A nerd is a person seen as overly intellectual, introverted or lacking social skills. Such a person may spend inordinate amounts of time on unpopular, little known, or non-mainstream activities, which are either technical, abstract, or relating to topics of science fiction or fantasy, to the exclusion of more mainstream activities. Additionally, many so-called nerds are described as being shy, quirky and unattractive. Derogatory, the term "nerd" was a stereotype, but as with other pejoratives, it has been reclaimed and redefined by some as a term of pride and group identity. However, the augmentative terms and dork, have not experienced a similar positive drift in meaning and usage; the first documented appearance of the word nerd is as the name of a creature in Dr. Seuss's book If I Ran the Zoo, in which the narrator Gerald McGrew claims that he would collect "a Nerkle, a Nerd, a Seersucker too" for his imaginary zoo; the slang meaning of the term dates to 1951. That year, Newsweek magazine reported on its popular use as a synonym for drip or square in Detroit, Michigan.
By the early 1960s, usage of the term had spread throughout the United States, as far as Scotland. At some point, the word took on connotations of social ineptitude. An alternate spelling, as nurd or gnurd began to appear in the mid-1960s or early 1970s. Author Philip K. Dick claimed to have coined the "nurd" spelling in 1973, but its first recorded use appeared in a 1965 student publication at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Oral tradition there holds that the word is derived from knurd, used to describe people who studied rather than partied; the term gnurd was in use at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by 1965. The term "nurd" was in use at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as early as 1971. According to Online Etymology Dictionary, the word is an alteration of the 1940s term "nert", itself an alteration of "nut"; the term was popularized in the 1970s by its heavy use in the sitcom Happy Days. Because of the nerd stereotype, many smart people are thought of as nerdy; this belief can be harmful, as it can cause high-school students to "switch off their lights" out of fear of being branded as a nerd, cause otherwise appealing people to be considered nerdy for their intellect.
It was once thought. However, Paul Graham stated in his essay, "Why Nerds are Unpopular", that intellect is neutral, meaning that you are neither loved nor despised for it, he states that it is only the correlation that makes smart teens automatically seem nerdy, that a nerd is someone, not adept enough. Additionally, he says that the reason why many smart kids are unpopular is that they "don't have time for the activities required for popularity." Stereotypical nerd appearance lampooned in caricatures, can include large glasses, buck teeth, severe acne and pants worn high at the waist. Following suit of popular use in emoticons, Unicode released in 2015 its "Nerd Face" character, featuring some of those stereotypes:. In the media, many nerds are males, portrayed as being physically unfit, either overweight or skinny due to lack of physical exercise, it has been suggested by some, such as linguist Mary Bucholtz, that being a nerd may be a state of being "hyperwhite" and rejecting African-American culture and slang that "cool" white children use.
However, after the Revenge of the Nerds movie franchise, the introduction of the Steve Urkel character on the television series Family Matters, nerds have been seen in all races and colors as well as more being a frequent young East Asian or Indian male stereotype in North America. Portrayal of "nerd girls", in films such as She's Out of Control, Welcome to the Dollhouse and She's All That depicts that smart but nerdy women might suffer in life if they do not focus on improving their physical attractiveness. In the United States, a 2010 study published in the Journal of International and Intercultural Communication indicated that Asian Americans are perceived as most to be nerds, followed by White Americans, while non-White Hispanics and Black Americans were perceived as least to be nerds; these stereotypes stem from concepts of Orientalism and Primitivism, as discussed in Ron Eglash's essay Race and Nerds: From Black Geeks to Asian American Hipsters. Some of the stereotypical behaviors associated with the "nerd" stereotype have correlations with the traits of Asperger's Syndrome or other autism-spectrum conditions.
The rise of Silicon Valley and the American computer industry at large has allowed many so-called "nerdy people" to accumulate large fortunes and influence media culture. Many stereotypically nerdy interests, such as superhero and science fiction works, are now international popular culture hits; some measures of nerdiness are now considered desirable, as, to some, it suggests a person, intelligent, respectful and able to earn a large salary. Stereotypical nerd qualities are evolving, going from awkwardness and social ostracism to an more widespread acceptance and sometimes celebration of their differences. Johannes Grenzfurthner, self-proclaimed nerd and director of nerd documentary Traceroute, reflects on the emergence of nerds and nerd culture: I think that the figure of the nerd provides a beautiful template for analyzing the transformation of the disciplinary society into the control society; the nerd, in his cliche form, first stepped out upon the world stage in the mid-1970s, when w
Hiram Monserrate is an American politician from the State of New York. A Democrat, Monserrate represented New York's 13th State Senate District in Queens from January 1, 2009 until February 9, 2010, when he was expelled from office following a misdemeanor conviction for assaulting his then-girlfriend, he served time in prison following a plea of guilty to federal corruption charges. Monserrate is a former Marine, a former New York City police officer, a former Member of the New York City Council. Monserrate served on the New York City Council from 2002 to 2008, representing District 21 in Queens. In June 2003, Mayor Michael Bloomberg announced an executive order allowing city employees to report illegal immigrants to federal authorities. Monserrate chairing the Council's Black and Asian Caucus, argued that this order would worsen relations between immigrant communities and the police, he responded by sponsoring a bill entitled "Access Without Fear", which would have forbidden city officials from revealing such information except as required by law.
He joined director Stephen Frears in publicizing the immigration film Dirty Pretty Things to raise awareness of the issue. In late 2008, Monserrate opposed Mayor Bloomberg's planned use of eminent domain in the $4 billion Willets Point Redevelopment project in Queens; the long-term project aimed to clear the 62-acre industrial area, clear up pollution, develop a hotel and convention center. However, it was opposed by a majority of the existing business owners. Monserrate changed his mind and supported the development after being assured that one-third of the housing would be "affordable" and that the city would offer businesses an opportunity to relocate, he told reporters the compromise showed that government "can be fair and still do good economic development". Monserrate supported the New York Rescue Workers Detoxification Project, a project co-founded by Tom Cruise to deliver the so-called Purification Rundown to rescue workers affected by the September 11 attacks. Monserrate went through the program himself, drafted official proclamations honoring both Cruise and Hubbard.
He attended a fund-raising dinner in New York for the project, as well as an event at the Scientology Celebrity Centre in Los Angeles. Monserrate dismissed medical authorities' criticism of the Purification Rundown, saying, "This is the same type of thing they said about chiropractors twenty years ago." In 2006, Monserrate ran for New York State Senate against fellow Democrat John Sabini, a 16-year incumbent. Monserrate came within 200 votes of pulling off an upset in one of the closest races in Queens. In 2008, he again ran for the State Senate with the support of organized labor. Sabini withdrew from the race following his appointment to chair the New York State Racing and Wagering Board. Monserrate ran unopposed and on November 4, 2008, was elected the New York State Senator for the 13th district. On June 8, 2009, Monserrate and Pedro Espada joined Senate Republicans in an attempted parliamentary coup for the purpose of shifting control of the Senate to the Republicans; this action resulted in the 2009 New York State Senate leadership crisis.
A week Senate Democrats appointed Senator John Sampson as their leader. On the same day, Monserrate rejoined the Democratic caucus. With the office of Lieutenant Governor vacant due to Eliot Spitzer's resignation, the tie could not be resolved, the resulting legislative deadlock continued until July 9, when Espada rejoined the Democrats. On December 2, 2009, Monserrate voted against legislation allowing same-sex marriage, which failed to pass the Senate. A bipartisan nine-member committee recommended disciplinary action against Monserrate following his 2009 misdemeanor assault conviction. If Monserrate had been convicted of the felony charges against him, he would have been automatically expelled from the Senate. Politicians of both parties at the national and local level called for him to resign or be expelled from the State Senate; the committee's report was released on January 14, 2010 and recommended that the full Senate expel or censure Monserrate. On February 9, 2010, the Senate Senate voted to expel Monserrate.
The vote was 53 to 8, with one senator not present. In response, Monserrate sued the State Senate in federal court. Monserrate lost his case in the Second Circuit Court of Appeals; the Queens Democratic Party withdrew its support for Monserrate's 2010 re-election bid on October 29, 2009. The party leadership supported Assemblyman Jose Peralta for the State Senate. Following Monserrate's expulsion from the Senate, Governor David Paterson called for a special election in the 13th Senate District to be held on March 16, 2010. Peralta won the special election. Monserrate filed petitions with the Board of Elections to be entered in the Democratic primary to fill the 39th Assembly District seat vacated by Jose Peralta following his election to the State Senate; the Queens County Democratic Party endorsed community activist Francisco Moya for the seat. On September 14, 2010, Moya defeated Monserrate in the Democratic primary, 2,711 votes to 1,358 votes. In June 2016, following his release from federal prison, Monserrate attempted his third political comeback by seeking the unpaid elected position of Democratic District Leader for the 35th District in Corona and Eas
The Greek government-debt crisis was the sovereign debt crisis faced by Greece in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2007–08. Known in the country as The Crisis, it reached the populace as a series of sudden reforms and austerity measures that led to impoverishment and loss of income and property, as well as a small-scale humanitarian crisis. In all, the Greek economy suffered the longest recession of any advanced capitalist economy to date, overtaking the US Great Depression; as a result, the Greek political system has been upended, social exclusion increased, hundreds of thousands of well-educated Greeks have left the country. The Greek crisis started in late 2009, triggered by the turmoil of the world-wide Great Recession, structural weaknesses in the Greek economy, lack of monetary policy flexibility as a member of the Eurozone; the crisis included revelations that previous data on government debt levels and deficits had been underreported by the Greek government: the official forecast for the 2009 budget deficit was less than half the final value as calculated in 2010, while after revisions according to Eurostat methodology, the 2009 government debt was raised from $269.3 bn to $299.7 bn, i.e. about 11% higher than reported.
The crisis led to a loss of confidence in the Greek economy, indicated by a widening of bond yield spreads and rising cost of risk insurance on credit default swaps compared to the other Eurozone countries Germany. The government enacted 12 rounds of tax increases, spending cuts, reforms from 2010 to 2016, which at times triggered local riots and nationwide protests. Despite these efforts, the country required bailout loans in 2010, 2012, 2015 from the International Monetary Fund and European Central Bank, negotiated a 50% "haircut" on debt owed to private banks in 2011, which amounted to a €100bn debt relief. After a popular referendum which rejected further austerity measures required for the third bailout, after closure of banks across the country, on June 30, 2015, Greece became the first developed country to fail to make an IMF loan repayment on time. At that time, debt levels had reached some € 30,000 per capita. Between 2009 and 2017 the Greek government debt rose from €300 bn to €318 bn.
However, during the same period the Greek debt-to-GDP ratio rose up from 127% to 179% due to the severe GDP drop during the handling of the crisis. Greece, like other European nations, had faced debt crises in the 19th century, as well as a similar crisis in 1932 during the Great Depression. In general, during the 20th century it enjoyed one of the highest GDP growth rates in the world. Average Greek government debt-to-GDP for the entire century before the crisis was lower than that for the UK, Canada or France, while for the 30-year period until its entrance into the European Economic Community, the Greek government debt-to-GDP ratio averaged only 19.8%. Between 1981 and 1993 it rose, surpassing the average of what is today the Eurozone in the mid-1980s. For the next 15 years, from 1993 to 2007, Greece's government debt-to-GDP ratio remained unchanged, averaging 102% – a value lower than that for Italy and Belgium during the same 15-year period, comparable to that for the U. S. or the OECD average in 2017.
During the latter period, the country's annual budget deficit exceeded 3% of GDP, but its effect on the debt-to GDP ratio was counterbalanced by high GDP growth rates. The debt-to GDP values for 2006 and 2007 were established after audits resulted in corrections according to Eurostat methodology, of up to 10 percentage points for the particular years; these corrections, although altering the debt level by a maximum of about 10%, resulted in a popular notion that "Greece was hiding its debt". The 2001 introduction of the euro reduced trade costs between Eurozone countries, increasing overall trade volume. Labour costs increased more in peripheral countries such as Greece relative to core countries such as Germany without compensating rise in productivity, eroding Greece's competitive edge; as a result, Greece's current account deficit rose significantly. A trade deficit means that a country is consuming more than it produces, which requires borrowing/direct investment from other countries. Both the Greek trade deficit and budget deficit rose from below 5% of GDP in 1999 to peak around 15% of GDP in the 2008–2009 periods.
One driver of the investment inflow was Greece's membership in the Eurozone. Greece was perceived as a higher credit risk alone than it was as a member of the Eurozone, which implied that investors felt the EU would bring discipline to its finances and support Greece in the event of problems; as the Great Recession spread to Europe, the amount of funds lent from the European core countries to the peripheral countries such as Greece began to decline. Reports in 2009 of Greek fiscal mismanagement and deception increased borrowing costs. A country facing a'sudden stop' in private investment and a high debt load typ
Segundo is one of the 31 barrios of the municipality of Ponce, Puerto Rico. Along with Primero, Cuarto and Sexto, Segundo is one the municipality's six core urban barrios, it was organized in 1878. Barrio Segundo has 3 subbarrios: Baldority de Castro and Reparada. Segundo is an urban barrio located in the southern section of the municipality, within the Ponce city limits, northwest of the traditional center of the city, Plaza Las Delicias. Barrio Segundo is bounded on the North by Cinco Street, Pico Dulce Street, Paseo de la Cruceta, on the South by Villa Street, on the West by Global Street, on the East by Atocha, Plaza Munoz Rivera, Plaza Degetau Streets. In terms of barrio-to-barrio boundaries, Segundo is bounded in the North by Portugués Urbano, in the South by Primero and Canas Urbano, in the West by Canas Urbano, in the East by Sexto and Tercero; the communities of Clausells and Tamarindo are located in Segundo. Segundo has 0.6 square miles of no water area. In 2000, the population of Segundo was 11,321.
In 2010, the population density in Segundo was 17,546 persons per square mile. Segundo is home to a large number of Ponce's historic sites. Plaza Las Delicias, 25 de Enero Street, Paseo Atocha, are located there; the NRHP-listed Parque de Bombas, Nuestra Señora de la Guadalupe Cathedral, Armstrong-Poventud Residence, Casa Wiechers-Villaronga, Panteón Nacional Román Baldorioty de Castro, Albergue Caritativo Tricoche, Casa Miguel C. Godreau, Subira House are all located in Barrio Segundo
Akira Tana is an American jazz drummer. Tana grew up in Palo Alto, graduating from Gunn High School in 1970. Tana obtained a bachelor's degree from Harvard University in the social sciences, playing gigs on the side enrolled at the New England Conservatory of Music. There he performed in both classical and jazz idioms, playing with the Boston Symphony Orchestra and student ensembles as well as with musicians such as Helen Humes, Milt Jackson, Sonny Rollins, George Russell, Sonny Stitt. Tana recorded as a sideman in the 1980s, began releasing albums as a leader in the 1990s, he formed a group, TanaReid, with Rufus Reid, added Kei Akagi on occasion to form the Asian-American Jazz Trio. Tana's performing and recording associations include Charles Aznavour, Ran Blake, Ray Bryant, Al Cohn, Chris Connor, Art Farmer, Carl Fontana, Dizzy Gillespie, Benny Golson, Jim Hall, Jimmy Heath, Lena Horne, J. J. Johnson, Warne Marsh, Tete Montoliu, James Moody, Spike Robinson, Jimmy Rowles, Zoot Sims, Cedar Walton, Frank Wess.
Blue Motion Looking Forward Secret Agent Men Moon Over The World Kiss Kiss Bang Bang Jazzanova With Jim Hall Jim Hall's Three With Tete MontoliuA Spanish Treasure With Warne Marsh Posthumous With OTONOWA Stars Across the Ocean Love's Radiance With Claudio Roditi Claudio! "Akira Tana". The New Grove Encyclopedia of Popular Music
WERW is an independent student-run, free-format radio station at Syracuse University that broadcasts on the Web. The station programs an eclectic format similar to many other college radio stations in the United States of America, with blocks of programs featuring underground rock music, world music, folk music, occasional news, some political or public affairs programs; the online station can be streamed at its website. The station was formed by the largest student-run organization on campus, University Union, after a controversy involving the other student-run station, WJPZ-FM. WJPZ had incorporated as an independent entity broadcasting Top 40 music in a simulation of a professional radio station, in order to provide communications students attending the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications with vocational training, it started, like WERW, as a carrier current AM station, but began broadcasting with 100 watts on 89.1 FM on February 2, 1985. WJPZ did find some favor among students at Syracuse University and amongst Top 40 fans in the surrounding community that could hear it.
However, there were protests among many university students who wanted the station to reflect more "diverse" programming, including a three-day sit-in at the station's studios by the Student Afro-American Society in the autumn of 1986. The station was conceived in October 1986. University Union Concert Board Director Fred Feldman Creative Board Director Will Morrison and UU member Kevin Baier hatched the idea for an alternative radio station to exist under the University Union umbrella, they joined forces with SU freshmen Pete Wesenberg, Kyle Rosa, Shane Francis, who wanted to start a radio station. Baier became Lori Teitler the first Music Director; the original turntables and records were those of the University Union members and its free-form format consisted of indie rock and alternative dance music. In response to the student complaints, with the new team in place, the University Union organization established WERW in January 1987. University Union is referred to as "U. U." and the station call letters, WERW, were chosen as shorthand for "We Are U.
U.". During its first year, WERW broadcast out of the control room of CitrusTV for a limited broadcasting schedule, was heard only on cable television. University Union secured just enough funding for turntables, a mixing console and other basic broadcast necessities and WERW moved into a "real" studio over the summer of 1987 in Watson Hall just across the hall from WJPZ; the station was heard only through television monitors and over low-power FM. By the early 1990s, WERW operated on carrier current at 750 AM and was available in Syracuse University's dorms and some other campus buildings. A low-power AM broadcast transmitter was acquired and an antenna was erected atop Booth Hall in 1995 to allow WERW to broadcast with 20 watts of power at 1570 AM while simulcasting on 750 AM, it could be heard all across campus at the Syracuse University and in adjacent areas of the city of Syracuse. By the late 1990s, the carrier current broadcast at 750 AM had been abandoned. WERW began to simulcast its programming on the Web in early 2001.
A few years the 1570 AM transmitter began to broadcast a dead carrier signal when the cable that ran from the studio to the transmitter was cut or damaged from corrosion. In early 2010, WERW became an independent student organization. "What Everyone Really Wants" began to be used as an alternate meaning for the call sign instead of the original meaning of "We Are U. U." In October 2010, the station relaunched and began to broadcast from its new facilities in the basement of the Schine Student Center in the Jabberwocky Cafe. The AM transmitter was removed from the air in early 2011. In 2017, WERW returned to the airwaves on AM 1670 with a campus-only signal, but remains available online. Sam Roberts works for Opie and Anthony, Sirius XM, hosts the Special Delivery Starring Sam and Dave on Sirius XM Satellite Radio. Hosts Sirius XM Hits 1 from 3 AM to 6 AM weekdays. WERW Official website WERW Official Web Broadcast