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Nernst equation

In electrochemistry, the Nernst equation is an equation that relates the reduction potential of an electrochemical reaction to the standard electrode potential and activities of the chemical species undergoing reduction and oxidation. It was named after a German physical chemist who formulated the equation. A quantitative relationship between cell potential and concentration of the ions Ox + z e− → Redstandard thermodynamics says that the actual free energy change ΔG is related to the free energy change under standard state ΔGo by the relationship: Δ G = Δ G ⊖ + R T ln ⁡ Q r where Qr is the reaction quotient; the cell potential E associated with the electrochemical reaction is defined as the decrease in Gibbs free energy per coulomb of charge transferred, which leads to the relationship Δ G = − z F E. The constant F is a unit conversion factor F = NAq, where NA is Avogadro's number and q is the fundamental electron charge; this leads to the Nernst equation, which for an electrochemical half-cell is E red = E red ⊖ − R T z F ln ⁡ Q r = E red ⊖ − R T z F ln ⁡ a Red a Ox.

For a complete electrochemical reaction, the equation can be written as E cell = E cell ⊖ − R T z F ln ⁡ Q r where Ered is the half-cell reduction potential at the temperature of interest, Eored is the standard half-cell reduction potential, Ecell is the cell potential at the temperature of interest, Eocell is the standard cell potential, R is the universal gas constant: R = 8.31446261815324 J K−1 mol−1, T is the temperature in kelvins, z is the number of electrons transferred in the cell reaction or half-reaction, F is the Faraday constant, the number of coulombs per mole of electrons: F = 96485.3321233100184 C mol−1, Qr is the reaction quotient of the cell reaction, a is the chemical activity for the relevant species, where aRed is the activity of the reduced form and aOx is the activity of the oxidized form. To equilibrium constants, activities are always measured with respect to the standard state; the activity of species X, aX, can be related to the physical concentrations cX via aX = γXcX, where γX is the activity coefficient of species X.

Because activity coefficients tend to unity at low concentrations, activities in the Nernst equation are replaced by simple concentrations. Alternatively, defining the formal potential as: E ⊖ ′ = E ⊖ + R T z F ln ⁡ γ O x γ R e d the half-cell Nernst equation may be written in terms of concentrations as: E red = E red ⊖ ′ − R T z F ln ⁡ C Red C Ox and for the full cell expression. At room temperature, the thermal voltage V T = R T F is 25.693 mV. The Nernst equation is expressed in terms of base-10 logarithms rather than natural logarithms, in which case it is written: E = E 0 + V T z ln ⁡ a Ox a Red = E 0 + λ V T z log 10 ⁡ a Ox a Red.where λ=ln and λVT =0.05916... V; the Nernst equation is used in physiology for finding the electric potential of a cell membrane with respect to one type of ion. It can be linked to the acid dissociation constant; the Nernst equation has a physiological application when used to calculate the potential of an ion of charge z across a membrane. This potential is determined using the concentration of the ion both inside and outside the cell: E = R T

Esther Charlotte Brandes

Esther Charlotte Brandes, was a German actress and opera singer. She was the daughter of Prussian official Gottfried Salomo Kochin, she was engaged in the Schuch theater company in 1764-68, in the Seyler Theatre Company in 1768-75, at the Rigaer Stadttheater after its foundation. She performed as Medea, Minna von Barnhelm, she became the most popular for her role of Ariadne in the duodrama "Ariadne auf Naxos" with music composed by Georg Benda. She is known to have dressed in a historical costume for this play, an innovation for her time in an age when actors did not yet dress in correct costumes for their roles, she was depicted in this role in a famous painting. Esther Charlotte married Johann Christian Brandes on 24 May 1764 in Wrocław, they had three children, notably the singer, actress and pianist Minna Brandes. The Brandes family prepared concerts for Princess Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern, she died on May 13, 1786 in Hamburg, Germany

Alberto Giacometti

Alberto Giacometti was a Swiss sculptor, painter and printmaker. Beginning in 1922, he lived and worked in Paris but visited his hometown Borgonovo to see his family and work on his art. Giacometti was one of the most important sculptors of the 20th century, his work was influenced by artistic styles such as Cubism and Surrealism. Philosophical questions about the human condition, as well as existential and phenomenological debates played a significant role in his work. Around 1935 he gave up on his Surrealistic influences in order to pursue a more deepened analysis of figurative compositions. Giacometti wrote texts for periodicals and exhibition catalogues and recorded his thoughts and memories in notebooks and diaries, his self-critical nature led to great doubts about his work and his ability to do justice to his own artistic ideas but acted as a great motivating force. Between 1938 and 1944 Giacometti's sculptures had a maximum height of seven centimeters, their small size reflected the actual distance between his model.

In this context he self-critically stated: "But wanting to create from memory what I had seen, to my terror the sculptures became smaller and smaller". After World War II, Giacometti created his most famous sculptures: his tall and slender figurines; these sculptures were subject to his individual viewing experience—between an imaginary yet real, a tangible yet inaccessible space. In Giacometti's whole body of work, his painting constitutes only a small part. After 1957, his figurative paintings were as present as his sculptures, his monochromatic paintings of his late work do not refer to any other artistic styles of modernity. Giacometti was born in Borgonovo, Switzerland, in the canton Graubünden's southerly alpine valley Val Bregaglia near the Italian border, as the eldest of four children of Giovanni Giacometti, a well-known post-Impressionist painter, Annetta Giacometti-Stampa, he was a descendant of Protestant refugees escaping the inquisition. Coming from an artistic background, he was interested in art from an early age.

Alberto attended the Geneva School of Fine Arts. His brothers Diego and Bruno would go on to become architects as well. Additionally, his cousin Zaccaria Giacometti professor of constitutional law and chancellor of the University of Zurich, grew up together with them, having been orphaned at the age of 12 in 1905. In 1922, he moved to Paris to study under the sculptor an associate of Rodin, it was there that Giacometti experimented with Cubism and Surrealism and came to be regarded as one of the leading Surrealist sculptors. Among his associates were Miró, Max Ernst, Bror Hjorth, Balthus. Between 1936 and 1940, Giacometti concentrated his sculpting on the human head, focusing on the sitter's gaze, he preferred models he was close to -- the artist Isabel Rawsthorne. This was followed by a phase. Obsessed with creating his sculptures as he envisioned through his unique view of reality, he carved until they were as thin as nails and reduced to the size of a pack of cigarettes, much to his consternation.

A friend of his once said that if Giacometti decided to sculpt you, "he would make your head look like the blade of a knife". During World War II, Giacometti took refuge in Switzerland. There, in 1946, he met a secretary for the Red Cross, they married in 1949. After his marriage his tiny sculptures became larger, but the larger they grew, the thinner they became. For the remainder of Giacometti's life, Annette was his main female model, his paintings underwent a parallel procedure. The figures appear isolated and attenuated, as the result of continuous reworking, he revisited his subjects: one of his favourite models was his younger brother Diego. In 1958 Giacometti was asked to create a monumental sculpture for the Chase Manhattan Bank building in New York, beginning construction. Although he had for many years "harbored an ambition to create work for a public square", he "had never set foot in New York, knew nothing about life in a evolving metropolis. Nor had he laid eyes on an actual skyscraper", according to his biographer James Lord.

Giacometti's work on the project resulted in the four figures of standing women—his largest sculptures—entitled Grande femme debout I through IV. The commission was never completed, because Giacometti was unsatisfied by the relationship between the sculpture and the site, abandoned the project. In 1962, Giacometti was awarded the grand prize for sculpture at the Venice Biennale, the award brought with it worldwide fame; when he had achieved popularity and his work was in demand, he still reworked models destroying them or setting them aside to be returned to years later. The prints produced by Giacometti are overlooked but the catalogue raisonné, Giacometti – The Complete Graphics and 15 Drawings by Herbert Lust, comments on their impact and gives details of the number of copies of each print; some of his most important images were in editions of only 30 and many were described as rare in 1970. In his years Giacometti's works were shown in a number of large exhibitions throughout Europe. Riding a wave of international popularity, despite his declining health, he traveled to the United States in 1965 for an exhibition of his works at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.

As his last work he prepared the text for the book Paris sans fin, a sequence of 150 lithographs containing memories of all

Ocampo, Tamaulipas

Ciudad Ocampo in Ocampo Municipality in the Mexican state of Tamaulipas was founded on May 19, 1749 as Villa of Santa Bárbara. The credit for the founding of Santa Barbara is given to Don José Escandón y Helguera, it is among the Sierra Madre Oriental Mountains. Surrounded by green mountains and hundreds of farms, it is known as "El Vergel de Tamaulipas", the Orchard of Tamaulipas; the name Ocampo is so named in honor of the reformist Melchor Ocampo. Population founded by Jose de Escandón on 19 May 1749 with the name of Santa Barbara, in the called site Tanguachín, place in that 460 Valley families had settled down, to that several rancherías indigenous added themselves to them, he was his first captain Juan Francisco Barberena, with political and military jurisdiction on the villa. When being united to the expedition of Escandón to colonize the New Santander, it was left Tomás of Grove like lieutenant of the villa; the following year, the Mission of Igollo settled down, that congregated to natives of the groups pames and janambres, was administered by the monk Francisco Escandón and Helguera, brother of the count of Fat Mountain range.

In 1757, the villa had 479 inhabitants dedicated to agriculture, "whom supply of maize to many parts of the colony and they removed it to sell outside" and she was surrounded by farms dedicated to the cattle ranch. Due to a flood which they suffered in 1757, the villa and the mission were changed to the site in which at the moment they are. In 1770 the villa had 550 inhabitants, without telling the children. Santa Barbara, by its wealth received the name of Orchard of Tamaulipas. From 1869, the villa was called Ocampo, in memory of the illustrious reformist Melchor Ocampo and in 1898 it rose to the category of city. Ocampo's rich past and distance from other cities gives the community its garnish of uniqueness and heritage. 87 percent of the population is Catholic, worshipping in the church La Parroquia de Santa Barbara, located the town center. Every December 4, celebration fills the town. Many take advantage of this time to baptize, confirm, or make the first communion for their children; the town celebrates its founding annually with a fair through the week of May 19.

The municipal head is located in the city of Ocampo, between the parallels 22º50' of north latitude and to 99º22' of west longitude, to a height of 1.173 meters on the level of the sea. The city lies in a valley in the Sierra Madre Oriental. Colinda to the north with the municipalities of Tula and Jaumave. Ciudad Ocampo History Video of Ciudad Ocampo, Tamaulipas

Burkenroad Reports

Burkenroad Reports are circulated financial reports on small- to medium-sized companies around the Gulf Coast that are traditionally under-followed by bulge bracket stock analysts. Colloquially the Burkenroad-followed companies are referred to as "stocks under rocks"; the reports are published by the Freeman School of Business at Tulane University. Under faculty supervision, students work in small groups to produce the reports after visiting companies and interviewing top management; this procedure gives students the opportunity to develop practical stock analysis skills. Burkenroad reports was founded by Peter Ricchiuti in 1993. Since its founding, the reports have gained national attention for their "quality and for avoiding the conflicts inherent when analysts follow a company in which they have financial stake". Over 40 company reports have been published since the project's inception. Twenty-one companies under Burkenroad coverage have been taken over since 1993; the Latin American expansion of the program began in 2001.

In 2001, The Burkenroad Mutual Fund went live. There are over 400 Burkenroad Reports Tulane alumni in the investment industry; these alumni are colloquially jokingly referred to as "Burkendorks," in reference to their attention to detail and dedication to accurate reporting. Burkenroad Reports has hosted public investment conferences in New Orleans; the Burkenroad annual conference gives an opportunity for individual and institutional investors to hear directly from top management of Burkenroad-covered companies. The event provides a forum for students and business managers to network with one another; the Hancock Horizon Burkenroad Mutual Fund, is managed by Horizon Advisors and is distributed by SEI Investments. The Burkenroad fund seeks capital appreciation by investing in common stocks of companies with small capitalizations located or doing business in Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas; the fund managers utilize a quantitative top down approach to picking stocks and use Tulane's Burkenroad Reports as a source of research and analysis when needed.

Since inception the fund has outperformed about 94% of domestic equity mutual funds and has outpaced both the Russell 2000 and S&P 500 indexes, although appropriate risk adjustments need to be made. The Latin American expansion of the Burkenroad Reports started in 2001 when the Inter-American Development Bank issued a grant for the project. Tulane University works in conjunction with universities in Mexico, Colombia and Ecuador to provide reports of companies in Latin America. Universities in Guatemala and Ecuador have plans to participate; the Latin American Burkenroad Reports are provided for free in English. Burkenroad Latin America's objective is to promote the development of small and medium-sized enterprises in the region by improving its capacity to access financial markets and increasing the local supply of skilled management. Below is a list of several, but not all, of the media reports on the Burkenroad Reports. Peter Ricchiuti & NBR Co-Anchor Paul Kangas, A Lesson in Investing From Burkenroad Reports, Nightly Business Report, 21 April 2004.

Kudlow & Company, Burkenroad Reports, CNBC, 22 April 2005. Peter Ricchiuti, Burkenroad Reports, Nightly Business Report, March 2006. CNN Interviews Peter Ricchiuti, CNN, April 2006. Emily Nelson, Some Managers Turn to Tulane in Search for Stock Tips, The Wall Street Journal, 10 October 1995. Katherine S. Mangan, Tulane Program Gives Business Students Direct Experience in Analyzing Companies, Chronicle of Higher Education, 12 December 1997. Sana Siwolop, Students Analyze Stocks, the Professionals Learn to Listen, The New York Times, 7 March 1999. Paul Katzeff, Hancock Burkenroad Is A Classy Fund, Investor's Business Daily, Inc. 31 July 2002. Amy Esbenshade Hebert, Stocks Under Rocks: College students supply many of the offbeat picks for a unique fund, Kiplinger's Personal Finance, Sept. 2005. Below is a sampling from the 40 companies. Freeman School of Business Tulane University

John Reiner

John Reiner is a cartoonist who collaborates with writer Bunny Hoest on three cartoon series: The Lockhorns, syndicated by King Features, Laugh Parade and Howard Huge. Born in New York City, Reiner was raised on Long Island, where he graduated from Smithtown High School in 1974, he attended the State University of New York at Stony Brook, where he was a contributing artist to Statesman, the student newspaper. He was a psychology major, graduating in 1978. Mad cartoonist Mort Drucker, in 1974, encouraged him to consider cartooning as a career, the following year, he began work on Joe Simon's humor magazines. Along with pages for Marvel Comics, Reiner did freelance advertising art, humorous illustrations and political caricatures. In 1984, he was an assistant on the comic strip Benchley, which Jerry Dumas and Drucker created to satirize the Washington political scene. Bill Hoest needed an assistant for his strips and cartoons, in 1986, he hired Reiner to help on The Lockhorns, Agatha Crumm and What a Guy!

He was assisting on all the Hoest cartoons and strips. After Hoest's 1988 death, his widow Bunny Hoest kept the family business going, Reiner remained as the artist, working in the turret studio of the Hoest mansion in Lloyd Neck, Long Island. Reiner commented, “We get ideas for The Lockhorns from everyday observation, from interesting people, funny situations, driving or at dinner.” The Lockhorns, Memorial Gallery, Sinclair Hall, Farmingdale State College, September 14-November 14, 2010. He received the National Cartoonists Society's Gag Cartoon Award in 1994. Michael Durand: "John Reiner"