Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
In the geologic timescale, the Valanginian is an age or stage of the Early or Lower Cretaceous. It spans between 132.9 ± 2.0 Ma. The Valanginian stage succeeds the Berriasian stage of the Lower Cretaceous and precedes the Hauterivian stage of the Lower Cretaceous; the Valanginian was first described and named by Édouard Desor in 1853. It is named after a small town north of Neuchâtel in the Jura Mountains of Switzerland; the base of the Valanginian is at the first appearance of calpionellid species Calpionellites darderi in the stratigraphic column. A global reference section had in 2009 not yet been appointed; the top of the Valanginian is at the first appearance of the ammonite genus Acanthodiscus. The Valanginian is subdivided in Lower and Upper substages; the Upper substage begins at the first appearance of ammonite species Saynoceras verrucosum and the major marine transgression Va3. In the Tethys domain, the Valanginian stage contains five ammonite biozones: zone of Criosarasinella furcillata zone of Neocomites peregrinus zone of Saynoceras verrucosum zone of Busnardoites campylotoxus zone of Tirnovella pertransiens Gradstein, F.
M.. G. & Smith, A. G.. GeoWhen Database - Valanginian Mid-Cretaceous timescale and ühttp://stratigraphy.science.purdue.edu/charts/Timeslices/5_JurCret.pdf Jurassic-Cretaceous timescale], at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS Stratigraphic chart of the Lower Cretaceous, at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy
The Albian is both an age of the geologic timescale and a stage in the stratigraphic column. It is the uppermost subdivision of the Early/Lower Cretaceous epoch/series, its approximate time range is 113.0 ± 1.0 Ma to 100.5 ± 0.9 Ma. The Albian is followed by the Cenomanian; the Albian stage was first proposed in 1842 by Alcide d'Orbigny. It was named after Alba, the latin name for River Aube in France, A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point, ratified by the IUGS in 2016, defines the base of the Albian as the first occurrence of the planktonic foraminiferan Microhedbergella renilaevis at the Col de Pré-Guittard section, Arnayon, Drôme, France; the top of the Albian stage is defined as the place where the foram species Rotalipora globotruncanoides first appears in the stratigraphic column. The Albian is sometimes subdivided in Early/Lower and Late/Upper subages or substages. In western Europe in the UK, a subdivision in two substages is more used; the following representatives of the Albian stage are worthy of notice: the phosphorite beds of the Argonne and Bray areas in France.
Moffitites The following is a list of Ammonite genera whose fossils are geochronologically found first in lower Albian strata. These genera may survive into portions of the Albian stage, or into geological stages; this list should not be thought of in terms of the lifespan of the genera included. Aioloceras Anacleoniceras Anadesmoceras Anisoceras Arcthoplites Brancoceras Brewericeras Cleoniceras Cymahoplites Douvilleiceras Epileymeriella Eubranoceras Farnhamia Hoplites Kossmatella Labeceras Leconteites Lemuroceras Leymeriella Lyelliceras Neobibolites Otohoplites Oxytropidoceras Paracanthoplites Parasilesites Parengonoceras Plictetia Prohelicoceras Proleymeriella Prolyelliceras Protohoplites Pseudoleymeriella Pseudosonneratia Puzosia Puzosigella Rhytidohoplites Rossalites Silesitoides Sokolovites Sonneratia Tegoceras Tetrahoplites Tetrahoplitoides Zealandites The following is a list of Ammonite genera whose fossils are geochronologically found first in middle Albian strata; these genera may survive into portions of the Albian stage, or into geological stages.
This list should not be thought of in terms of the lifespan of the genera included. Anagaudryceras Anahoplites Astiericeras Dimorphoplites Dipoloceras Dipoloceroides Engonoceras Epihoplites Euhoplites Falciferella Falloticeras Gastroplites Hamitoides Hysteroceras Isohoplites Manuaniceras Mojsisoviczia Mortoniceras Ostlingoceras Protengonoceras Proturrilitoides Pseudhelicoceras Scaphamites Subarcthoplites Sulcohoplites Turrilitoides Venezoliceras Zuluscaphites The following is a list of Ammonite genera whose fossils are geochronologically found first in upper Albian strata; these genera may survive into portions of the Albian stage, or into geological stages. This list should not be thought of in terms of the lifespan of the genera included. Adkinsites Arestoceras Beudantiella Bhimaites Borissiakoceras Cainoceras Callihoplites Cantabrigites Cenisella Cottreauites Cyrtochilus Deiradoceras Diplasioceras Discohoplites Ellipsoceras Elobiceras Eogunnarites Eopachydiscus Eoscaphites Erioliceras Ficheuria Flickia Gaudryceras Gazdaganites Goodhallites Hemiptychoceras Hengestites Hypengonoceras Hyphoplites Idiohamites Karamaiceras Karamaites Koloceras Lechites Lepthoplites Lytodiscoides Mantelliceras Mariella Metengonoceras Myloceras Neogastroplites Neoharpoceras Neokentoceras Neophlycticeras Pachydesmoceras Paradolphia Paraturrilites Pervinquieria Plesiohamites Plesioturrilites Pleurohoplites Prohysteroceras Psilohamites Rusoceras Salaziceras Saltericeras Scaphites Schloenbachia Sciponoceras Semenovites Spathiceras Stoliczkaia Stomohamites Worthoceras Carinophylloceras Gradstein, F.
M.. G. & Smith, A. G.. Kennedy, W. J.. S.. A. & Caron, M.. D'Orbigny, A. C. V. M.. GeoWhen Database - Albian Mid-Cretaceous timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS Stratigraphic chart of the Lower Cretaceous, at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy Albian Stage, Cretaceous Period in Hampshire
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
In the geological timescale, the Berriasian is an age or stage of the Early Cretaceous. It is the oldest, or lowest, subdivision in the entire Cretaceous, it spanned the time between 145.0 139.8 ± 3.0 Ma. The Berriasian precedes the Valanginian; the Berriasian Stage was introduced in scientific literature by Henri Coquand in 1869. It is named after the village of Berrias in the Ardèche department of France; the non-marine English Purbeck Formation is in part of Berriasian age. In fact, the first rocks to be described of this age were the beds of the English Purbeck Formation, named as the Purbeckian by Alexandre Brongniart in 1829 following description by Henry De la Beche, William Buckland, Thomas Webster and William Henry Fitton; the base of the Berriasian, the base of the Cretaceous system, has traditionally been placed at the first appearance of fossils of the ammonite species Berriasella jacobi. But this is a species that has a stratigraphically problematic and geographically limited distribution.
A global reference profile for the Berriasian has been under active consideration by the International Subcommission on Cretaceous Stratigraphy of IUGS. A range of contender GSSP localities has been studied in detail by the ISCS's Berriasian Working Group including localities as far apart as Mexico, Tunisia and the Russian Far East. Several markers have been employed to refine correlations and to work towards defining a base for the Berriasian Stage; these include calcareous nannofossils, such as Nannoconus, ammonites, palynological data and magnetostratigraphy, notably magnetozone M19n. The calibration of these markers Nannoconus steinmannii minor, N. kamptneri minor, Calpionella alpina, within fixed magnetozones give greater precision in trying to identify the best position for a boundary. In June 2016, the Berriasian Working Group voted to adopt Calpionella alpina as the primary marker for the base of the Berriasian Stage. In the western part of the ocean of Tethys, the Berriasian consists of four ammonite biozones, from top to bottom: Thurmanniceras otopeta Subthurmannia boissieri Tirnovella occitanica Berriasella jacobi/Pseudosubplanites grandisThe top of the Berriasian stage is defined by the base of the Valanginian, fixed at the first appearance of calpionellid species Calpionellites darderi.
This is just a little below the first appearance of the ammonite species Thurmanniceras pertransiens. Gradstein, F. M.. G. & Smith, A. G.. GeoWhen Database - Berriasian Jurassic-Cretaceous timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS Stratigraphic chart of the Lower Cretaceous, at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy
Pierre Jean Édouard Desor
Pierre Jean Édouard Desor was a German-Swiss geologist and naturalist. Desor studied law at Giessen and Heidelberg, was compromised in the republican movements of 1832/3, escaped to Paris. Here his attention was drawn to geology, he made excursions with Élie de Beaumont, in 1837 met Louis Agassiz at a meeting of naturalists in Neufchâtel. With Gressli and Vogt, Desor became an active collaborator with Agassiz, studying palaeontology and glacial phenomena, contributing the essays for vol. iii. of Agassiz's Monographie d'echinodermes vivants et fossiles. Desor published Excursions et sejours dans les glaciers et les hautes régions des Alpes de M. Agassiz et de ses compagnons de voyage. Together with James David Forbes, Desor ascended the Jungfrau in 1841, he was in a guided party on the first ascent of the Lauteraarhorn on 8 August 1842 and of the Rosenhorn summit of the Wetterhorn on 28 August 1844. He spent a few years in the north of Europe in Scandinavia, investigating the erratic phenomena peculiar to that region, From strata he examined in Denmark he introduced the term Danian in 1847, to characterize the oldest stage of the Paleogene.
Desor accompanied Agassiz in 1847 to the United States, found employment in the coast survey, made with Whitney and Rogers a geological survey of the mineral district of Lake Superior. Returning to Neufchâtel in 1852, he investigated with Gressli the orography of the Jura for industrial purposes. Desor became professor of geology at the academy of Neuchâtel, continued his studies on the structure of glaciers, but gave special attention to the study of Jurassic Echinoderms, he investigated the old lake-habitations of Switzerland, made important observations on the physical features of the Sahara. He was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1871. Having inherited considerable property he retired to Combe Varin in Val-de-Travers, he died in Nice on 23 February 1882. His chief publications were: Synopsis des Échinides fossiles Aus Sahara und Atlas Der Gebirgsbau der Alpen Die Pfahlbauten des Neuenburger Sees Échinologie helvétique Le paysage morainique This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Ripley, George.
"Desor, Edward". The American Cyclopædia. Gilman, D. C.. "Desor, Eduard". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Pictures and texts of Excursions et séjours dans les glaciers et les hautes régions des Alpes, de M. Agassis et de ses compagnons de voyage by Edouard Desord can be found in the database VIATIMAGES
Neuchâtel, or Neuchatel. The city has 34,000 inhabitants; the city is sometimes referred to by the German name Neuenburg, which has the same meaning. It was part of the Holy Roman Empire and under Prussian control from 1707 until 1848; the official language of Neuchâtel is French. Neuchâtel is a pilot of the Council of Europe and the European Commission Intercultural Cities programme; the oldest traces of humans in the municipal area are the remains of a Magdalenian hunting camp, dated to 13,000 BC. It was discovered in 1990 during construction of the A5 motorway at Monruz; the site was about 5 m below the main road. Around the fire pits carved bones were found. In addition to the flint and bone artifacts three tiny earrings from lignite were found; the earrings may have served as symbols of fertility and represent the oldest known art in Switzerland. This first camp was used by Cro-Magnons to hunt reindeer in the area. Azilian hunters had a camp at the same site at about 11,000 BC. Since the climate had changed, their prey was now wild boar.
During the 19th century, traces of some stilt houses were found in Le Cret near the red church. However, their location was not well documented and the site was lost. In 1999, during construction of the lower station of the funicular railway, which connects the railway station and university, the settlement was rediscovered, it was determined to be a Cortaillod culture village. According to dendrochronological studies, some of the piles were from 3571 BC. A Hallstatt grave was found in the forest of Les Cadolles. At Les Favarger a Gallo-Roman and at André Fontaine a small coin depot were discovered. In 1908, an excavation at the mouth of Serrière discovered Gallo-Roman baths from the 2nd and 3rd Centuries AD. One of the most important Merovingian cemeteries in the canton was discovered at Les Battieux in Serrières. In 1982, 38 graves dating from the 7th century were excavated many of which contained silver-inlaid or silver-plated belt buckles. In Serrières at the church of Saint-Jean, the remains of a 7th-century shrine were excavated.
In 1011, Rudolph III of Burgundy presented a Novum castellum or new castle on the lake shore to his wife Irmengarde. It was long assumed that this new castle replaced an older one, but nothing about its location or design is known. At the time of this gift Neuchâtel was the center of a newly created royal court, developed to complement the other royal estates which managed western estates of the Kings of Burgundy; the first counts of Neuchâtel were named shortly afterwards, in 1214 their domain was dubbed a city. For three centuries, the County of Neuchâtel flourished, in 1530, the people of Neuchâtel accepted the Reformation, their city and territory were proclaimed to be indivisible from on. Future rulers were required to seek investiture from the citizens. With increasing power and prestige, Neuchâtel was raised to the level of a principality at the beginning of the 17th century. On the death in 1707 Marie d'Orleans-Longueville, duchess de Nemours and Princess of Neuchâtel, the people had to choose her successor from among fifteen claimants.
They wanted their new prince first and foremost to be a Protestant, to be strong enough to protect their territory but based far enough away to leave them to their own devices. Louis XIV promoted the many French pretenders to the title, but the Neuchâtelois people passed them over in favour of King Frederick I of Prussia, who claimed his entitlement in a rather complicated fashion through the Houses of Orange and Nassau. With the requisite stability assured, Neuchâtel entered its golden age, with commerce and industry and banking undergoing steady expansion. At the turn of the 19th century, the King of Prussia was defeated by Napoleon I and was forced to give up Neuchâtel in order to keep Hanover. Napoleon's field marshal, became Prince of Neuchâtel, building roads and restoring infrastructure, but never setting foot in his domain. After the fall of Napoleon, Frederick William III of Prussia reasserted his rights by proposing that Neuchâtel be linked with the other Swiss cantons. On September 12, 1814, Neuchâtel became the capital of the 21st canton, but remained a Prussian principality.
It took a bloodless revolution in the decades following for Neuchâtel to shake off its princely past and declare itself, on March 1, 1848, a republic within the Swiss Confederation. Neuchâtel has an area, as of 2009, of 18.1 square kilometers. Of this area, 1.84 km2 or 10.2% is used for agricultural purposes, while 9.74 km2 or 53.8% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 6.42 km2 or 35.5% is settled, 0.03 km2 or 0.2% is either rivers or lakes and 0.02 km2 or 0.1% is unproductive land. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 2.2% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 18.0% and transportation infrastructure made up 10.1%. While parks, green belts and sports fields made up 4.3%. Out of the forested land, 51.8% of the total land area is forested and 2.0% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land