Leuven or Louvain is the capital of the province of Flemish Brabant in Belgium. It is located about 25 kilometres east of Brussels, the municipality itself comprises the historic city and the former neighboring municipalities of Heverlee, Kessel-Lo, a part of Korbeek-Lo, Wilsele and Wijgmaal. It is the 10th largest municipality in Belgium and the fourth in Flanders with more than 100,244 inhabitants, Leuven is home to the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, the largest and oldest university of the Low Countries and the oldest Catholic university still in existence. The related university hospital of UZ Leuven, is one of the largest hospitals in Europe, the city is known for being the headquarters of Anheuser-Busch InBev, the worlds largest brewer and one of the five largest consumer-goods companies in the world. The earliest mention of Leuven is from 891, when a Viking army was defeated by the Frankish king Arnulf of Carinthia, according to a legend the citys red and white arms depict the blood-stained shores of the river Dyle after this battle.
Situated beside this river, and near to the stronghold of the Dukes of Brabant, a token of its former importance as a centre of cloth manufacture is shown in that ordinary linen cloth is known in late-14th-century and 15th-century texts as lewyn. In the 15th century a new era began with the founding of what is now the largest and oldest university in the Low Countries. In the 18th century the brewery Den Horen flourished, Leuven has several times been besieged or occupied by foreign armies, these include the Battle of Leuven, Siege of Leuven and Battle of Leuven. Both world wars in the 20th century inflicted major damage upon the city, upon Germanys entry into World War I, the town was heavily damaged by rampaging soldiers. In all, about 300 civilians lost their lives, the university library was destroyed on 25 August 1914, using petrol and incendiary pastilles. 230,000 volumes were lost in the destruction, including Gothic and Renaissance manuscripts, a collection of 750 medieval manuscripts, and more than 1,000 incunabula.
The destruction of the library shocked the world, with the Daily Chronicle describing it as war not only against civilians and it was rebuilt after the war, and much of the collection was replaced. Great Britain and the United States were major providers of material for the replenishment of the collection. In World War II, after the start of the German offensive, Leuven formed part of the British Expeditionary Forces front line and was defended by units of the 3rd Division and Belgian troops. From 14 to 16 May 1940, the German Army Group B assaulted the city with heavy air, the British withdrew their forces to the River Senne on the night of 16 May and the town was occupied the next day. The new university building was set on fire by shelling on 16 May. Given the presence of the KULeuven, an important European institution for research and education. There are several biotech and ICT companies, the hospital and research centre
Tacitus says that physically, the Germanic peoples appear to be a distinct nation, not an admixture of their neighbors, as nobody would desire to migrate to a climate as horrid as that of Germania. They are divided into three branches, the Ingaevones, the Herminones and the Istaevones, deriving their ancestry from three sons of Mannus, son of Tuisto, their common forefather. He mentions that the opinions of women are given respect, Tacitus further discusses the role of women in Chapters 7 and 8, mentioning that they often accompany the men to battle and offer encouragement. He says that the men are highly motivated to fight for the women because of an extreme fear of losing them to captivity. He records that adultery is very rare, and that a woman is shunned afterward by the community regardless of her beauty. In Chapter 45 Tacitus mentions that the tribe to the north of the Germans, the latter chapters of the books describe the various Germanic tribes, their relative locations and some of their characteristics.
Many of the tribes named correspond with other records and traditions. Ethnography had a long and distinguished heritage in literature. Tacitus himself had written a similar—albeit shorter—essay on the lands. In writing the work, Tacitus might have wanted to stress the dangers that the Germanic tribes posed to the Empire, Tacitus descriptions of the Germanic character are at times favorable in contrast to the opinions of the Romans of his day. All of these traits were highlighted perhaps because of their similarity to idealized Roman virtues. g, the possibility that the Batavians may therefore have been Celtic-speaking. Tacitus nevertheless shows no lack of precision in stating that the Nervii are not actually Germanic as they claim to be and he notes in Chapter 43 that a certain tribe called the Cotini actually speaks a Gallic tongue, and likewise the Osi speak a Pannonian dialect. Tacitus himself had never travelled in the Germanic lands, all his information is second-hand at best, the defection of these peoples in the year 89 during Domitians war against the Dacians modified the whole frontier policy of the Empire.
All copies of Germania were lost during the Middle Ages and the work was forgotten until a manuscript was found in Hersfeld Abbey in 1425. It was brought to Italy, where Enea Silvio Piccolomini, Pope Pius II and this sparked interest among German humanists, including Conrad Celtes, Johannes Aventinus, and Ulrich von Hutten and beyond. Beginning in 16th-century German humanism, German interest in Germanic antiquity remained acute throughout the period of Romanticism and nationalism, a scientific angle was introduced with the development of Germanic philology by Jacob Grimm. Because of its influence on the ideologies of Pan-Germanism and Nordicism, christopher Krebs, a professor at Stanford University, claims in a 2012 study that Germania played a major role in the formation of the core concepts of Nazi ideology. The Codex Aesinas is believed to be portions of the Codex Hersfeldensis - the lost Germania manuscript brought to Rome from Hersfeld Abbey and it was rediscovered in 1902 by priest-philologist Cesare Annibaldi in the possession of Count Aurelio Balleani of Iesi
The stater was an ancient coin used in various regions of Greece. The term is used for similar coins, imitating Greek staters. The stater, as a Greek silver currency, first as ingots, the earliest known stamped stater is an electrum turtle coin, struck at Aegina that dates to about 700 BC. It is on display at the Bibliothèque Nationale of Paris, the silver stater minted at Corinth of 8.6 grams weight was divided into three silver drachmas of 2.9 grams, but was often linked to the Athenian silver didrachm coin weighing 8.6 grams. In comparison, the Athenian silver tetradrachm was weighing 17.2 grams. There existed a gold stater, but it was minted in some places, and was mainly an accounting unit worth 20–28 drachmas depending on place and time. The use of gold staters in coinage seems mostly of Macedonian origin, the best known types of Greek gold staters are the 28 drachmas Kyzikenos from Cyzicus. Celtic tribes brought the concept to Western and Central Europe after obtaining it while serving as mercenaries in north Greece.
Gold staters were minted in Gaul by Gallic chiefs modeled after those of Philip II of Macedonia, some of these staters in the form of the Gallo-Belgic series were imported to Britain on a large scale. These went on to influence a range of staters produced in Britain, british Gold staters generally weighed between 6.5 and 4.5 grams. Celtic staters were minted in present-day Czech Republic and Poland. The conquests of Alexander extended Greek culture east, leading to the adoption of staters in Asia, Gold staters have been found from the ancient region of Gandhara from the time of Kanishka
The Tungri were a tribe, or group of tribes, who lived in the Belgic part of Gaul, during the times of the Roman empire. Their name is the source of place names in Belgium and the Netherlands, including Tongeren, and several places called Tongerloo. In a comment in his Germania, Tacitus remarks that Germani was the tribal name of the Tungri with whom the Gauls were in contact. Thus what was the name of a tribe, and not of a race, gradually prevailed, till all called themselves by this name of Germans. The Romans allies named them as having one collective contribution of men to the Belgic revolt against him and they were led by Ambiorix and Cativolcus. Their descendants, if there were any, presumably lived amongst the Tungri and he pursued them back over the Rhine where they were helped by the Sicambri. Later, Caesar himself encouraged the Sicambri to cross the Rhine into the territory of the Eburones and this is the apparent origin of both the Tungri the other tribal groups of Germania Inferior.
Smaller tribal groups such as the Condrusi and the Texuandri continued to exist as recognized groups for the purpose of mustering troops. To the north of the Tungri, in the Rhine-Maas delta were the Batavians, to the northeast of the Tungri, near the Rhine were the Cugerni, who are thought to be Sicambri, and around the area of Cologne and Bonn the Ubii were settled. Pliny the Elder is the first writer to mention the Tungri in Gallia Belgica and their tribal capital lay at Atuatuca Tungrorum, probably modern Tongeren in the Limburg province of Belgium. In other directions, their neighbours in Roman times were the Belgic Nervii on the west, Tacitus in his Histories notes two cohorts of Tungri in the civil war of 69AD. The Tungri were mentioned in the Notitia Dignitatum, an early document, in which was transcribed every military. The document mentions the Tribune of the First Cohort of Tungri stationed at Vercovicium on Hadrians Wall, the cohort was split in Hadrianic times to form a Second Cohort of Tungri as well, both cohorts 1000 men strong.
List of Germanic tribes Roman Britain website, Cohors Primae Tvngrorvm
Gaius Julius Caesar, known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and notable author of Latin prose. He played a role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic. In 60 BC, Caesar and Pompey formed an alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate. Caesars victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Romes territory to the English Channel, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the Channel and the Rhine, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, with the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused the order, and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province, Civil war resulted, and Caesars victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence.
After assuming control of government, Caesar began a programme of social and governmental reforms and he centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed dictator in perpetuity, giving him additional authority. But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March 44 BC, a new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesars adopted heir Octavian, known as Augustus, rose to power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, and the era of the Roman Empire began, much of Caesars life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are major sources, Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. Caesar was born into a family, the gens Julia.
The cognomen Caesar originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by Caesarean section. The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations, that the first Caesar had a head of hair, that he had bright grey eyes. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name, despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC. Caesars father, called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia and his mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesars childhood, in 85 BC, Caesars father died suddenly, so Caesar was the head of the family at 16
Epsilon is the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet, corresponding phonetically to a mid front unrounded vowel /e/. In the system of Greek numerals it has the value five and it was derived from the Phoenician letter He. Letters that arose from epsilon include the Roman E, Ë and Ɛ, in essence, the uppercase form of epsilon looks identical to Latin E. The lowercase version has two variants, both inherited from medieval Greek handwriting. One, the most common in typography and inherited from medieval minuscule. The other, known as lunate or uncial epsilon and inherited from earlier uncial writing, while in normal typography these are just alternative font variants, they may have different meanings as mathematical symbols. Computer systems therefore offer distinct encodings for them, in Unicode, the character U+0一3F5 Greek lunate epsilon symbol is provided specifically for the lunate form. In TeX, \epsilon denotes the lunate form, while \varepsilon denotes the reversed-3 form, there is a Latin epsilon or open e, which looks similar to the Greek lowercase epsilon.
It is encoded in Unicode as U+025B and U+0190 and is used as an IPA phonetic symbol, the lunate or uncial epsilon has provided inspiration for the euro sign. The lunate epsilon is not to be confused with the set membership symbol, in addition, mathematicians have read the symbol ∈ as element of, as in 1 is an element of the natural numbers for 1 ∈ N, for example. As late as 1960, ϵ itself was used for set membership, Only gradually did a fully separate stylized symbol take the place of epsilon. In a related context, Peano introduced the use of a backwards epsilon, ∍, for the phrase such that, the letter Ε was taken over from the Phoenician letter He when Greeks first adopted alphabetic writing. In archaic Greek writing, its shape is often identical to that of the Phoenician letter. Archaic writing often preserves the Phoenician form with a stem extending slightly below the lowest horizontal bar. In the classical era, through the influence of cursive writing styles. Besides its classical Greek sound value, the short /e/ phoneme, for instance, in early Attic before c.500 B. C. it was used both for the long, open /ɛː/, and for the long close /eː/.
In the former role, it was replaced in the classic Greek alphabet by Eta. Some dialects used yet other ways of distinguishing between various e-like sounds, in Corinth, the normal function of Ε to denote /e/ and /ɛː/ was taken by a glyph resembling a pointed B, while Ε was used only for long close /eː/
Avesnes-sur-Helpe is a commune in the Nord department in northern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the Nord department and it is situated 14 km from the Belgian border, and 18 km south of Maubeuge, the nearest larger town. The river Helpe Majeure, a tributary of the Sambre, flows through the town, upstream of Avesnes on the river there is the Lac du Val-Joly, an artificial lake. Avesnes was founded in the 11th century, the first known lord was Wedric II of Avesnes, son of Wedric I de Morvois. The house of Avesnes played an important role in the low countries, historically a part of the County of Hainaut, it became French in 1659 as a result of the Treaty of the Pyrenees. In the 1870 some of the fortifications were demolished to allow access to the town. Many of the buildings on the streets in this town are made of dimension stone. The Tour de France race cycled through town in its 1999 progression around France, the region of Avesnes-Sur-Helpe is known for its distinctive cheeses, the Maroilles cheese and the boule dAvesnes, a local cone-shaped red cheese that is coated in paprika.
The high school in the region is the Lycée Jesse de Forest, named for an Avesnes native son who was responsible for the earliest settlement of the Dutch, communes of the Nord department INSEE commune file
It covered an area of 190,800 sq mi. According to the testimony of Julius Caesar, Gaul was divided into three parts, Gallia Celtica and Aquitania, during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, Gaul fell under Roman rule, Gallia Cisalpina was conquered in 203 BC and Gallia Narbonensis in 123 BC. Gaul was invaded after 120 BC by the Cimbri and the Teutons, Gallia remains a name of France in modern Greek and modern Latin. The Greek and Latin names Galatia, and Gallia are ultimately derived from a Celtic ethnic term or clan Gal-to-. Galli of Gallia Celtica were reported to refer to themselves as Celtae by Caesar. Hellenistic folk etymology connected the name of the Galatians to the supposedly milk-white skin of the Gauls, modern researchers say it is related to Welsh gallu, Cornish galloes, power, thus meaning powerful people. The English Gaul is from French Gaule and is unrelated to Latin Gallia, as adjectives, English has the two variants and Gallic. The two adjectives are used synonymously, as pertaining to Gaul or the Gauls, although the Celtic language or languages spoken in Gaul is predominantly known as Gaulish.
The Germanic w- is regularly rendered as gu- / g- in French, unrelated in spite of superficial similarity is the name Gael. The Irish word gall did originally mean a Gaul, i. e. an inhabitant of Gaul, but its meaning was widened to foreigner, to describe the Vikings, and still the Normans. The dichotomic words gael and gall are sometimes used together for contrast, by 500 BC, there is strong Hallstatt influence throughout most of France. By the late 5th century BC, La Tène influence spreads rapidly across the territory of Gaul. The La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age in France, Italy, southwest Germany, Moravia, farther north extended the contemporary pre-Roman Iron Age culture of northern Germany and Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the Romans described Gallia Transalpina as distinct from Gallia Cisalpina, while some scholars believe the Belgae south of the Somme were a mixture of Celtic and Germanic elements, their ethnic affiliations have not been definitively resolved.
One of the reasons is political interference upon the French historical interpretation during the 19th century, in addition to the Gauls, there were other peoples living in Gaul, such as the Greeks and Phoenicians who had established outposts such as Massilia along the Mediterranean coast. Also, along the southeastern Mediterranean coast, the Ligures had merged with the Celts to form a Celto-Ligurian culture, the prosperity of Mediterranean Gaul encouraged Rome to respond to pleas for assistance from the inhabitants of Massilia, who were under attack by a coalition of Ligures and Gauls. The Romans intervened in Gaul in 154 BC and again in 125 BC, whereas on the first occasion they came and went, on the second they stayed. Massilia was allowed to keep its lands, but Rome added to its territories the lands of the conquered tribes. The direct result of conquests was that by now, Rome controlled an area extending from the Pyrenees to the lower Rhône river
The Sambre is a river in northern France and in Wallonia, Belgium. It is a tributary of the Meuse. The source of the Sambre is near Le Nouvion-en-Thiérache, in the Aisne department and it passes through the Franco-Belgian coal basin, formerly an important industrial district. Its Belgian portion was at the end of the sillon industriel. It is canalized along much of its length and flows into the Meuse at Namur, the Sambre is connected with the Oise by the Sambre-Oise Canal. The 19th-century theory that the Sambre was the location of Julius Caesars battle against a Belgic confederation, was discarded a long time ago, but is still repeated. Heavy fighting occurred along the river during World War I, especially at the siege of Namur in 1914, the Sambre at the Sandre database
Publius Cornelius Tacitus was a senator and an historian of the Roman Empire. The surviving portions of his two major works—the Annals and the Histories—examine the reigns of the Roman emperors Tiberius, Claudius and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors. These two works span the history of the Roman Empire from the death of Augustus, in AD14, to the years of the First Jewish–Roman War, There are substantial lacunae in the surviving texts, including a gap in the Annals that is four books long. Tacitus is considered to be one of the greatest Roman historians, details about his personal life are scarce. What little is known comes from scattered hints throughout his work, the letters of his friend and admirer Pliny the Younger, and an inscription found at Mylasa in Caria. Tacitus was born in 56 or 57 to an equestrian family, one scholars suggestion of Sextus has gained no approval. Most of the aristocratic families failed to survive the proscriptions which took place at the end of the Republic.
The claim that he was descended from a freedman is derived from a speech in his writings which asserts that many senators and knights were descended from freedmen, but this is generally disputed. His father may have been the Cornelius Tacitus who served as procurator of Belgica and Germania, Pliny the Elder mentions that Cornelius had a son who aged rapidly, which implies an early death. There is no mention of Tacitus suffering such a condition, the friendship between the younger Pliny and Tacitus leads some scholars to conclude that they were both the offspring of wealthy provincial families. The province of his birth remains unknown, though various conjectures suggest Gallia Belgica, Gallia Narbonensis and his marriage to the daughter of Narbonensian senator Gnaeus Julius Agricola implies that he came from Gallia Narbonensis. Tacitus dedication to Fabius Iustus in the Dialogus may indicate a connection with Spain, no evidence exists, that Plinys friends from northern Italy knew Tacitus, nor do Plinys letters hint that the two men had a common background.
Pliny Book 9, Letter 23 reports that, when he was asked if he was Italian or provincial, he gave an unclear answer, since Pliny was from Italy, some infer that Tacitus was from the provinces, probably Gallia Narbonensis. His ancestry, his skill in oratory, and his depiction of barbarians who resisted Roman rule have led some to suggest that he was a Celt. This belief stems from the fact that the Celts who had occupied Gaul prior to the Roman invasion were famous for their skill in oratory, and had been subjugated by Rome. As a young man, Tacitus studied rhetoric in Rome to prepare for a career in law and politics, like Pliny, in 77 or 78, he married Julia Agricola, daughter of the famous general Agricola. Little is known of their life, save that Tacitus loved hunting. He started his career under Vespasian, but entered political life as a quaestor in 81 or 82 under Titus