Ipswich is an urban region in south-east Queensland, located in the south-west of the Brisbane metropolitan area. Situated on the Bremer River, it is 40 kilometres west of the Brisbane CBD. A local government area, the City of Ipswich has a population of 200,000; the city is renowned for its architectural and cultural heritage. Ipswich preserves and operates from many of its historical buildings, with more than 6000 heritage-listed sites and over 500 parks. Ipswich began in 1827 as a mining settlement. Prior to the arrival of European settlers, what is now called Ipswich was home to many indigenous language groups, including the Warpai tribe and Ugarapul Indigenous Australian groups; the area was first explored by European colonists in 1826, when Captain Patrick Logan, Commandant of the Moreton Bay penal colony, sailed up the Brisbane River and discovered large deposits of limestone and other minerals. The town began in 1827 as a limestone mining settlement and grew as a major inland port. Ipswich was named "The Limestone Hills" and shortened to "Limestone", however in 1843 it was renamed after the town of Ipswich in England.
The population was 932 in 1851 and had risen to 2459 by 1856. It became a municipality in 1858. Ipswich was a prime candidate for becoming the capital of Queensland, but Brisbane was instead chosen in 1859, it was proclaimed a city in 1904. The city became a major coal-mining area in the early 19th Century, contributing to the development of railways in the region as a means of transport; the first recorded coal mines in the central Ipswich area started at Woodend in 1848. From the 1840s onward, Ipswich was becoming an important river port for growing local industries such as coal and wool from the Darling Downs and a regular paddlesteamer service from Brisbane Town, The Experiment, was established in 1846. This, other steamer services, remained the primary form of mass/bulk transport between the two cities until 1876, when the construction of the original Albert Bridge, spanning the Brisbane River at Indooroopilly, completed the railway line begun between Ipswich and Brisbane in 1873. Ipswich was proclaimed a municipality on 2 March 1860 and became a city in 1904.
Several members of the British Royal Family have visited Ipswich. 1868 – Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh1920 – Prince of Wales 1927 – Duke and Duchess of York 1958 – Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother1962 – Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone2011 – Prince William 2014 – Duke and Duchess of Cambridge Damaging flooding has occurred on numerous occasions in Ipswich, the largest being the 1893 Brisbane flood peaking at 24.5 m, more during the 1974 Brisbane Flood, 2010–11 Queensland floods on 12 January 2011. Around 35 people died in the floods in the 1893 Brisbane flood; the Brisbane River burst its banks on three occasions in February of that year and a fourth event several months later. 7 workers were killed at a colliery in north Ipswich. 14 people died in flooding during the Australia Day weekend. Two people were killed in Ipswich. At least 6,700 homes flooded across the region. Thousands of homes in Ipswich and Brisbane could not be recovered; the Bremer River at Ipswich reached a height of 19.5 metres on 12 January, inundating the central business district and thousands of houses.
38 people died as a result of the floods. At Minden, on the border of Ipswich City, a four-year-old boy was swept away by floodwaters when he fell from a rescue boat. A man in his fifties died when he accidentally drove into floodwaters in the Ipswich suburb of Wulkuraka; the worst affected areas of Ipswich were the suburbs of Gailes. The flooding allowed bull sharks to reach the centre of Goodna. A multibillion-dollar class action lawsuit is underway against dam operators Seqwater, SunWater and the State of Queensland. Law firm Maurice Blackburn have lodged the suit on behalf of 5,500 Ipswich and Brisbane residents who lost their homes or businesses during the floods. Modelling released in 2013 claimed flooding of Ipswich CBD would not have been as extreme if Wivenhoe Dam operators had operated the dam correctly; the Ipswich Central Library building opened in 1994. The Ipswich Historical Society was established in 1966 and is located at Cooneana Heritage Centre, 11041 Redbank Plains Rd, New Chum, Ipswich.
The Ipswich branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at 84 Limestone Street. Ipswich experiences a humid subtropical climate with hot and humid summers, mild to warm winters with cool overnight temperatures and heavy summer storms, it is cooler than the Brisbane CBD in terms of overnight temperatures, in winter, whilst being warmer in summer. Ipswich was a major mining centre coal mining; the city is the'cradle of coal mining in Queensland'. Other secondary manufacturing industries included earthenware works, sawmills and foundries, while the region is rich agriculturally. Ipswich remains a strong manufacturing region, with more than 14% of workers employed in the manufacturing industry, compared to just 7.6% for regional Queensland. Extensive growth is predicted in Ipswich and the Western Corridor region in years to come, the economy is projected to be worth $12.7 billion by 2026. Global giant General Electric moved its Queensland headquarters into a $72 million building in Springfield in 2015.
Ipswich is the site of RAAF Base Amberley, the Royal Australian Air Force's largest operatio
Surfers Paradise, Queensland
Surfers Paradise is a suburb within the local government area of City of Gold Coast in Queensland, Australia. At the 2011 census, Surfers Paradise had a population of 19,668. Colloquially known as'Surfers', the suburb has many high-rise apartment buildings and a wide surf beach; the feature of the heart of the suburb is Cavill Mall, which runs through the shopping and entertainment precinct. Cavill Avenue, named after Jim Cavill, an early hotel owner, is one of the busiest shopping strips in Queensland, the centre of activity for night life. One of the features of the area is the Surfers Paradise Meter Maids designed to build goodwill with tourists. Surfers Paradise is the Gold Coast's entertainment and tourism centre and the suburb's high-rise buildings are the best known feature of the city's skyline. In 2009 as part of the Q150 celebrations, Surfers Paradise was announced as one of the Q150 Icons of Queensland for its role as a "location". James Beattie, a farmer, became the first European to settle in the area when he staked out an 80-acre farm on the northern bank of the Nerang River, close to present-day Cavill Avenue.
The farm proved unsuccessful and was sold in 1877 to German immigrant Johan Meyer, who turned the land into a sugar farm and mill. Meyer had little luck growing in the sandy soil and within a decade had auctioned the farm and started a ferry service and built the Main Beach hotel. By 1889, Meyer's hotel had become a post receiving office and subdivisions surrounding it were named Elston, named by the Southport postmaster after his wife's home in Southport, England; the Main Beach Hotel licence lapsed after Meyer's death in 1901 and for 16 years Elston was a tourist town without a hotel or post office. In 1917, a land auction was held by Brisbane real estate company Arthur Blackwood to sell subdivided blocks in Elston as the "Surfers' Paradise Estate", but the auction failed because access was difficult; this was the first recorded reference to Surfers Paradise, but like the Gold Coast, the title may have been local vernacular – surfing having been demonstrated in Sydney in 1915. Elston began to get more visitors after the opening of Jubilee Bridge and the extension of the South Coast Road in 1925.
Elston was no longer cut off by the river and speculators began buying land around Elston and Burleigh Heads. Estates down the coast were promoted and hotels opened to accommodate tourists and investors. In 1925, Brisbane hotelier Jim Cavill opened the Surfers Paradise Hotel located on what would become the site of the Surfers Paradise Centre which incorporates the Surfers Paradise Beer Garden and Hard Rock Cafe. In opening the hotel and neighbouring zoo, Cavill created the first attraction in the suburb. Located between the ferry jetty and the white surf beach off the South Coast Road, it became popular and shops and services sprang up around it. In the following years Cavill pushed to have the name Elston changed to Surfers' Paradise; the suburb was renamed on 1 December 1933 after the local council felt the Surfers Paradise name was more marketable. In July 1936 Cavill's timber hotel was rebuilt the following year. A development boom followed in the 1960s; the first highrise in Surfers Paradise was named the Kinkabool.
The Kinkabool remains to this day in Hanlan Street. Many tall apartment buildings were constructed in the decades that followed, including the iconic buildings included the Iluka, St Tropez and The Pink Poodle; the boom saw strong Japanese investment in the 1980s. Little remains of the early vegetation or natural features of the area and the historical association of the beachfront development with the river is tenuous; the early subdivision pattern remains, although reclamation of the islands in the Nerang River as housing estates, the bridges to those islands, have created a contrast reflected in subdivision and building form. Some early remnants survived such as Budd's Beach — a low-scale open area on the river which in the early history of the area was a centre for boating and swimming; some minor changes have occurred in extending the road along the beachfront since the early subdivision and The Esplanade road is now a focus of activity, with supporting shops and restaurants. The intensity of activity, centred on Cavill and Elkhorn Avenues, is reflected in the density of development.
Of all places on the Gold Coast the buildings in this area constitute a dominant and enduring image visible from as far south as Coolangatta and from the mountain resorts of the hinterland. Surfers Paradise has a number of heritage-listed structures, including: The Pink Poodle sign, 18 Fern Street. Kinkabool, 32-34 Hanlan Street One of the original Apartment blocks In Surfers. Matey, at Cavill Park, a 1957 bronze statue of a homeless dog that lived in Surfers Paradise. Registered as a significant local heritage site by the Gold Coast City Council. Surfers Paradise is fronted to the east by the Surfers Paradise Foreshore, a rejuvenated public space that fronts Surfers Paradise Beach and the Pacific Ocean; the Foreshore was completed in 2011 and feature contemporary coastal streetscaping that incorporates existing trees and vegetation, including about 95 pandanus trees. The masterplanned space hosts a full calendar of free public events such as the Surfers Paradise Festival and the Australian Sand Sculpting Championships.
The area of Surfers Paradise east of Surfers Paradise Boulevard sprawling towards the beach tends to focus on family-friendly attractions such as Time Zone, Ripley's Believe it or Not museum and Adrenalin Park.
Moreton Island National Park
Moreton Island National Park is a national park which covers 98% of Moreton Island in Queensland, Australia, 58 km northeast of Brisbane. It has three main townships, Cowan Cowan and Kooringal; the island is home to Queensland's oldest operating lighthouse located at Cape Moreton on the northern tip of the island. The township of Cowan was home to the Australian soldiers during WWII and many relics remain on the island. Access to the park was restricted during a clean-up of oil from the 2009 southeast Queensland oil spill. Activities such as bushwalking and watersports are popular in the park. Humpback whale can be seen in surrounding waters between late spring; the park contains heath and open forests of scribbly gum and pink bloodwood. Other areas contain mangroves and melaleuca swamps. Access to the island is via the MICAT vehicle ferry service from Lytton, near the Port of Brisbane, the Tangalooma Flyer launched from Pinkenba or the Kooringal Trader from Amity Point on North Stradbroke Island.
The Combie Trader barge service from Scarborough in Redcliffe City to Bulwer no longer operates. Camping is permitted in specified campsites as well as within zones along eastern and western beaches. Moreton Bay Marine Park Protected areas of Queensland Official website
Logan City is a local government area situated within the south of the Brisbane metropolitan area in South East Queensland, Australia. Situated between the City of Brisbane to the north and the City of Gold Coast to the south, the City borders the Scenic Rim Region, the City of Ipswich, Redland City LGAs. Logan City is divided into 70 suburbs and 12 divisions, for which a councillor is elected to each of the latter. Gaining significant area in 2008 from the amalgamation of parts of the Albert and Beaudesert Shires, Logan City extends north to Priestdale, south to Mundoolun near the Albert River, east to Carbrook at the Logan River, west to Lyons. Logan City is located across parts of the sub-basin of Oxley Creek, the Logan and Albert Rivers; the Daisy Hill Koala Centre serves as an example of Logan's prominent bushland, reminiscent of Karawatha Forest, the Tamborine and Venman Bushland National Parks, that border Logan suburbs. Etymologically, the region is named after Captain Patrick Logan, as is the aforementioned river, alongside the commercial hubs of Logan Central, Shailer Park's Logan Hyperdome, Browns Plains.
Other populous suburbs include Beenleigh, Rochedale South, Springwood, Woodridge and the rural towns of Jimboomba and Logan Village The city facilitates much of the transport between Brisbane and the Gold Coast. Its motorway network is extensive: in the city's north-east, the Logan Motorway joins the Pacific Motorway, while the Mount Lindesay Highway and Sydney–Brisbane rail corridor cross the city along a central north-south axis. New developments are common those being built at Yarrabilba and Greater Flagstone, while Griffith University has established a Logan campus in Meadowbrook, being developed into a specialist area based around health and education. In 2016, Luke Smith was elected mayor of Logan, but Cherie Dalley is the the Acting Mayor of the city after the Minister for Local Government suspended Smith while allegations of serious integrity offences are investigated; the Commandant of the Moreton Bay Penal Settlement, Captain Patrick Logan. Patrick Logan was a compulsive explorer and in 1826 on his first expedition he discovered the Logan River.
Logan noted the river was well suited to large-vessel traffic and was a first-class avenue to access the high-quality arable land along its banks. He named the country Darling, in honour of the Governor; the Governor renamed the river after Logan. The penal settlement based in Brisbane was closed in 1841 and the land was taken up by squatters; the first leases of land in the Logan area were issued from 1849 and immigration was encouraged following the separation from NSW in 1859. The declaration of the Logan and Eight Mile Plains Agricultural Reserves in 1862 led to extensive settlement of the area. German immigrants arrived in batches from the 1864 onwards. Generous land orders for immigrants in Queensland created a drawcard in the possibility of owning their own farm. A cotton gin, converted to a sugar mill, was built at Loganholme in 1867. Cotton growers faced problems with both the weather and a lack of available labour despite the introduction of Kanaka labour. By the 1870s few working cotton plantations remained along the Logan River.
While this crop was marginally successful, between 1866 and 1874, sugar was soon to become the staple industry. Many small sugar mills were started by farmers seeking to avoid processing costs charged by big mills; however these proved to be uneconomic. Many farmers in the area abandoned sugar after a severe frost in 1885 and a catastrophic flood in 1887 which saw crops destroyed and covered with metres of silt. Others continued growing sugar cane to make 1890 one of the best harvests ever; the Wild Water Water Slide Park began operations in October 1982. The site was to become the Logan Hyperdome with the first work on the regional shopping centre beginning in October 1988, it was opened in July 1989. Construction work on the Logan Hospital started in February 1989. In August 2011, the Logan suburb of Slacks Creek was the location for Queensland's worst house fire. In 2017, a water treatment plant at Round Mountain became the first in Australia to be powered off-grid; the Department of Local Government instigated the formation of the new Logan Shire, which included the northern suburbs of both Albert and Beaudesert Shires.
A section in the north belonged to the Shire of Tingalpa. There were about 69,000 people living to the north of the Logan River. On 31 May 1978 Local Government Minister Russ Hinze introduced the Local Government Bill and, approved on 8 June 1978. Logan was declared a city on 1 January 1981 and the administration building on Wembley Road was opened in February 1981; the city was named after Captain Patrick Logan, one of the founders of the Moreton Bay convict settlement. Logan was honoured in the names of many locales in the district, such as the Logan River, the suburbs of Loganlea, Logan Village, Logan Reserve and Logan Central, the Logan Motorway and Logan Road, which connects Logan City with the nearby state capital of Brisbane. With the major changes to local government in Queensland which took effect at 15 March 2008 local elections, Logan more than tripled in area and added 78,400 people to its population; this came about through annexing a large section of the now-dissolved Shire of Beaudesert as well as the Beenleigh-Eagleby suburban area to its southeast, part of the Gold Coast.
In its rationale for the changes, the Local Government Reform Commission argued that the area added brought the South East Queensland urban footprint and future growth areas to 2026 under the one local government, which could plan for
Caboolture is a town and suburb in Moreton Bay Region, Australia. At the 2016 census, the town of Caboolture had an estimated population of 67,460, it is located on the north side of the Caboolture River, which separates the town from Morayfield and Caboolture South. Caboolture is an urban centre or satellite city 44 kilometres north of Brisbane, the state capital of Queensland. Caboolture is considered to be the northernmost urban area of the greater Brisbane metropolitan region within South East Queensland, it marks the end of the Brisbane suburban commuter railway service along the North Coast railway line; the urban extent of the town of Caboolture is not formally defined but is regarded as including the following suburbs: Bellmere Caboolture Caboolture South Morayfield Upper Caboolture The Kabi indigenous people are the traditional custodians of the area now known as Caboolture. The name Kabultur is derived from the Yugarabul dialect meaning "place of the carpet snake"; the Kabi people harvested bush food, fresh water mussels, oysters and some game animals, moving around the land to take best advantage of seasonally-available produce.
Each year in March, the Kabi people would hold Bunya Festivals to feast on the plentiful and nutritious annual nuts of the Bunya Pine. These huge trees provided a food source. Neighbouring clans were invited to the festivals, where singing, dancing story-telling and arranging of marriages took place; the Caboolture area was colonised by European people in 1842 when the land around the Moreton Bay penal colony was opened up to free settlers. By the mid-1860s the local pastoralists were experimenting with sugar cotton. In 1867, a tiny settlement was established as a supply and trading centre for the settlers in the area and to service the needs of miners trekking from Brisbane to the goldfields near Gympie The local shire was constituted in 1879 and in 1888 the railway line from Brisbane was opened. Caboolture Post Office opened on 1 September 1869. Settlement in Caboolture was accelerated with the discovery of gold at Gympie. In 1868, the town was used as a stop-over point by the Cobb and Co coach service connecting Brisbane and Maryborough.
This function continued with the rail link established in 1888. A small dairy town, the location of Caboolture on the corridor between Brisbane and the Sunshine Coast resulted in an influx of residents in the 1970s and 1980s; the three main factors in this expansion were the electrification of the railway line to Brisbane, enabling travel to the Brisbane CBD in less than an hour, the development of the Bruce Highway to freeway standard, the availability of cheap land. The Caboolture Library opened in 2011; as part of the 30th Anniversary of Expo 88 celebration, on 26 October 2018, artist Ken Done unveiled the restoration of his iconic signs made for the Australia pavilion at Expo 88. It had spent the intervening years in a cow paddock beside the Bruce Highway at Deception Bay; the restoration was undertaken by the Caboolture Historical Village where they will remain on display. Caboolture has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Buckle Street: Lagoon Creek Pumping Station According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 67,460 people in Caboolture Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 4.8% of the population.
75.7% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were New Zealand 4.6%, England 3.5%, Philippines 0.9%, Taiwan 0.6% and South Korea 0.5%. 85.8% of people spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Mandarin 0.8%, Samoan 0.6%, Tagalog 0.4%, Korean 0.4% and Cantonese 0.3%. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 33.2%, Catholic 19.0% and Anglican 15.7%. Caboolture is a regional transport hub. With its connections across the Great Dividing Range via the D'Aguilar Highway, easy highway access to Brisbane and the Sunshine Coast via the Bruce Highway, the Bribie Island Road to Bribie Island, it is a focal point for road traffic. Caboolture railway station is the terminus for QR Citytrain's Caboolture railway line, as well as being a major stop on the North Coast railway line. Citytrain operates regular services to Brisbane, in addition to interurban services to Nambour and Gympie, with significant expansion of services north of Caboolture planned over the next decade.
The area is serviced by Caboolture Bus Lines and the larger Kangaroo Bus Lines. Caboolture contains its own airfield, which services general and recreational aviation. Visiting aircraft are able to operate into the Caboolture airstrip, under the operational control of the Caboolture Aero Club Inc. Additionally the airport is home to a number of aviation enterprises and attractions - amongst them, the Caboolture Warplane Museum, skydiving club, the Beaufort Restoration group. Caboolture's senior sporting teams predominantly play in the respective Sunshine Coast competitions; the suburbs cricket club are reigning Sunshine Coast Cricket Association first division premiers. The rugby union club have rejoined the Sunshine Coast Rugby Union competition after a few years in Queensland Suburban rugby's Barber Cup; the town has a Little Athletics club, Schools in Caboolture include Caboolture State School near the CBD, Minimbah State School, Tullawong State School, Caboolture East Primary School, Saint Paul's Lutheran Primary School and Australian Christian College - Moreton.
High Schools include Caboolture State High School, Morayfield State High School
Redland City, better known as the Redlands and known as Redland Shire, is a local government area located in the southeast of the Brisbane metropolitan area in South East Queensland. With a population just under 150,000, the City is spread along the southern coast of Moreton Bay, covering 537.1 square kilometres. Its mainland borders the City of Brisbane to the west and north-west, Logan City to the south-west and south, while its islands are situated north of the City of Gold Coast. Redland attained city status on 15 March 2008, having been a shire since 1949, when it was created by the merger of the former Tingalpa and Cleveland Shires. Despite this status, the City consists of suburban and coastal communities, featuring a somewhat disjointed urbanisation around major suburbs interspersed with bushland. Large mainland suburbs include Capalaba, Victoria Point, Redland Bay; the latter is the City's namesake, due to the colour of its fertile soil. North Stradbroke Island and smaller nearby islands, most notably those of Southern Moreton Bay, comprise the eastern portion of the Redlands.
The City's boundaries correspond to those of the federal division of Bowman. The area now known as the Redlands was inhabited by the Jagera and Quandamooka people. Europeans first entered the Redlands in the late 18th century while mapping Moreton Bay: James Cook made observations of the then-undivided Stradbroke Island. By the 1840s, the coastal township of Cleveland was in contention to become a major port replacing Brisbane, but was not chosen due to the region's existing sandbars and shipwrecks, an unfavourable review from Governor George Gipps during his 1842 visit. Louis Hope and other land purchasers began to develop significant infrastructure at this time. On 11 November 1879, under the Divisional Boards Act 1879, the Tingalpa Division was created to govern the area to the east of metropolitan Brisbane; the area around Cleveland split away to form the Cleveland Division on 30 May 1885. Under the Local Authorities Act 1902, both became Shires on 31 March 1903; the Tingalpa council met at Mount Cotton.
On 1 October 1925, a sizeable portion of the Shire of Tingalpa became part of the new City of Brisbane along with 20 other local governments. On 9 December 1948, as part of a major reorganisation of local government in South East Queensland, an Order in Council renamed the Shire of Cleveland to be Shire of Redland and amalgamated part of Shire of Tingalpa into it; the twentieth century saw significant population growth in the Redlands, preceded by the construction of the Cleveland railway line. Peel Island became a leper colony, while North Stradbroke Island became a hub for sand mining, is associated with the Indigenous rights movement as the home of poet Oodgeroo Noonuccal and academic Aileen Moreton-Robinson. On 15 March 2008, Redlands was granted city status. In June 2018, the Redland City Council approved a marketing campaign to brand the city as "Redlands Coast" with the tagline "naturally wonderful"; the campaign seeks to attract tourists to the city's 335 kilometres of coastline. Although most of the population resides on the main urban conglomeration based around the centres of Capalaba and Victoria Point, over 6,000 people live on islands in Moreton Bay that are part of the City.
These are North Stradbroke and the Southern Moreton Bay Islands of Karragarra, Lamb and Macleay. Tingalpa Creek rises on Mount Cotton, forming Leslie Harrison Dam, marking the majority of the area's western boundary. Redland City has many recognisable animals and plants such as koalas, migratory shorebirds, flying foxes and scribbly gum forests, it is home to over 1,700 other recorded native species, many of which are under threat from population growth and its associated effects such as habitat clearing and fragmentation, road construction and expanding development. The council area is home to Venman Bushland National Park, the Eprapah Scout environment training centre. In April 2013, the Redland City Council illegally cleared vegetation from public land on the foreshores of Moreton Bay; the Council has been required by the State Government to restore the cleared vegetation and install signage about the restoration. Trees felled included many sheoaks; the city's koala population has declined in recent years.
In 2010, it was estimated that only 2,000 koalas remained, a 65% decline since 1999. Figures from a count in 2012 have not yet been released by the Queensland Government; the Redland City-based Koala Action Group has warned that: "Rampant expansion of urban areas will lead to the loss of the koala populations that are vital to the long-term survival of the species."The city boundaries include internationally significant coastal wetlands within the Moreton Bay Ramsar site. Tidal flats and seagrass beds provide important habitats for fish, and: large numbers of the nationally threatened green turtle and the loggerhead turtle the internationally vulnerable dugong, a large sea mammal from the order Sirenia which includes manatee species 43 species of shorebirds, including 30 migratory bird species listed by international migratory bird conservation agreements, such as the vulnerable eastern curlew and the grey-tailed tattler, that use this area in their journey through the East Asian–Australasian Flyway.
Freshwater systems in the Redlands catc