History of Tibet
Tibetan history, as it has been recorded, is focused on the history of Buddhism in Tibet. This is due to the pivotal role this religion has played in the development of Tibetan and Mongol cultures and because all native historians of the country were Buddhist monks. Tibet lies of India. Extensive mountain ranges to the east of the Tibetan Plateau mark the border with China, the towering Himalayas of Nepal and India form a barrier between Tibet and India. Tibet is nicknamed "the roof of the world" or "the land of snows". Linguists classify the Tibetan language and its dialects as belonging to the Tibeto-Burman languages, the non-Sinitic members of the Sino-Tibetan language family; some archaeological data suggests archaic humans passed through Tibet at the time India was first inhabited, half a million years ago. Modern humans first inhabited the Tibetan Plateau at least twenty-one thousand years ago; this population was replaced around 3000 BC by Neolithic immigrants from northern China. However, there is a "partial genetic continuity between the Paleolithic inhabitants and the contemporary Tibetan populations".
Megalithic monuments may have been used in ancestor worship. Prehistoric Iron Age hill forts and burial complexes have been found on the Tibetan Plateau, but the remote high altitude location makes archaeological research difficult. According to Namkhai Norbu some Tibetan historical texts identify the Zhang Zhung culture as a people who migrated from the Amdo region into what is now the region of Guge in western Tibet. Zhang Zhung is considered to be the original home of the Bön religion. By the 1st century BC, a neighboring kingdom arose in the Yarlung Valley, the Yarlung king, Drigum Tsenpo, attempted to remove the influence of the Zhang Zhung by expelling the Zhang's Bön priests from Yarlung, he was assassinated and Zhang Zhung continued its dominance of the region until it was annexed by Songtsen Gampo in the 7th century. In AD 108, "the Kiang or Tibetans, who were entirely savage and lived a nomadic life west and south of the Koko-nor, attacked the Chinese posts of Gansu, threatening to cut the Dunhuang road.
Liang Kin, at the price of some fierce fighting, held them off." Similar incursions were repelled in AD 168-169 by the Chinese general Duan Gong. The pre-Imperial Yarlung Dynasty rulers are more mythological than factual, there is insufficient evidence of their definitive existence. Nyatri Tsenpo is considered by traditional histories to have been the first king of the Yarlung Dynasty, named after the river valley where its capital city was located, circa fifty-five miles south-east from present-day Lhasa; the dates attributed to the first Tibetan king, Nyatri Tsenpo, vary. Some Tibetan texts give 126 BC, others 414 BC. Nyatri Tsenpo is said to have descended from a one-footed creature called the Theurang, having webbed fingers and a tongue so large it could cover his face. Due to his terrifying appearance he was exiled by the Bön to Tibet. There he was greeted as a fearsome being, he became king; the Tibetan kings were said to remain connected to the heavens via a dmu cord so that rather than dying, they ascended directly to heaven, when their sons achieved their majority.
According to various accounts, king Drigum Tsenpo either challenged his clan heads to a fight, or provoked his groom Longam into a duel. During the fight the king's dmu cord was cut, he was killed. Thereafter Drigum Tsenpo and subsequent kings left the Bön conducted funerary rites. In a myth, first attested in the Maṇi bka"bum, the Tibetan people are the progeny of the union of the monkey Pha Trelgen Changchup Sempa and rock ogress Ma Drag Sinmo, but the monkey was a manifestation of the bodhisattva Chenresig, or Avalokiteśvara while the ogress in turn incarnated Chenresig's consort Dolma. The Yarlung kings extended their control, by the early 6th century most of the Tibetan tribes were under its control, when Namri Songtsen, the 32nd King of Tibet of the Yarlung Dynasty, gained control of all the area around what is now Lhasa by 630, conquered Zhangzhung. With this extend of power the Yarlung kingdom turned into the Tibetan Empire; the government of Namri Songtsen sent two embassies to China in 608 and 609, marking the appearance of Tibet on the international scene.
From the 7th century AD Chinese historians referred to Tibet as Tubo, though four distinct characters were used. The first externally confirmed contact with the Tibetan kingdom in recorded Tibetan history occurred when King Namri Löntsän sent an ambassador to China in the early 7th century. Traditional Tibetan history preserves a lengthy list of rulers whose exploits become subject to external verification in the Chinese histories by the 7th century. From the 7th to the 11th century a series of emperors ruled Tibet – see List of emperors of Tibet - of whom the three most important in religious tradition were Songtsen Gampo, Trisong Detsen and Ralpacan, "the three religious kings", who were assimilated to the three protectors Avalokiteśvara, Mañjuśrī and Vajrapāni. Songtsen Gampo was the first great emperor who expanded Tibet's power beyond Lhasa and the Yarlung Valley, is traditionally credited with introducing Buddhism to Tibet. Throughout the centuries from the time of the emperor the power of the empire increased over a diverse terrain so that by the reign of the emperor in the opening years of the 9th century, its influence extended as far south as Bengal and as far north as
The Tibetan Army was the military force of Tibet after its de facto independence in 1912 until the 1950s. As a ground army modernised with the assistance of British training and equipment, it served as the de facto armed forces of the Tibetan government; the Tibetan Army was established in 1913 by the 13th Dalai Lama, who had fled Tibet during the 1904 British invasion of Tibet and returned only after the fall of the Qing power in Tibet in 1911. During the revolutionary turmoil, the Dalai Lama had attempted to raise a volunteer army to expel all the ethnic Chinese from Lhasa, but failed, in large part because of the opposition of pro-Chinese monks from the Drepung Monastery; the Dalai Lama proceeded to raise a professional army, led by his trusted advisor Tsarong, to counter "the internal threats to his government as well as the external ones". The internal threats were officials of the Gelug sect of Tibetan Buddhism, who feared British Christian and secular influence in the army, who fought the defunding and taxing of the monasteries to feed military expenditures.
The monasteries had populations rivaling Tibet's largest cities, had their own armies of dob-dobs. As a result, those monks who feared modernisation turned to China, which being the residence of the 9th Panchen Lama, portrayed itself as ally to the Tibetan conservatives. Residents evacuated the city during the Monlam Prayer Festival and Butter Lamp Festival of 1921, fearing violent confrontation between the monks and the Tibetan Army, barred from Lhasa to keep the peace; the Army received opposition from the 9th Panchen Lama, who refused the Dalai Lama's requests to fund the Tibetan Army from the monasteries in the Panchen's domain. In 1923, the Dalai Lama deployed troops to capture him, so he secretly fled to Mongolia; the Dalai and Panchen Lamas exchanged many hostile letters during the latter's exile about the authority of the central Tibetan government. Many monks perceived the Panchen's exile as a consequence of the Dalai Lama's militarisation and secularisation of Tibet; the Dalai Lama himself grew more distrustful of the military upon hearing rumours in 1924 of a coup conspiracy, designed to strip him of his temporal power.
In 1933, the 13th Dalai Lama died, two regents assumed the head of government. The Tibetan Army was bolstered in 1937 by the perceived threat of the return of the Panchen Lama, who had brought arms back from eastern China. By the time of the 1949 Chinese Revolution, Chinese Communists had consolidated control over most of eastern China, sought to bring peripheral areas such as Tibet back into the fold. China was aware of the threat of guerrilla warfare on Tibet's high mountains, sought to resolve Tibet's political status by negotiations; the Tibetan government delayed negotiations while bolstering its army. In 1950, the Kashag embarked on a series of internal reforms, led by Indian-educated officials. One of these reforms allowed the Kashag's military chiefs, Surkhang Wangchen Gelek and Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme, to act independently of the government. Although the Kashag appointed a "Governor of Kham", the Tibetan Army did not have effective control over Kham, whose local warlords had long resisted central control from Lhasa.
As a result, Tibetan officials feared the local people, in addition to the People's Liberation Army across the Upper Yangtze River. The Tibetan Army held the dominant military strength within political Tibet from 1912, owing to Chinese weakness because of the Japanese occupation of part of eastern China. With the assistance of British training, it aimed to conquer territories inhabited by ethnic Tibetans but controlled by Chinese warlords, it captured western Kham from the Chinese in 1917, its claim to adjacent territories controlled by British India, strained its vital relations with Britain and independent India, China's relationship with the latter. The 1914 Simla Accord with Britain was designed to settle Tibet's internal and external border issues, but for various reasons, including the refusal by the Chinese to accept it, warfare continued over territory in Kham; the military authority of Tibet was located in Chamdo from 1918. The Tibetan Army was involved in numerous border battles against the Guomindang and Ma Clique forces of the Republic of China.
By 1932, the defeat of the Tibetan Army by the KMT forces limited all meaningful political control of the Tibetan government over the Kham region beyond the Upper Yangtze River. The Tibetan Army continued to expand its modern forces in the following years, had about 5,000 regular soldiers armed with Lee–Enfield rifles in 1936; these troops were supported by an equal number of militiamen armed with older Lee–Metford rifles. In addition to these troops, who were located along Tibet's eastern border, there was Lhasa's garrison; the garrison included the Dalai Lhama's Bodyguard Regiment of 600 soldiers, who were trained by British advisors, 400 Gendarmerie, 600 Kham regulars who were supposed to act as artillerymen, though they only had two functioning mountain guns. Furthermore, the Tibetan Army had access to great numbers of locally raised village militias; these militias were only armed with medieval weapons or matchlocks, of negligible military value. They could to hold their ground against the Chinese militias employed by the warlords.
The Tibetan Army's first encounter with the PLA was in May 1950 ninety miles from Chamdo. 50 PL
Tibet under Qing rule
Tibet under Qing rule refers to the Qing dynasty's rule over Tibet from 1720 to 1912. During the Qing rule of Tibet, the region was controlled by the Qing dynasty established by the Manchus in China. In the history of Tibet, Qing administrative rule was established after a Qing army defeated the Dzungars who occupied Tibet in 1720, lasted until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912, although the region retained a degree of political autonomy under the Dalai Lamas; the Qing emperors appointed imperial residents known as the Ambans to Tibet, who commanded over 2,000 troops stationed in Lhasa and reported to the Lifan Yuan, a Qing government body that oversaw the empire's frontier regions. The protectorate that China had established over Tibet in the 18th century remained into the 20th century, but by the late 19th century Chinese hegemony over Tibet remained in theory but in actuality was a dead letter given the weight of China's domestic and foreign-relations burdens. However, the Chinese began to take steps to reassert their authority shortly after the British expedition to Tibet.
Güshi Khan of the Khoshut in 1641 overthrew the prince of Tsang and made the 5th Dalai Lama the highest spiritual and political authority in Tibet, establishing the regime known as Ganden Phodrang. The time of the 5th Dalai Lama was a period of rich cultural development. With Güshi Khan who founded the Khoshut Khanate as a uninvolved overlord, the 5th Dalai Lama conducted foreign policy independently of the Qing, on the basis of his spiritual authority amongst the Mongolians, he acted as a mediator between Mongol tribes, between the Mongols and the Qing Kangxi Emperor. The Dalai Lama would assign territories to Mongol tribes, these decisions were confirmed by the Emperor. In 1674, the Emperor asked the Dalai Lama to send Mongolian troops to help suppress a rebellion in Yunnan; the Dalai Lama agreed to do so, but advised Kangxi to resolve the conflict in Yunnan by allotting fiefs instead of military action. This was a turning point for the Emperor, who began to take action to deal with the Mongols directly, rather than through the Dalai Lama.
The 5th Dalai Lama died in 1682. His regent, Desi Sangye Gyatso, continued to act in his name. In 1688, Galdan Boshugtu Khan of the Khoshut defeated the Khalkha Mongols and went on to battle Qing forces; this contributed to the loss of Tibet's role as mediator between the Emperor. Several Khalkha tribes formally submitted directly to Kangxi. Galdan retreated to Dzungaria; when Sangye Gyatso complained to Kangxi that he could not control the Mongols of Kokonor in 1693, Kangxi annexed Kokonor, giving it the name it bears today, Qinghai. He annexed Tachienlu in eastern Kham at this time; when Kangxi destroyed Galdan in 1696, a Qing ruse involving the name of the Dalai Lama was involved. About this time, some Dzungars informed the Kangxi Emperor that the 5th Dalai Lama had long since died, he sent envoys to Lhasa to inquire. This prompted Sangye Gyatso to make Tsangyang Gyatso the 6th Dalai Lama public, he was enthroned in 1697. Tsangyang Gyatso enjoyed a lifestyle that included drinking, the company of women, writing love songs.
In 1702, he refused to take the vows of a Buddhist monk. The regent, under pressure from the Emperor and Lhazang Khan of the Khoshut, resigned in 1703. In 1705, Lhazang Khan used the sixth Dalai Lama's escapades as excuse to take control of Lhasa; the regent Sanggye Gyatso, who had allied himself with the Dzungar Khanate, was murdered, the Dalai Lama was sent to Beijing. He died on the way, near Kokonor, ostensibly from illness but leaving lingering suspicions of foul play. Lhazang Khan appointed a new Dalai Lama who, was not accepted by the Gelugpa school. Kelzang Gyatso became a rival candidate. Three Gelug abbots of the Lhasa area appealed to the Dzungar Khanate, which invaded Tibet in 1717, deposed Lhazang Khan's pretender to the position of Dalai Lama, killed Lhazang Khan and his entire family; the Dzungars proceeded to loot and kill throughout Lhasa and its environs. They destroyed a small force in the Battle of the Salween River which the Emperor had sent to clear traditional trade routes.
In response to the Dzungar occupation of Tibet, a Chinese expedition sent by the Kangxi Emperor, together with Tibetan forces under Polhanas of Tsang and Kangchennas, the governor of Western Tibet, expelled the Dzungars from Tibet in 1720. They brought Kelzang Gyatso with them from Kumbum to Lhasa and he was installed as the seventh Dalai Lama. A Chinese protectorate over Tibet was established at this time, with a garrison at Lhasa, Kham was annexed to Sichuan. In 1721, the Qing established a government in Lhasa consisting of a council of three Tibetan ministers, headed by Kangchennas. A Khalkha prince was made official representative in Tibet of the Qing. Another Khalkha directed the military; the Dalai Lama's role at this time was purely symbolic, but still influential because of the Mongols' religious beliefs. The Qing came as patrons of the Khoshut, liberators of Tibet from the Dzungar, supporters of Kelzang Gyatso, but when they replaced the Khoshut as rulers of Kokonor and Tibet, they earned the resentment of the Khoshut and the Tibetans of Kokonor.
Lobsang Danjin, a grandson of Güshi Khan, led a rebellion in 1723. 200,000 Tibetans and Mongols attacked Xining. Central Tibet did not support the rebellion. In fact, Polhanas blocked the rebels' retreat from Qing retaliation; the r
Guge was an ancient kingdom in Western Tibet. The kingdom was centered in Ngari Prefecture, Tibet Autonomous Region. At various points in history after the 10th century AD, the kingdom held sway over a vast area including south-eastern Zanskar, Upper Kinnaur district, Spiti Valley, either by conquest or as tributaries; the ruins of the former capital of the Guge kingdom are located at Tsaparang in the Sutlej valley, not far from Mount Kailash and 1,200 miles westwards from Lhasa. Guge was founded in the 10th century, its capitals were located at Tsaparang. Nyi ma mgon, a great-grandson of Langdarma, the last monarch of the Tibetan Empire, left insecure conditions in Ü-Tsang in 910, he annexed Puhrang and Guge. He established his capital in Guge. Nyi ma mgon divided his lands into three parts; the king's eldest son dPal gyi mgon became ruler of Mar-yul, his second son bKra shis mgon received Guge-Puhrang, the third son lDe gtsug mgon received Zanskar. BKra shis mgon was succeeded by his son Srong nge or Ye shes'Od (947–1024 or, a renowned Buddhist figure.
In his time a Tibetan lotsawa from Guge called Rinchen Zangpo, after having studied in India, returned to his homeland as a monk to promote Buddhism. Together with the zeal of Ye shes'Od, this marked the beginning of a new diffusion of Buddhist teachings in western Tibet. In 988 Ye shes ` Od took religious left kingship to his younger brother Khor re. According to historiography the Turkic Karluks took the Guge king Ye shes'Od prisoner during a war; the episode has a prominent place in Tibetan history writing. The Karluks offered to set him free, they demanded his weight in gold to release him. His junior kinsman Byang chub'Od visited him in his prison with a small retinue, but Ye shes'Od admonished him not to use the gold at hand for ransom, but rather to invite the renowned Mahayana sage Atiśa. Ye shes'Od died in prison from age and poor treatment; the story is debated since it contains chronological inconsistencies. In 1037, Khor re's eldest grandson'Od lde was killed in a conflict with the Kara-Khanid Khanate from Central Asia, who subsequently ravaged Ngari.
His brother Byang chub'Od, a Buddhist monk, took power as secular ruler. He was responsible for inviting Atiśa to Tibet in 1040 and thus ushering in the so-called Chidar phase of Buddhism in Tibet. Byang chub'Od's son rTse lde was murdered by his nephew in 1088; this event marked the break-up of the Guge-Purang kingdom, since one of his brothers was established as separate king of Purang. The usurping nephew dBang lde continued the royal dynasty in Guge. A new Kara-Khanid invasion of Guge took place before 1137 and cost the life of the ruler, bKra shis rtse. In the same century the kingdom was temporarily divided. In 1240 the Mongol khagan, at least nominally, gave authority over the Ngari area to the Drigung Monastery in Ü-Tsang. Grags pa lde was an important ruler who united the Guge area around 1265 and subjugated the related Ya rtse kingdom. After his death in 1277 Guge was dominated by the Sakya monastic regime. After 1363, with the decline of the Mongol Yuan dynasty and their Sakya protégés, Guge was again strengthened and took over Purang in 1378.
Purang was henceforth contested between Guge and Mustang, but was integrated in the former. Guge briefly ruled over Ladakh in the late 14th century. From 1499 the Guge king had to acknowledge the Rinpungpa rulers of Tsang; the 15th and 16th centuries were marked by a considerable Buddhist building activity by the kings, who showed their devotion to the Gelug leaders known as the Dalai Lamas. The first Westerners to reach Guge were a Jesuit missionary, António de Andrade, his companion, brother Manuel Marques, in 1624. De Andrade reported seeing rich crops in what is now a dry and desolate land; as evidence of the kingdom's openness, de Andrade's party was allowed to construct a chapel in Tsaparang and instruct the people about Christianity. A letter by De Andrade relates that some military commanders revolted and called the Ladakhis to overthrow the ruler. There had been friction between Guge and Ladakh for many years, the invitation was heeded in 1630; the Ladakhi forces laid siege to the impenetrable Tsaparang.
The King's brother, chief lama and thus a staunch Buddhist, advised the pro-Christian ruler to surrender against keeping the state as tributary ruler. This treacherous advice was accepted. Tibetan sources suggest. A legend has it that the Ladakhi army slaughtered most of the people of Guge, about 200 of whom managed to survive and fled to Qulong; the last king Khri bKra shis Grags pa lde was brought to Ladakh as prisoner with his kin, died there. The King's brother-lama was killed by the Ladakhis. On the last male descendant of the dynasty moved to Lhasa where he died in 1743. Tsaparang and the Guge kingdom were conquered in 1679–80 by the Lhasa-based Central Tibetan government under the leadership of the 5th Dalai Lama, driving out the Ladakhis. Western archeologists heard about Guge again in the 1930s through the work of Italian Giuseppe Tucci. Tucci's work was about the frescoes of Guge. Lama Anagarika Govinda and Li Gotami Govinda visited the kingdom of Guge, including Tholing, Tsaparang, in 1947-1949.
Their tours of Central and Western Tibet are recorded in white photos. A list of rulers of Guge and the related Ya rtse kingdom has been established by the Tibetologists Luciano Pet
Lhasa or Chengguan is a district and administrative capital of Lhasa City in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. The inner urban area of Lhasa City is equivalent to the administrative borders of Chengguan District, part of the wider prefectural Lhasa City. Lhasa is the second most populous urban area on the Tibetan Plateau after Xining and, at an altitude of 3,490 metres, Lhasa is one of the highest cities in the world; the city has been the administrative capital of Tibet since the mid-17th century. It contains many culturally significant Tibetan Buddhist sites such as the Potala Palace, Jokhang Temple and Norbulingka Palaces. Chengguan translates to "urban gateway" in the Chinese language. Lhasa translate to "place of gods" in the Tibetan language. Ancient Tibetan documents and inscriptions demonstrate that the place was called Rasa, which either meant "goats' place", or, as a contraction of rawe sa, a "place surrounded by a wall," or'enclosure', suggesting that the site was a hunting preserve within the royal residence on Marpori Hill.
Lhasa is first recorded as the name, referring to the area's temple of Jowo, in a treaty drawn up between China and Tibet in 822 C. E. By the mid 7th century, Songtsen Gampo became the leader of the Tibetan Empire that had risen to power in the Brahmaputra River Valley. After conquering the kingdom of Zhangzhung in the west, he moved the capital from the Chingwa Taktsé Castle in Chongye County, southwest of Yarlung, to Rasa where in 637 he raised the first structures on the site of what is now the Potala Palace on Mount Marpori. In CE 639 and 641, Songtsen Gampo, who by this time had conquered the whole Tibetan region, is said to have contracted two alliance marriages, firstly to a Princess Bhrikuti of Nepal, two years to Princess Wencheng of the Imperial Tang court. Bhrikuti is said to have converted him to Buddhism, the faith attributed to his second wife Wencheng. In 641 he constructed the Jokhang and Ramoche Temples in Lhasa in order to house two Buddha statues, the Akshobhya Vajra and the Jowo Sakyamuni brought to his court by the princesses.
Lhasa suffered extensive damage under the reign of Langdarma in the 9th century, when the sacred sites were destroyed and desecrated and the empire fragmented. A Tibetan tradition mentions that after Songtsen Gampo's death in 649 C. E. Chinese troops burnt the Red Palace. Chinese and Tibetan scholars have noted that the event is mentioned neither in the Chinese annals nor in the Tibetan manuscripts of Dunhuang. Lǐ suggested. Tsepon W. D. Shakabpa believes that "those histories reporting the arrival of Chinese troops are not correct."From the fall of the monarchy in the 9th century to the accession of the 5th Dalai Lama, the centre of political power in the Tibetan region was not situated in Lhasa. However, the importance of Lhasa as a religious site became significant as the centuries progressed, it was known as the centre of Tibet where Padmasambhava magically pinned down the earth demoness and built the foundation of the Jokhang Temple over her heart. Islam has been present since the 11th century in what is considered to have always been a monolithically Buddhist culture.
Two Tibetan Muslim communities have lived in Lhasa with distinct homes and clothing, education and traditional herbal medicine. By the 15th century, the city of Lhasa had risen to prominence following the founding of three large Gelugpa monasteries by Je Tsongkhapa and his disciples; the three monasteries are Ganden and Drepung which were built as part of the puritanical Buddhist revival in Tibet. The scholarly achievements and political know-how of this Gelugpa Lineage pushed Lhasa once more to centre stage; the 5th Dalai Lama, Lobsang Gyatso, unified Tibet and moved the centre of his administration to Lhasa in 1642 with the help of Güshi Khan of the Khoshut. With Güshi Khan as a uninvolved overlord, the 5th Dalai Lama and his intimates established a civil administration, referred to by historians as the Lhasa state; the core leadership of this government is referred to as the Ganden Phodrang, Lhasa thereafter became both the religious and political capital. In 1645, the reconstruction of the Potala Palace began on Red Hill.
In 1648, the Potrang Karpo of the Potala was completed, the Potala was used as a winter palace by the Dalai Lama from that time onwards. The Potrang Marpo was added between 1690 and 1694; the name Potala is derived from Mount Potalaka, the mythical abode of the Dalai Lama's divine prototype, the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara. The Jokhang Temple was greatly expanded around this time. Although some wooden carvings and lintels of the Jokhang Temple date to the 7th century, the oldest of Lhasa's extant buildings, such as within the Potala Palace, the Jokhang and some of the monasteries and properties in the Old Quarter date to this second flowering in Lhasa's history. By the end of the 17th century, Lhasa's Barkhor area formed a bustling market for foreign goods; the Jesuit missionary, Ippolito Desideri reported in 1716 that the city had a cosmopolitan community of Mongol, Muscovite, Kashmiri and Northern Indian traders. Tibet was exporting musk, medicinal plants and yak tails to far-flung markets, in exchange for sugar, saffron, Persian turquoise, European amber and Mediterranean coral.
The Qing dynasty army entered Lh
The bilateral relation between Nepal and China has been friendly and is defined by the Sino-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship signed on April 28, 1960 by the two countries. Though unenthusiastic, Nepal has been of late making efforts to increase trade and connectivity with China. Relations between Nepal and China got a boost when both countries solved all border disputes along the China–Nepal border by signing the Sino-Nepal boundary agreement on March 21, 1960; the government of both Nepal and China ratified the border agreement treaty on October 5, 1961. From 1975 onward, Nepal has maintained a policy of balancing the competing influence of China and Nepal's southern neighbor India, the only two neighbors of the Himalayan country after the annexation of the Kingdom of Sikkim by India in 1975. In recent years, China has been making an effort to gain entry into SAARC, Nepal has continuously backed and supported the proposal to include China as a member in the regional grouping. Since 1975, Sino-Nepalese relations have been close and grown with China being the largest source of FDI, India remaining as one of the major source of remittance to Nepal.
As per the estimate of Nepalese government, there are around 1-2 million Nepalese migrant workers in India while the number of Nepalis in China is minuscule as of 2017. The relationship between Nepal and Tibet are centuries old, with the Sherpa people, the Gurung people and the Thakali people of Nepal sharing close linguistic, marital, ethnic ties with the Tibetan people of Tibet. However, the people to people ties between these groups has been affected since 1950 onwards, after the absorption of Tibet into China resulting in the regulated border between Nepal and Tibet. Despite the fluctuating political scenarios in Nepal's neighborhood and within Nepal itself, influence of Buddhism still remains strong in day-to-day life of Nepalese people living in the Himalayan Region; the Buddhist monarchy in The Kingdom of Lo a part of the Tibetan Empire but now in Nepal, was terminated only in 2008. The area of Lo Manthang, still remains quasi-restricted to foreigners. Around 600-650 CE, Nepalese Princess Bhrikuti got married to Songtsän Gampo, the earliest known Emperor of Tibet.
Princess Bhrikuti, as a part of her dowry, is believed to have brought Buddhists relics and Thangkas to Tibet, therefore, is attributed for establishing Buddhism as the Royal religion in Tibet. Bhrikuti is represented as Green Tara in Tibetan iconography; the Red Palace on Marpo Ri in Lhasa, rebuilt into the thirteen storey Potala Palace by the Fifth Dalai Lama, was constructed by Newari craftsmen according to her wishes, who came to Tibet from Kathmandu with her, as a part of her dowry. She instructed her craftsmen to construct the Tub-wang and other statues in Samye, the first Buddhist gompa in Tibet. One of her craftsmen, Thro-wo carved the revered statue of Chenresig, Thungji Chen-po rang-jung nga-ldan. During the Tang dynasty, the Chinese envoy Wang Xuance led an army of Nepalese and Tibetans to defeat an usurper in the Indian Kingdom of Magadha. In 1260 CE during the Yuan dynasty, Nepali craftsmen Araniko, on the decree of Chinese/Mongolian Emperor Kublai Khan, traveled to Shangdu and built the White Stupa of Miaoying Temple in Beijing, the largest structure in Beijing at that time.
Taking ten years to complete, the Stupa better known as White Dagoba, is still standing today and is considered to be one of the oldest Buddhist Stupa in China. In 1789, the Tibetan government stopped the usage of Nepalese coins for trade in Tibet, citing purity concerns over the copper and the silver coins minted by the Nepalese government, which led to the first Nepal-Tibet war. A resounding victory of Gorkha forces over Tibetans in the first Nepal-Tibet war left the Lhasa Durbar with no choice but to ask for assistance from the Qing Emperor in Peking. In the immediate aftermath of the Sino-Nepalese War, Nepal was forced to sign the'Treaty of Betrawati' which stipulated that the Government of Nepal was required to make payment of tribute to Qing court in Peking once every five years, after the defeat of Gurkha forces by the Qing army in Tibet. The'Treaty of Betrawati' signed by Nepal and Tibet on October 2, 1792 stipulated that both Nepal and Tibet recognize the suzerainty of the Qing Emperor Jiaqing, further, stated that the Qing court would be obliged to help Nepal defend against any external aggression.
However, during the Anglo-Nepalese War, the Qing Emperor refused the Nepalese government's request to provide support to Nepalese forces, the latter's defeat led to the establishment of the British Empire in India. After, Nepal initiated a policy of balancing the influence of Imperial China and British India. Through the tenth quinquennial mission to China, under the leadership of Chautariya Pushkar Shah, the Nepalese government again requested the Daoguang Emperor court to either send troops or a subsidy of Twenty million rupees to oppose the British. However, the Nepalese delegation was said to have been met with a stern refusal of its petition for monetary support, opposition to the furtherance of hostility by Nepal against the British. Soon after Nepal's defeat in the Anglo-Nepalese war, from 1840 onward, Tibetan government again stopped the use Nepalese coins for trade. In an attempt to preserve the lucrative coin export business and trade advantages, the Nepalese Kingdom, under the leadership of Jung Bahadur Rana again invaded Tibet in 1855 during the second Nepalese-Tibetan War, raided the Tashilhunpo Monastery
Historical money of Tibet
The use of historical money in Tibet started in ancient times, when Tibet had no coined currency of its own. Bartering was common, gold was a medium of exchange, shell money and stone beads were used for small purchases. A few coins from other countries were occasionally in use. Coins were first used in a more extensive way in the 17th century: these were silver coins supplied by Nepal. There were however various difficulties with this system. In 1763/64 and 1785 the first silver coins were struck in Tibet. In 1792 the first mass-produced silver coins were created under Tibetan authority. Coins bearing Tibetan inscriptions only were subsequently replaced by issues which had Chinese and Tibetan legends; this lasted until the 1830s. In 1840 purely Tibetan coinage was struck under Tibetan authority, this coinage continued being made until 1954, with only two short interruptions when Sino-Tibetan coins were issued. In 1910 the Tibetan government started producing a large range of copper and silver coins of different denominations, in 1918 to 1921, gold coins were struck.
Tibetan banknotes were first issued in 1913. From 1955 to 1959 no more Tibetan coins were created, although banknotes were still being printed, by 1959 all of the money was being replaced with renminbi yuan. In ancient Tibet, the use of coins was insignificant. Tibet’s main neighbours, India and China had had their own coinage since time immemorial. Ancient Tibet however had no locally-struck coinage, although a certain number of coins from Nepal, Chinese Turkestan and China had reached Tibet by way of trade, or as donations to important monasteries; some of these foreign coins may have entered circulation, but they did not develop into an important instrument for transactions in daily life, because most of the trade within Tibet and the foreign trade were carried out via barter. Tibet had the biggest trade volume with China, the main barter items being horses from north-eastern Tibet, which were traded for Chinese tea. Tibet exported medicinal herbs, stag antlers and gold to China, apart from tea, the Tibetan traders imported silk cloth and silver from China.
The trade volume with Tibet's southern neighbours, India and Bhutan, was much smaller. The Tibetan traders exchanged salt and wool for grain with these countries. Traditionally one measure of salt was traded for one measure of grain at the border with Nepal and India. Other, less important export goods were yak tails and live animals. For the 17th century, the export of falcons to India is recorded. For large transactions within Tibet, gold dust and Chinese silver ingots were used; these ingots came in different shapes. For small transactions, various consumer goods could be used. Among others, these were areca nuts, ceremonial scarves and tea Tea was traded in the form of tea bricks; this developed into the most important medium of exchange in the 19th century, when a regular coinage had been introduced into Tibet. For small purchases and stone beads are recorded as being in use as money in ancient Tibet Before the government of the 5th Dalai Lama was established various small gold ingots circulated in Tibet, some of which were marked with stamps.
So far there exists no consent. We are well informed about this type of gold currency, called "gold sho" because officials of finance of the new Tibetan government received tax payments in the form of these small gold ingots; the officials had to convert these into the current monetary standard. In order to assess the fineness of these pieces one used a standardized gold weight unit, referred to as Sewa The following types of gold pieces are recorded in lists of the finance officials: Furthermore, pieces designated as Tsangsho are mentioned, but their gold weight is not specified. Lastly a form of gold currency named. Fifteen Sertam corresponded to one standard Changsho; the currency unit Gursho was mentioned by Sarat Chandra Das in his Tibetan-English Dictionary. According to this author 1 Gursho = 24 sewas. Chinese silver ingots were used until the 20th century for larger transactions, they were referred to as rta rmig ma and weighed 50 tael, or 50 srang. There existed silver ingots of smaller size, named gyag rmig ma and yet smaller ones, referred to as ra rmig ma.
In the early 20th century the large ingots were worth about 60–70 Indian rupees, the ingots of medium size 12–14 rupees and the smallest ingots 2–3 rupees. British-Indian authors refer to the silver bars found in Tibet, some of which were imported from Kashgar, as "yambus", an expression which derives from Chinese yuanbao; the first coinage, extensively used in southern Tibet was silver coins, which were supplied by the Nepalese Malla Kingdoms and the first kings of the subsequent Shah dynasty from about 1640 until 1791. Tibet provided the silver for the striking of these coins and received coins at the same weight, the Nepalese reaping a handsome profit by alloying