The Neoplan Transliner was a series of related public transport single-decker bus models introduced by Neoplan USA in 1981. It was able to compete with the Rapid Transit Series, Flxible Metro, Gillig Phantom and the Orion I in the early 1980s; the Transliner was available in a wide variety of body styles. The Transliners could be ordered in 26', 30', 35', 40', 60' lengths. Standard low, or semi-low floors were available. NeoPlan offered a variety of both diesel and CNG fueled. Depending upon the model, Detroit Diesel 40 or 50 series or the 6V92TA. Most Transliners featured Allison B400 or B500 "World Transmissions". However, ZF and Voith transmissions were available on some models. 26–30 foot models AN430 AN408 35 foot models AN435 AN435LF 40 foot models AN440 AN440LF AN440TLF 45 foot models AN445TLF 60 foot models AN460 AN460LF In late 1983 through 1985, Neoplan delivered an order for over 1000 buses for the state of Pennsylvania. By 1989, the largest transportation network in Pennsylvania, SEPTA, had 1092 Neoplan AN440s in service.
However over the years as they were replaced by New Flyer Low Floor buses, that were placed in service since between 2001 and 2006, While the remaining 35 Neoplan AN440s were sent to the SEPTA Frankford Depot, following after the retirement of the 1978 AM General Trolleybuses that retire in 2006, as they served as the temporary replacement, they were retired on June 20, 2008, following after the final delivery of the New Flyer trolleybuses was completed. SEPTA ordered 155 Neoplan AN460s from 1998-2000 to replace their aging Volvo B10M articulated buses and about 60 AN460 high floor buses are in service until 2013, they were being replaced by Novabus LFS Artic articulated buses, as of 2016, after delivering the last remaining set of Novabus Artics, all of the remaining AN460 buses were retired. In the 1980s, WMATA known as Metro, PAT Port Authority Transit in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania complained about frame problems with their Neoplan coaches. However, they both run new Neoplan buses — WMATA with the AN460, a 60-foot articulated version, PAT with AN460s and AN440LFs, the low floor version of these buses.
However, the AN440 and AN460 models ordered by the San Francisco Municipal Railway proved troublesome. Among the problems were insufficient, excessively noisy cooling fans, faulty transmissions, maintenance intensive brake systems, cracking frames; the problems were compounded when Neoplan refused to fix the problems, instead choosing to repossess the remaining spare parts and abandon its overhaul yard located in San Francisco. Self-supporting monocoque steel construction made of seamless square steel tubes, electrically welded. Exterior roof and side wall panels are of double galvanized steel, sealed to the skeleton with a combination of spot welding and gluing. Stainless steel stepwells. Seating capacity for up to 46 passengers. V Drive: Detroit Diesel Series 50, DDEC III, 275HP Cummins L10, Bravo Phase III 275HP Cummins L10 Bravo Phase III, CNG / LNG optional T-Drive: Detroit Diesel Series 50, DDEC III, 275 to 315HP Cummins L10, Phase III 275 to 300HP Cummins L10 CNG / LNG optional V-Drive: Allison V731 or VR731 3 speed with integral retarder ZF HP590 5 speed Voith D883 T-Drive: Allison World Transmission B400 / B500, Retarder optional Front: Rockwell 17100 Series, IFS hubs Rear: Rockwell 50738 Series with ratios to provide top speeds between 55 and 65 MPH.
Rear: Rockwell 61100 Series with ratios to provide top speeds between 55 and 70 MPH. Dual circuit air brakes Bendix "S" cam with automatic slack adjusters and spring type parking brake. Anti-lock brake systems and tractiona control optional The 40-foot buses were made for over 50 transportation networks all over the United States; the bus networks that have or have had them in service are MBTA in Massachusetts. San Francisco Municipal Railway ordered Neoplan AN440s and AN460s to replace their aging bus fleet during 2001-2004, but they are unique in that they have rear windows, with the air conditioning unit mounted on the roof. Bi-State Development Agency, dba Metro, has a small fleet of Neoplan Buses for its MetroBus service, since March 30, 2009, has retired them. List of buses www.neoplan.de — Neoplan in Germany The History Of The Neoplan Order at SEPTA
A commercial vehicle is any type of motor vehicle used for transporting goods or paying passengers. The European Union defines a "commercial motor vehicle" as any motorized road vehicle, that by its type of construction and equipment is designed for, capable of transporting, whether for payment or not: more than nine persons, including the driver; this means the tanks permanently fixed by the manufacturer to all motor vehicles of the same type as the vehicle in question and whose permanent fitting lets fuel be used directly, both for propulsion and, where appropriate, to power a refrigeration system. Gas tanks fitted to motor vehicles for the direct use of diesel as a fuel are considered standard fuel tanks. In the United States a vehicle is designated “commercial” when it is titled or registered to a company; this is a broad definition, as commercial vehicles may be fleet vehicles, company cars, or other vehicles used for business. Vehicles that are designed to carry more than 15 passengers are considered a commercial vehicle.
A vehicle may be considered a commercial vehicle if it: Belongs to a company or corporation Is used for business, but is in an individual's name, such as a sole proprietor Is a leased vehicle and in the name of the financial institution that owns it Exceeds a certain weight or class and therefore, is "classified" as commercial though it may not be commercially used or commercially owned. A weight rating of 26,001 pounds or more is always considered commercial Is used to haul any hazardous materialA vehicle can be used for a business, if not and remain licensed, depending on the amount of time used for business. Commercial trucks are classified according to the gross vehicle weight rating; the United States Department of Transportation classifies commercial trucks with eight classes: Class 1- GVWR ranges from 0 to 6,000 pounds Class 2- GVWR ranges from 6,001 to 10,000 pounds Class 3- GVWR ranges from 10,001 to 14,000 pounds Class 4- GVWR ranges from 14,001 to 16,000 pounds Class 5- GVWR ranges from 16,001 to 19,500 pounds Class 6- GVWR ranges from 19,501 to 26,000 pounds Class 7- GVWR ranges from 26,001 to 33,000 pounds Class 8- GVWR is anything above 33,000 pounds Truck Box truck Semi-trailer truck Van Bus Coach Trailers Heavy equipment Travel Trailers over 10,000 pounds Taxi Old commercial vehicles, like vintage cars, are popular items for preservation.
News about preservation can be found in magazines, such as Heritage Commercials. Commercial vehicle accidents and injuries are more complex than regular car accidents involving additional concerns, background checks on operator driving records, corporate maintenance records. Bus driver Light commercial vehicle Large goods vehicle Light truck Truck classification Truck driver Violation out-of-service
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for various purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details used classification schemes in use worldwide; this following table summarises common classifications for cars. Microcars and their Japanese equivalent— kei cars— are the smallest category of automobile. Microcars straddle the boundary between car and motorbike, are covered by separate regulations to normal cars, resulting in relaxed requirements for registration and licensing. Engine size is 700 cc or less, microcars have three or four wheels. Microcars are most popular in Europe, where they originated following World War II; the predecessors to micro cars are Cycle cars. Kei cars have been used in Japan since 1949. Examples of microcars and kei cars: Honda Life Isetta Tata Nano The smallest category of vehicles that are registered as normal cars is called A-segment in Europe, or "city car" in Europe and the United States.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines this category as "minicompact", however this term is not used. The equivalents of A-segment cars have been produced since the early 1920s, however the category increased in popularity in the late 1950s when the original Fiat 500 and BMC Mini were released. Examples of A-segment / city cars / minicompact cars: Fiat 500 Hyundai i10 Toyota Aygo The next larger category small cars is called B-segment Europe, supermini in the United Kingdom and subcompact in the United States; the size of a subcompact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet. Since the EPA's smaller minicompact category is not as used by the general public, A-segment cars are sometimes called subcompacts in the United States. In Europe and Great Britain, the B-segment and supermini categories do not any formal definitions based on size. Early supermini cars in Great Britain include Vauxhall Chevette.
In the United States, the first locally-built subcompact cars were the 1970 AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. Examples of B-segment / supermini / subcompact cars: Chevrolet Sonic Hyundai Accent Volkswagen Polo The largest category of small cars is called C-segment or small family car in Europe, compact car in the United States; the size of a compact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of 100–109 cu ft. Examples of C-segment / compact / small family cars: Peugeot 308 Toyota Auris Renault Megane In Europe, the third largest category for passenger cars is called D-segment or large family car. In the United States, the equivalent term is intermediate cars; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency defines a mid-size car as having a combined passenger and cargo volume of 110–119 cu ft. Examples of D-segment / large family / mid-size cars: Chevrolet Malibu Ford Mondeo Kia Optima In Europe, the second largest category for passenger cars is E-segment / executive car, which are luxury cars.
In other countries, the equivalent terms are full-size car or large car, which are used for affordable large cars that aren't considered luxury cars. Examples of non-luxury full-size cars: Chevrolet Impala Ford Falcon Toyota Avalon Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows; the equivalent terms in British English are people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating. Mini MPV is the smallest size of MPVs and the vehicles are built on the platforms of B-segment hatchback models. Examples of Mini MPVs: Fiat 500L Honda Fit Ford B-Max Compact MPV is the middle size of MPVs; the Compact MPV size class sits between large MPV size classes. Compact MPVs remain predominantly a European phenomenon, although they are built and sold in many Latin American and Asian markets.
Examples of Compact MPVs: Renault Scenic Volkswagen Touran Ford C-Max The largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to a Large MPV. Examples of Large MPVs: Dodge Grand Caravan Ford S-Max Toyota Sienna The premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars, it became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models. Examples of premium compact cars: Audi A3 Buick Verano Lexus CT200h A compact executive car is a premium car larger than a premium compact and smaller than an executive car. Compact executive cars are equivalent size to mid-size cars and are part of the D-segment in the European car classification.
In North American terms, close equivalents are "luxury compact" and "entry-level luxury car", although the latter is used for the smaller premium compact cars. Examples of compact executive cars: Audi A4 BMW 3 Series Buick Regal An executive car is a premium car larger than a compact executive and smaller than an full-size luxury car. Executive cars are classified as E-segment cars in the European car classification. In the United States and several other coun
A coach is a bus used for longer-distance service, in contrast to transit buses that are used within a single metropolitan region. Used for intercity—or international—bus service, other coaches are used for private charter for various purposes. Deriving the name from horse-drawn carriages and stagecoaches that carried passengers and mail, modern motor coaches are always high-floor buses, with a separate luggage hold mounted below the passenger compartment. In contrast to transit buses, motor coaches feature forward-facing seating, with no provision for standing. Other accommodations may include on-board restrooms and overhead luggage space. Horse-drawn chariots and carriages were used by the wealthy and powerful where the roads were of a high enough standard from 3000 BC. In Hungary, during the reign of King Matthias Corvinus in the 15th century, the wheelwrights of Kocs began to build a horse-drawn vehicle with steel-spring suspension; this "cart of Kocs" as the Hungarians called. The imperial post service employed the first horse-drawn mail coaches in Europe since Roman times in 1650, as they started in the town of Kocs, the use of these mail coaches gave rise to the term "coach".
Stagecoaches were used for transport between cities from about 1500 in Great Britain until displaced by the arrival of the railways. One of the earliest motorised vehicles was the charabanc, used for short journeys and excursions until the early years of the 20th century; the first "motor coaches" were purchased by operators of those horse-drawn vehicles in the early 20th century by operators such as Royal Blue Coach Services, who purchased their first charabanc in 1913 and were running 72 coaches by 1926. Coaches, as they hold passengers for significant periods of time on long journeys, are designed for comfort, they vary in quality from country to country and within countries. Higher specification vehicles include air conditioning. Coaches have only a single, narrow door, but sometimes they have two doors, as an increased loading time is acceptable due to infrequent stops; some characteristics include: Comfortable seats that may include a folding table and recliner. Comfort is considered to be an important feature in coaches.
Luggage racks above the seats where passengers can access their carry-on baggage during the journey Baggage holds, accessed from outside the vehicle under the main floor or at the rear, where passengers' luggage can be stowed away from the seating area Passenger service units, mounted overhead, on which personal reading lights and air conditioning ducts can be controlled and used by individual passengers with little disturbance to other passengers On-board rest rooms fitted with chemical toilets, hand basins and hand sanitizer. On some coaches, on-board entertainment including movies may be shown to passengers On-board refreshment service or vending machines Wheelchair accommodation including a wheelchair lift for access Curtains, useful on overnight services Onboard Wi-Fi access Onboard AC power Coaches, like buses, may be built by integrated manufacturers, or a separate chassis consisting of only an engine and basic frame may be delivered to a coachwork factory for a body to be added.
A minority of coaches are built with monocoque bodies without a chassis frame. Integrated manufacturers include Autosan, Scania and Alexander Dennis. Major coachwork providers include Van Hool, Marcopolo, Irizar, MCI, Prevost and Designline. A representative selection of vehicles in use in different parts of the world. A selection of vehicles in use in different parts of the world in the past. Anderson, R. C. A. and Frankis, G.. History of Royal Blue Express Services. David & Charles. BBC Time Shift: The Modern Age of Coach Travel
Color, or colour, is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, yellow, blue, or purple. This perception of color derives from the stimulation of cone cells in the human eye by electromagnetic radiation in the visible spectrum. Color categories and physical specifications of color are associated with objects through the wavelength of the light, reflected from them; this reflection is governed by the object's physical properties such as light absorption, emission spectra, etc. By defining a color space, colors can be identified numerically by coordinates, which in 1931 were named in global agreement with internationally agreed color names like mentioned above by the International Commission on Illumination; the RGB color space for instance is a color space corresponding to human trichromacy and to the three cone cell types that respond to three bands of light: long wavelengths, peaking near 564–580 nm. There may be more than three color dimensions in other color spaces, such as in the CMYK color model, wherein one of the dimensions relates to a color's colorfulness).
The photo-receptivity of the "eyes" of other species varies from that of humans and so results in correspondingly different color perceptions that cannot be compared to one another. Honeybees and bumblebees for instance have trichromatic color vision sensitive to ultraviolet but is insensitive to red. Papilio butterflies may have pentachromatic vision; the most complex color vision system in the animal kingdom has been found in stomatopods with up to 12 spectral receptor types thought to work as multiple dichromatic units. The science of color is sometimes called chromatics, colorimetry, or color science, it includes the study of the perception of color by the human eye and brain, the origin of color in materials, color theory in art, the physics of electromagnetic radiation in the visible range. Electromagnetic radiation is characterized by its intensity; when the wavelength is within the visible spectrum, it is known as "visible light". Most light sources emit light at many different wavelengths.
Although the spectrum of light arriving at the eye from a given direction determines the color sensation in that direction, there are many more possible spectral combinations than color sensations. In fact, one may formally define a color as a class of spectra that give rise to the same color sensation, although such classes would vary among different species, to a lesser extent among individuals within the same species. In each such class the members are called metamers of the color in question; the familiar colors of the rainbow in the spectrum—named using the Latin word for appearance or apparition by Isaac Newton in 1671—include all those colors that can be produced by visible light of a single wavelength only, the pure spectral or monochromatic colors. The table at right shows approximate wavelengths for various pure spectral colors; the wavelengths listed are as measured in vacuum. The color table should not be interpreted as a definitive list—the pure spectral colors form a continuous spectrum, how it is divided into distinct colors linguistically is a matter of culture and historical contingency.
A common list identifies six main bands: red, yellow, green and violet. Newton's conception included a seventh color, between blue and violet, it is possible that what Newton referred to as blue is nearer to what today is known as cyan, that indigo was the dark blue of the indigo dye, being imported at the time. The intensity of a spectral color, relative to the context in which it is viewed, may alter its perception considerably; the color of an object depends on both the physics of the object in its environment and the characteristics of the perceiving eye and brain. Physically, objects can be said to have the color of the light leaving their surfaces, which depends on the spectrum of the incident illumination and the reflectance properties of the surface, as well as on the angles of illumination and viewing; some objects not only reflect light, but transmit light or emit light themselves, which contributes to the color. A viewer's perception of the object's color depends not only on the spectrum of the light leaving its surface, but on a host of contextual cues, so that color differences between objects can be discerned independent of the lighting spectrum, viewing angle, etc.
This effect is known as color constancy. Some generalizations of the physics can be drawn, neglecting perceptual effects for now: Light arriving at an opaque surface is either reflected "specularly", scattered, or absorbed – or some combination of these. Opaque objects that do not reflect specularly have their color determined by which wavelengths of light they scatter strongly. If objects scatter all wavelengths with r
Neoplan N407 was a midibus built by Neoplan, was the smallest among the Neoplan N400-series buses. It was first showed in 1983, when for long time on German market there was no short low-capacity bus; the bus can carry 52 passengers including 27 passengers with seats. In 1986 model had frontwall facelift, the engine was replaced too although it is a bus produced as a midibus in between a minibus and a full-size single-decker. Neoplan N407 is used in small cities. MAN Lion's City M Volvo B6 Optare MetroRider Dennis Dart Stiasny Marcin, Atlas autobusów, Poznan Railway Modellers Club, Poland 2008
An airport bus, or airport shuttle bus or airport shuttle is a bus used to transport people to and from, or within airports. These vehicles will be equipped with larger luggage space, incorporate special branding, they are commonly painted with bright colours to stand out among other airport vehicles and to be seen by the crews of taxiing aircraft when negotiating the aprons. Airport buses have been in use since the 1960s, when nationalised operator British European Airways employed the archetypal London red AEC Routemaster buses in a blue and white livery with luggage trailers on service to Heathrow Airport. Bus transport within an airport may take the following forms, be operated by the airport owner, an airline, or a contractor to either. In the cases where airports do not use a jet bridge, has too few of them, for long distance transfers or for reasons of safety, passengers will be transferred from the airport terminal arrival or departure gate to the aircraft using an airside transfer bus or apron bus.
Airside transfer buses can be of normal bus design, or due to not running on the public highway, can be extra long and wide, to hold the maximum number of passengers. Sometimes a trailer bus is employed. Transfer buses are fitted with minimal or no seating, with passengers standing for the journey. Sometimes for larger aircraft a coach is used to ferry customers to or from the terminal as coaches hold more people. Transfer buses will be fitted with flashing beacons for operating airside near runways, they may feature driving cabs at both ends. In cases where the airport features multiple terminals which are far apart or not physically connected, where there exists no people mover or other transfer alternative, a zero-fare transfer bus may be employed to transfer connecting passengers from one terminal to another. Terminal transfer may be incorporated into public transport bus networks. In cases where the airport owned or affiliated car parks are large or far from the terminal building, the airport owner or contractor may provide free car park shuttle buses making circular or shuttle runs between terminals and car park bus stands.
Third party companies offering services to airline passengers may operate buses as part of their business, with pick-up and drop off points near the airport terminal, extra luggage space. These comprise: Off airport car parking services; these car park providers provide cheap car-parking some distance from the airport, by transferring passengers in shuttle buses. These can be anywhere from luxury coaches, full size buses or minibuses, sometimes fitted with luggage trailers. Car rental companies. Car rental providers will have their vehicles stored off-site, transfer customers in regular buses. Airport hotels will offer a complimentary airport bus service, to entice guests to stay at their property. Several public transport operations may include airport focused services, such as: Some transport companies may provide shuttle buses between railway stations and airports, with transit buses fitted for extra luggage space; these are sometimes supported financially by the railway company. In England, Durham Tees Valley Airport contracted Arriva North East bus company to provide a free shuttle bus for airport passengers, railway operator Govia Thameslink Railway operates a fare paying shuttle bus from Luton Airport Parkway railway station to Luton Airport.
In addition, some airlines run bus services from a city's bus terminal to an airport or, in other cases, connecting two airports whose cities' population sizes are deemed too small for them to have air service between each other. One example of the former is Singapore Airlines' bus service from downtown Newark, New Jersey to Newark Liberty International Airport. An example of the latter is United Airlines service from Beaumont Airport in Beaumont, Texas to Houston George Bush Intercontinental Airport in Houston, which used to be done on United Express SAAB 340 aircraft but, now run on a bus. Bus companies that operate normal transit bus services may operate a premium fare route to an airport alongside their standard routes, using specially branded vehicles with extra luggage space; these routes are limited stop, rather than point to point shuttle buses. Newly privatised London Buses operated an Airbus service from Victoria Coach Station to Heathrow Airport in the 1990s, although this was withdrawn after London Underground and Heathrow Express rail links were improved.
Some public bus operators have moved into the demand responsive transport sector, bridging the gap between premium fixed route bus services and private hire airport taxicabs, incorporating an area in which the service can vary its route to pick up pre-booked passengers. Unlike private hire firms, these are still public buses. Examples include Dot2Dot from National Express, the Edinburgh Shuttle operated by Lothian Buses, which feature high specification minibus based vehicles with luggage space. Several long distance express bus and coach operators make airports hubs of their service networks, such as National Express Coaches Airport services; these services do not use vehicles that have any extra modification beyond the standard express bus or coach specification, although they will carry a livery indicating the airport service, special route numbers such as 747. A specialist express bus operation is that of the likes of easyBus, that runs minibus services from stops in London direct to Luton Airport.
In the case where different airport terminals are far apart and not linked by other modes, public bus operators may choose to provide a route to link the two terminals, either as a point to point shuttle or as part of a standard route network. A specialist exampl