New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
The Lenape called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands, who live in Canada and the United States. Their historical territory included present-day New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania along the Delaware River watershed, New York City, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Today, Lenape people belong to the Delaware Delaware Tribe of Indians in Oklahoma; the Lenape have a matrilineal clan system and were matrilocal. During the decades of the 18th century, most Lenape were pushed out of their homeland by expanding European colonies, their dire situation was exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. The divisions and troubles of the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them farther west. In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin and Ontario.
The name Lenni Lenape Leni Lenape and Lenni Lenapi, comes from their autonym, which may mean "genuine, real, original," and Lenape, meaning "Indian" or "man". Alternately, lënu may be translated as "man."The Lenape, when first encountered by Europeans, were a loose association of related peoples who spoke similar languages and shared familial bonds in an area known as Lenapehoking, the Lenape traditional territory, which spanned what is now eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey, southern New York, eastern Delaware. The tribe's common name Delaware is not of Native American origin. English colonists named the Delaware River for the first governor of the Province of Virginia, Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, whose title was derived from French; the English began to call the Lenape the Delaware Indians because of where they lived. Swedes settled in the area, early Swedish sources listed the Lenape as the Renappi. Traditional Lenape lands, the Lenapehoking, was a large territory that encompassed the Delaware Valley of eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey from the north bank Lehigh River along the west bank Delaware south into Delaware and the Delaware Bay.
Their lands extended west from western Long Island and New York Bay, across the Lower Hudson Valley in New York into the lower Catskills and a sliver of the upper edge of the North Branch Susquehanna River. On the west side, the Lenape lived in numerous small towns along the rivers and streams that fed the waterways, shared the hunting territory of the Schuylkill River watershed with the rival Iroquoian Susquehannock; the Unami and Munsee languages belong to the Eastern Algonquian language group. Although the Unami and Munsee speakers people are related, they consider themselves as distinct, as they used different words and lived on opposite sides of the Kitatinny Mountains of modern New Jersey. Today, only elders speak the language although some young Lenape youth and adults learn the ancient language; the German and English-speaking Moravian missionary John Heckewelder wrote: "The Monsey tong is quite different though came out of one parent language."William Penn, who first met the Lenape in 1682, stated that the Unami used the following words: "mother" was anna, "brother" was isseemus, "friend" was netap.
Penn instructed his fellow Englishmen: "If one asks them for anything they have not, they will answer, mattá ne hattá, which to translate is,'not I have,' instead of'I have not.'"According to the Moravian missionary David Zeisberger, the Unami word for "food" is May-hoe-me-chink. The Unami word for "hill" is Ah-choo. Sometimes the languages shared words, such as "corn,", Xash-queem, or "wolf,", too-may. In contemporary Unami orthography, "food" is michëwakàn, "hill" is ahchu, "corn" is xàskwim, "wolf" is tëme. At the time of first European contact, a Lenape person would have identified with his or her immediate family and clan, and/or village unit. Next with more distant neighbors who spoke the same dialect. Among many Algonquian peoples along the East Coast, the Lenape were considered the "grandfathers" from whom other Algonquian-speaking peoples originated. Lenape has three phratries, each of which had twelve clans; these are: Wolf, Took-seat Turtle, Poke-koo-un'go Turkey, Pul-la'-ook Lenape kinship system has matrilineal clans, that is, children belong to their mother's clan, from which they gain social status and identity.
The mother's eldest brother was more significant as a mentor to the male children than was their father, of another clan. Hereditary leadership passed through the maternal line, women elders could remove leaders of whom they disapproved. Agricultural land was managed by women and allotted according to the subsistence needs of their extended families. Families were matrilocal. By 1682, when William Penn arrived to his America
Wharton State Forest
Wharton State Forest is the largest state forest in the U. S. state of New Jersey. It is the largest single tract of land in the state park system of New Jersey, encompassing 122,880 acres of the Pinelands northeast of Hammonton, it is protected acreage is divided between Burlington and Atlantic counties. The entire forest is located within Atlantic coastal pine barrens ecoregion as well as the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve; the forest is located in the forested watershed of the Mullica River, which drains the central Pinelands region into the Great Bay. The forest is under the jurisdiction of the New Jersey Division of Forestry; the forest is the location of the historic Batsto Village, a former bog iron and glass manufacturing site from 1766 to 1867. The forest includes extensive hiking trails, including a section of the Batona Trail, which connects the forest to nearby Brendan T. Byrne State Forest and Bass River State Forest, it includes over 500 miles of unpaved roads. The rivers, including the Mullica, are popular destinations for recreational canoeing.
The forest is named for Joseph Wharton, who purchased most of the land that now lies within the forest in the 19th Century. Wharton wanted to tap the ground water under the Pine Barrens to provide a source of clean drinking water for Philadelphia; the state bought the vast tract from Wharton's heirs in the 1950s. In the 1800s, various bog iron and paper industries developed in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. In 1873, Philadelphia industrialist Joseph Wharton began purchasing property and abandoned towns in the Pine Barrens acquiring about 100,000 acres. Wharton planned to build dams to redirect fresh water to Philadelphia, but the plan was blocked by the New Jersey legislature in 1884, with a law that blocked transporting waters outside of the state. After Joseph Wharton died in 1909, his family estate tried selling his property to New Jersey for $1 million, defeated by a referendum in 1915. For the next few decades, the Wharton estate was managed by a trust company. In the 1950s and 1960s, the federal government sought to build a 32,500 acres jetport in the Pine Barrens.
To preserve the land of the Wharton estate, the New Jersey government purchased the lands containing large portions of the Mullica River in 1954, designated Wharton State Forest on December 30, 1954. New Jersey purchased additional land in 1956, totaling 96,000 acres in its entirety, for a sum of $3 million. To prevent additional development, local residents and farmers worked to preserve the Pine Barrens leading to the formation of the Pinelands National Reserve in 1978. Within the state forest, once a residence and cranberry packing facility, Atsion mansion has been vacant since 1882. In 1960, the building lost more of its glory when its west porch was torn down. Under the guidelines of the State of New Jersey, area contractors Wu & Associates undertook the restoration of the site; the existing exterior stucco was replaced with new material. The reconstruction of a western porch provided an accurate historic interpretation of the building to represent the way it was originally. With sparse use of modern mechanics, the restored mansion has the electrical capacity to illuminate the building and support smoke detectors to make the facility safe for visitors.
A monument marks the location where Mexican aviation pioneer Emilio Carranza crashed on July 12, 1928 while attempting to fly his Ryan Brougham airplane, the Mexico Excelsior, non-stop from New York to Mexico City, final leg of a historic goodwill flight to the United States. The monument, installed with funds donated by Mexican schoolchildren, depicts a falling eagle of Aztec design; every July on the Saturday nearest the anniversary of his crash at 1:00 p.m. he is honored at the monument site by local residents and representatives from the Mexican consulates in New York City and Philadelphia. The forest has ten campgrounds, ranging from family camping at Atsion Recreation Area, with showers and a guarded beach, to wilderness camping that can be reached only by hiking or canoe/kayak. Apple Pie Hill is a popular hiking destination along the Batona Trail in the forest; the hill, topped with a 60 feet New Jersey Forest Fire Service fire tower, provides impressive panoramic views across the Pinelands region.
List of New Jersey state parks NY-NJTC: Wharton State Forest Trail Details and Info HJGA Architectural Firm's page on scope of work on Atsion mansion Wharton State Forest as related to the Jersey Devil
Atlantic County, New Jersey
Atlantic County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2010 United States Census, the county had a population of 274,549, having increased by 21,997 from the 252,552 counted at the 2000 Census, As of the 2017 Census Bureau estimate, the county's population was 269,918, making it the 15th-largest of the state's 21 counties, its county seat is the Mays Landing section of Hamilton Township. The most populous place was Egg Harbor Township, with 43,323 residents at the time of the 2010 Census; this county forms the Atlantic City–Hammonton Metropolitan Statistical Area, part of the Delaware Valley Combined Statistical Area. Since the 6th millennium BC, Indigenous people have inhabited New Jersey. By the 17th century, the Absegami tribe of the Unalachtigo Lenape tribe – "people near the ocean" – stayed along the streams and back bays of what is now Atlantic County; the group referred to the broader area as Scheyichbi – "land bordering the ocean". European settlement by the Dutch and England contributed to the demise of the indigenous people.
In 1674, West Jersey was established, its provincial government designated the court of Burlington County in 1681, splitting off Gloucester County five years from the southern portion. This county was bounded by the Mullica River to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Great Egg Harbor River and Tuckahoe River to the south. Great Egg Harbour Township called New Weymouth and just Egg Harbor, was designated in 1693 from the eastern portions of Gloucester County; the region's early settlers, many of them Quakers, lived along the area's waterways. In 1695, John Somers purchased 300 acres of land on the northern shore of the Great Egg Harbor Bay in 1695, the same year he began ferry service across the bay to Cape May County, his son, built Somers Mansion between 1720 and 1726, the oldest home in existence in the county. Daniel Leeds first surveyed the coastal waters of Egg Harbor in 1698 finding Leeds Point. In 1735 according to folklore, Mother Leeds gave birth and cursed her 13th child in Leeds Point, which became known as the Jersey Devil.
In the early 18th century, George May founded Mays Landing. In 1774, the northern portion of Egg Harbor Township became Galloway Township. In 1785, residents in what is now Atlantic County requested to split from Gloucester County to the New Jersey legislature, wanting a local court. Mays Landing – the region's largest community at the time, had more saloons than churches. Criminals could escape custody before reaching Gloucester City on a four-day wagon ride. In 1798, the western portion split off to become Weymouth Township, in 1813, the northwestern portion partitioned to become Hamilton Township. On February 7, 1837, the New Jersey legislature designated Atlantic County from Galloway, Hamilton and Egg Harbor townships, choosing Mays Landing as the county seat. In the same year, the Board of Freeholders was established as the county government; as of the 1830 census, the townships making up Atlantic County only had a population of 8,164, making it the least populated New Jersey county. By that time, a continuous line of houses extended from Somers Point to Absecon.
Mullica Township was established from Galloway Township in 1837. In 1852, Dr. Jonathan Pitney recommended Absecon Island as a health resort, formed the Camden and Atlantic Railroad Company to construct the line from Camden to the coast; the company purchased land from Atlantic and Galloway Townships in 1853 promoted and sold the lots. Atlantic City formed on May 1854, in advance of the rail line opening on July 4 of that year. In 1858, Egg Harbor City was formed from portions of Mullica townships. In 1866, Hammonton was founded from Mullica townships. A year portions of Hamilton Township split off to become Buena Vista Township. In 1872, Absecon was split from portions of Egg Galloway townships. By 1885, more than half of the county's population lived in Atlantic City, by 1910 this more than two-thirds of the county lived there. With more people moving to the area in the late 1800s into the early 1900s, several municipalities were created in short succession – Margate in 1885, Somers Point in 1886, Pleasantville and Linwood in 1889, Brigantine in 1890, Longport in 1898, Ventnor in 1903, Northfield and Port Republic in 1905, Folsom in 1906.
On May 17, 1906, the eastern coastal boundary of Atlantic County was established. The final municipalities in the county to be created were Corbin City from Weymouth Township in 1922, Estell Manor from Weymouth Township in 1925, Buena from Buena Township in 1948. In 1938, the county's western border was clarified with Camden and Burlington counties using geographic coordinates. After a peak in prominence in the 1920s during the prohibition era, Atlantic City began declining in population in the 1950s as tourism declined; the county's growth shifted to the mainland. In 1973, the New Jersey Coastal Area Facilities Review Act required additional state permitting for construction in the eastern half of the county. In the same ballot as the 1976 presidential election, 56.8% of New Jersey voters approved an initiative to allow legalized gambling in Atlantic City. Two years Resorts Atlantic City opened as the first casino in the city, there were 15 by 1990. Since five have closed, including four in 2014, while two casinos – the Borgata and Ocean Resort Casino – have opened.
Hard Rock Hotel & Casino Atlantic City opened in 2018, refurbishing the
The Mullica River is a 50.6-mile-long river in southern New Jersey in the United States. The Mullica was once known as the Little Egg Harbor River; the river provides one of the principal drainages into the Atlantic Ocean of the extensive Pinelands. Its estuary on Great Bay is considered one of the least-disturbed marine wetlands habitats in the northeastern United States; the Mullica rises in central Camden County, near Berlin, on the southeastern fringes of the New Jersey suburbs of Philadelphia. It flows east-southeast across the state, crossing the Wharton State Forest. Near The Forks, where it receives the Batsto River, the Mullica broadens into a navigable river 20 miles long, stretching east-southeast and emptying into Great Bay 10 miles north of Atlantic City, it becomes brackish below the bridge at Green Bank. 3 miles upstream from its mouth on Great Bay, it receives the estuary of the Wading River from the north. 2 miles upstream from its mouth, it receives the Bass River from the north.
The watershed drained by the river and its tributaries measures about 568 square miles, is composed of pine forests and scrub habitat. The estuary is crossed by US 9 near its mouth; the lower reaches of the river form an extensive wetlands area, protected on its southern bank as the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge; the Mullica River is noted as a spawning ground for striped bass. Blueback herring make a spring spawning run up its tributaries. Freshwater portions are home to healthy populations of white catfish, white perch, white sucker, largemouth bass. Brackish and saltwater portions of the river are inhabited by weakfish, winter flounder, American eel, summer flounder. Blue claw crabs are prevalent in the lower reaches of the river and in tributaries flowing through the surrounding salt marshes; these tidal creeks support populations of the northern diamondback terrapin, listed by the federal government as a species of special concern. The river provides a habitat for a broad assortment of nesting and migratory birds.
Species of note include the common tern, black skimmer, laughing gull, piping plover, least tern, great black-backed gull, great egret, black-crowned night heron, clapper rail, Virginia rail and marsh wren, among others. Canada geese, American black ducks, tundra swans, northern pintails, other migratory birds are observed in the river estuary; the river is named after Eric Pålsson Mullica, an early Finnish settler born in 1636 who founded a homestead on the river after moving there from the vicinity of Philadelphia. The settlement was located about 15 miles upstream from the mouth near present-day Lower Bank. List of New Jersey rivers Mullica Hill, New Jersey, a census-designated place located within Harrison Township, New Jersey, in Gloucester County Mullica Township, New Jersey, a township in Atlantic County, New Jersey Mullica River National Estuarine Research Reserve Origin of the Name Pirates of the Mullica during the American Revolution U. S. Geological Survey: NJ stream gaging stations
Hammonton, New Jersey
Hammonton is a town in Atlantic County, New Jersey, United States, known as the "Blueberry Capital of the World." As of the 2010 United States Census, the town's population was 14,791, reflecting an increase of 2,187 from the 12,604 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 396 from the 12,208 counted in the 1990 Census. Hammonton was settled in 1812 and was named for John Hammond Coffin, a son of one of the community's earliest settlers, William Coffin, with the "d" in what was "Hammondton" disappearing over time, it was incorporated as a town by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 5, 1866, from portions of Hamilton Township and Mullica Township. It is located directly between Philadelphia and the resort town of Atlantic City, along a former route of the Pennsylvania Railroad, used by NJ Transit's Atlantic City Line. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town had a total area of 41.419 square miles, including 40.887 square miles of land and 0.532 square miles of water.
The town borders Folsom borough, to the southwest, both Hamilton and Mullica townships to the southeast in Atlantic County. It is located in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, so is flat, though the highest point in Atlantic County is located along the Pennsylvania Railroad within the borders of Hammonton; the town is located exactly halfway between Philadelphia and Atlantic City. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the town include Barnard, Caldwell Crossing, Dutchtown, Great Swamp, Rockford, Rockwood and West Mills; the town is one of 56 South Jersey municipalities that are included within the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve, a protected natural area of unique ecology covering 1,100,000 acres, classified as a United States Biosphere Reserve and established by Congress in 1978 as the nation's first National Reserve. All of the town is included in the state-designated Pinelands Area, which includes portions of Atlantic County, along with areas in Burlington, Cape May, Cumberland and Ocean counties.
Due to its location in the Pine Barrens, the soil is sandy, making it ideal for growing blueberries. Low, marshy areas within the Pine Barrens are used for cranberry cultivation. Hammonton lies in the northern reaches of the humid subtropical climate zone, similar to inland southern New Jersey, is characterized by brisk winters, hot summers, plentiful precipitation spread evenly throughout the year. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Hammonton's climate is abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 14,791 people, 5,408 households, 3,758.560 families residing in the town. The population density was 361.8 per square mile. There were 5,715 housing units at an average density of 139.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 81.67% White, 3.00% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 1.37% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 10.81% from other races, 2.85% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 20.93% of the population.
There were 5,408 households out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.5% were non-families. 25.0% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.19. In the town, the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 26.1% from 45 to 64, 16.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.6 years. For every 100 females there were 99.0 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 95.2 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $59,085 and the median family income was $62,354. Males had a median income of $47,110 versus $36,615 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $25,292. About 8.4% of families and 10.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.1% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 12,604 people, 4,619 households, 3,270 families residing in the town. The population density was 305.5 people per square mile. There were 4,843 housing units at an average density of 117.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 87.85% White, 1.74% African American, 0.14% Native American, 1.14% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 7.83% from other races, 1.27% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.88% of the population. As of the 2000 Census, 45.9% of town residents were of Italian ancestry, the second-highest percentage of any municipality in the United States, highest in New Jersey, among all places with more than 1,000 residents identifying their ancestry. News reports have said. There were 4,619 households out of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.6% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.2% were non-families. 23.9% of a
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary