spent much time performing for visitors. Against the advice of friends, he remained in Ostend during World War II despite the risk of bombardment. In his old age he was an honored figure among Belgians, his daily walk made him a familiar sight in Ostend, he died there after a short illness, on 19 November 1949. While Ensor's early works, such as Russian Music and The Drunkards, depict realistic scenes in a somber style, his palette subsequently brightened and he favored bizarre subject matter; such paintings as The Scandalized Masks and Skeletons Fighting over a Hanged Man feature figures in grotesque masks inspired by the ones sold in his mother's gift shop for Ostend's annual Carnival. Subjects such as carnivals, puppetry and fantastic allegories are dominant in Ensor's mature work. Ensor dressed skeletons up in his studio and arranged them in colorful, enigmatic tableaux on the canvas, used masks as a theatrical aspect in his still lifes.
Attracted by masks' plastic forms, bright colors, potential for psychological impact, he created a format in which he could paint with complete freedom. The four years between 1888 and 1892 mark a turning point in Ensor's work, he turned to religious themes the torments of Christ. Ensor interpreted religious themes as a personal disgust for the inhumanity of the world. In 1888 alone, he produced forty-five etchings as well as his most ambitious painting, the immense Christ's Entry Into Brussels in 1889. Known as Entry of Christ into Brussels, it is considered "a forerunner of twentieth-century Expressionism." In this composition, which elaborates a theme treated by Ensor in his drawing Les Aureoles du Christ of 1885, a vast carnival mob in grotesque masks advances toward the viewer. Identifiable within the crowd are Belgian politicians, historical figures, members of Ensor's family. Nearly lost amid the teeming throng is Christ on his donkey; the piece, which measures 99½ by 169½ inches, was rejected by Les XX and was not publicly displayed until 1929.
After its controversial export in the 1960s, the painting is now at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles; as Ensor achieved belated recognition in the final years of the 19th century, his style softened and he painted less. Critics have seen Ensor's last fifty years as a long period of decline; the aggressive sarcasm and scatology that had characterized his work since the mid-1880s was less evident in his few new compositions, much of his output consisted of mild repetitions of earlier works. Significant works of Ensor's late period include The Artist's Mother in Death, a subdued painting of his mother's deathbed with prominent medicine bottles in the foreground, The Vile Vivisectors, a vehement attack on those responsible for the use of animals in medical experimentation. Ensor was a accomplished printmaker, he created 133 etchings and d
Pop art is an art movement that emerged in the United Kingdom and the United States during the mid- to late-1950s. The movement presented a challenge to traditions of fine art by including imagery from popular and mass culture, such as advertising, comic books and mundane cultural objects. One of its aims is to use images of popular culture in art, emphasizing the banal or kitschy elements of any culture, most through the use of irony, it is associated with the artists' use of mechanical means of reproduction or rendering techniques. In pop art, material is sometimes visually removed from its known context, isolated, or combined with unrelated material. Among the early artists that shaped the pop art movement were Eduardo Paolozzi and Richard Hamilton in Britain, Larry Rivers, Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns among others in the United States. Pop art is interpreted as a reaction to the then-dominant ideas of abstract expressionism, as well as an expansion of those ideas. Due to its utilization of found objects and images, it is similar to Dada.
Pop art and minimalism are considered to be art movements that precede postmodern art, or are some of the earliest examples of postmodern art themselves. Pop art takes imagery, in use in advertising. Product labeling and logos figure prominently in the imagery chosen by pop artists, seen in the labels of Campbell's Soup Cans, by Andy Warhol; the labeling on the outside of a shipping box containing food items for retail has been used as subject matter in pop art, as demonstrated by Warhol's Campbell's Tomato Juice Box, 1964. The origins of pop art in North America developed differently from Great Britain. In the United States, pop art was a response by artists, they used impersonal, mundane reality and parody to "defuse" the personal symbolism and "painterly looseness" of abstract expressionism. In the U. S. some artwork by Larry Rivers, Alex Katz and Man Ray anticipated pop art. By contrast, the origins of pop art in post-War Britain, while employing irony and parody, were more academic. Britain focused on the dynamic and paradoxical imagery of American pop culture as powerful, manipulative symbolic devices that were affecting whole patterns of life, while improving the prosperity of a society.
Early pop art in Britain was a matter of ideas fueled by American popular culture when viewed from afar. Pop art was both an extension and a repudiation of Dadaism. While pop art and Dadaism explored some of the same subjects, pop art replaced the destructive and anarchic impulses of the Dada movement with a detached affirmation of the artifacts of mass culture. Among those artists in Europe seen as producing work leading up to pop art are: Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, Kurt Schwitters. Although both British and American pop art began during the 1950s, Marcel Duchamp and others in Europe like Francis Picabia and Man Ray predate the movement. During the 1920s, American artists Patrick Henry Bruce, Gerald Murphy, Charles Demuth and Stuart Davis created paintings that contained pop culture imagery "prefiguring" the pop art movement; the Independent Group, founded in London in 1952, is regarded as the precursor to the pop art movement. They were a gathering of young painters, architects and critics who were challenging prevailing modernist approaches to culture as well as traditional views of fine art.
Their group discussions centered on pop culture implications from elements such as mass advertising, product design, comic strips, science fiction and technology. At the first Independent Group meeting in 1952, co-founding member and sculptor Eduardo Paolozzi presented a lecture using a series of collages titled Bunk! that he had assembled during his time in Paris between 1947 and 1949. This material of "found objects" such as advertising, comic book characters, magazine covers and various mass-produced graphics represented American popular culture. One of the collages in that presentation was Paolozzi's I was a Rich Man's Plaything, which includes the first use of the word "pop", appearing in a cloud of smoke emerging from a revolver. Following Paolozzi's seminal presentation in 1952, the IG focused on the imagery of American popular culture mass advertising. According to the son of John McHale, the term "pop art" was first coined by his father in 1954 in conversation with Frank Cordell, although other sources credit its origin to British critic Lawrence Alloway.
"Pop art" as a moniker was used in discussions by IG members in the Second Session of the IG in 1955, the specific term "pop art" first appeared in published print in the article "But Today We Collect Ads" by IG members Alison and Peter Smithson in Ark magazine in 1956. However, the term is credited to British art critic/curator Lawrence Alloway for his 1958 essay titled The Arts and the Mass Media though the precise language he uses is "popular mass culture". "Furthermore, what I meant by it is not what it means now. I used the term, also'Pop Culture' to refer to the products of the mass media, not to works of art that draw upon popular culture. In any case, sometime between the winter of 1954-55 and 1957 the phrase acquired currency in conversation..." Alloway was one of the leading critics to defend the inclusion of the imagery of mass culture in the fine arts. Alloway clarified these terms
Rainer Fetting is a German painter and sculptor. Rainer Fetting was one of the co-founders and main protagonists of the Galerie am Moritzplatz in Berlin, founded in the late 1970s by a group of young artists from the class of Karl Horst Hödicke at the former Berliner Hochschule für Bildende Künste; this group of artists, known as the “Moritzboys” and including, among others, Salomé, Bernd Zimmer, Helmut Middendorf, subsequently achieved international acclaim as the “Junge Wilde” or “Neue Wilde” in the early 1980s. Fetting is now one of the internationally best known contemporary German artists, having created a large oeuvre of expressive figurative paintings covering many different kinds of subject-matter, as well as many bronze sculptures. Rainer Fetting Artist, born 1949 in Wilhelmshaven. 1972 – 1978 Studies painting at the Hochschule der Künste, with Prof. Hans Jaenisch 1977 Co-founder of the Galerie am Moritzplatz with Helmut Middendorf, Bernd Zimmer, Salomé, Anne Jud and Berthold Schepers.
1978 DAAD Scholarship for residence in New York 1983 – 1994 lives in New York and Berlin 1996 Willy Brandt sculpture for Willy Brandt House, Berlin 2005 Portrait sculpture of Henri Nannen for the Henri Nannen Press Award 2006 7 sculptures of Helmut Schmidt Fetting lives and works in Berlin and on the island of Sylt, both Germany. After having been trained as a carpenter and a stage designer at the Landesbühne Niedersachsen in Wilhelmshaven, Fetting moved to Berlin and enrolled at the Berliner Hochschule für Bildende Künste, studying painting with Hans Jaenisch from 1972 through 1978. In his final year at the academy he, together with Anne Jud, Helmut Middendorf, Stefan Roloff, Berthold Schepers, Salomé and Bernd Zimmer founded the Galerie am Moritzplatz as a self-help project, in order to be able to exhibit their colorful figurative paintings in an art scene still dominated by minimalism, conceptual art, as well as Berlin Realism; the artists exhibiting at the gallery formed the core of the art movement that came to be known and achieved international acclaim as the „Neue Wilde“.
Fetting at the time focused on Berlin cityscapes and figurative work, painted in strong colors, including many depictions of the Berlin Wall. In 1980 he participated in the exhibition Heftige Malerei“ in the Haus am Waldsee, Berlin, in 1981 he was part of the exhibition New Spirit in Painting organized by Christos M. Joachimides and Norman Rosenthal at the Royal Academy of Arts in London, in 1982 he participated in the exhibition “Zeitgeist” in the Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin. After that he had many solo exhibitions in reputable galleries both in Europe and in the United States, such as Bruno Bischofberger, Mary Boone, Yvon Lambert, Daniel Templon, the Marlborough Gallery, New York, or Anthony d'Offay. In early 1983, the Musée d'Art Contemporain de Bordeaux presented an exhibition of collaborative works by Luciano Castelli and Salomé; the three artists performed the concert »Opéra par hasard« in Bordeaux and Paris. ). In 1984 he participated in the exhibitions Von hier aus – Zwei Monate neue deutsche Kunst in Düsseldorf and An International Survey of Recent Painting and Sculpture at the MoMA, New York, in 1988 he was part of the exhibition Refigured Painting – The German Image 1960–1988 at the Guggenheim Museum, New York.
Between 1983 and 1994, Fetting spent part of his time in New York City, where he had spent a year in 1978 on a grant from the DAAD. In his paintings, Fetting continued to explore the topic of the cityscape. Starting in 1984, while in New York, he experimented with assemblages of drift wood mounted on canvas and painted over. Paintings by Fetting were used as the works of Willem Dafoe's character in the 1985 film To Live and Die in L. A. in which Fetting had a cameo as a priest. In 1986, he started doing bronze sculptures, his best known work is the 3,40-meters-high sculpture of former West German chancellor Willy Brandt, placed in the foyer of the SPD party headquarters in Berlin, Germany. In 2003/04 he was included in the exhibition Obsessive Malerei - Ein Rückblick auf die Neuen Wilden. Recent highlights were the solo. Rainer Fetting Sculptures” and "Mancapes" at Gerhard-Marcks-Haus in Bremen and at Kunsthalle Tübingen. In 2011 the museum Berlinische Galerie honored the artist Rainer Fetting with an extensive solo exhibition.
Solo Exhibitions Galerie am Moritzplatz, Berlin 1977, 1978 Anthony d’Offay, London 1981, 1982 Bruno Bischhofberger, Zurich 1981 Mary Boone, New York 1981, 1982 Paul Maenz, Cologne 1982 Yvon Lambert, Paris 1983 Marlborough Gallery, New York 1984, 1986 Galerie Daniel Templon, Paris 1985, 1987 Galerie Thomas, Munich 1985 Museum Folkwang, Essen 1986 Kunsthalle Basel, Basel 1986 Galerie Würthle, Vienna 1987 Raab Galerie, Berlin/London 1979, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993 Museo di Barcelona, Barcelona 1989 Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Nationalgalerie / DDR 1990 Stadtmuseum Weimar, Weimar 1990 Galleria Gian Ferrari Arte Contemporanea, Milan 1990 Harenberg City-Center, Dortmund 1994 Collection Martin Sanders, Staatliches Russisches Museum, St. Petersburg 1995 Galerie Tammen und Busch, Berlin 1995, 1996, 1999 Boukamel Contemporary Art Gallery, London 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002 Galerie Michael Schultz, Berlin 1999 NBK, Berlin 1999 Stiftung Schleswig-Holsteinisches Landesmuseum, Landesmuseum Schloß Gottorf 2000 Kunsthalle in Emden, Emden 2001 Galerie Borchardt, Hamburg 2004, 2005 Kunsthalle Wilhelmshaven, Wilhelmshaven 1997, 2005 Galerie Deschler, Berlin 2005, 2009 Studio d’Arte Cannaviello, Milan 1983, 1985, 1986, 1