Pennsylvania /ˌpɛnsᵻlˈveɪnjə/, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle, Pennsylvania is the 33rd largest, the 5th most populous, and the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The states five most populous cities are Philadelphia, Allentown, the state capital, and its ninth-largest city, is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of shoreline along Lake Erie and the Delaware Estuary. The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States, it came into being in 1681 as a result of a land grant to William Penn. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden and it was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12,1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the states largest city of Philadelphia, during the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg, was fought in the south central region of the state.
Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washingtons headquarters during the winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west, of a total 46,055 square miles,44,817 square miles are land,490 square miles are inland waters, and 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd largest state in the United States, Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown, the northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining communities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Pittston City, and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest, the state has 5 regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the corner, has a humid continental climate. The largest city, has characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware.
Moving toward the interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increase. Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, the Tuscarora Nation took up temporary residence in the central portion of Pennsylvania ca. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their lands in America
Mahanoy Creek is a 51. 6-mile-long tributary of the Susquehanna River in Northumberland and Schuylkill counties, Pennsylvania. There are at least 35 sources of acid mine drainage in the creeks watershed, Anthracite was mined in the upper part of the Mahanoy Creek watershed in the 19th and 20th centuries. Mahanoy Creeks tributaries include Schwaben Creek, Zerbe Run, Little Mahanoy Creek, Shenandoah Creek, Little Mahanoy Creek and Schwaben Creek are two streams in the watershed that are unaffected by acid mine drainage. Schwaben Creek has a number and diversity of fish species than the main stem. There are two passive treatment systems in the Mahanoy Creek watershed by the Mahanoy Creek Watershed Association, Coal mining has been done in the watershed since the 19th century and continues to some extent in the 21st century. The watershed is in the Western Middle Anthracite Coal Field, Mahanoy Creeks source is in strip mines in the eastern part of Schuylkill County, near Buck Mountain. It heads west for a distance before crossing under Pennsylvania Route 54 and entering Mahanoy City.
Mahanoy Creek continues westward, heading into Mahanoy Township again, and it begins paralleling Bear Ridge for several miles, passing the communities of St. Nicholas and Boston Run before entering Gilberton. In Gilberton, the creek passes under Pennsylvania Route 924 and goes through by the former Mahanoy Plane, upon leaving Mahanoy Township, the creek enters Butler Township. Soon after entering this township, the passes through Girardville. It parallels Pennsylvania Route 54 for some distance into Ashland, upon leaving Ashland, the creek stops paralleling Pennsylvania Route 54 and turns south through a gap in Ashland Mountain, leaving behind the strip mines. At Gordon, it picks up Little Mahanoy Creek and turns west again, the creek briefly meanders through Barry Township before passing into Eldred Township. It flows on the side of a mountain in Weiser State Forest. Upon leaving Eldred Township, the creek enters Northumberland County, Mahanoy Creek enters Northumberland County in East Cameron Township.
It flows westward for a number of miles through a valley with Line Mountain to the south, the creek passes under Pennsylvania Route 125 in this valley. The creek passes into West Cameron Township, flowing west and goes through the township for several miles and it flows into Little Mahanoy Township. After a short distance, it leaves behind the Line Mountain/Mahanoy Mountain valley, Mahanoy Creek turns southwest and passes by Dornsife before cutting through a gap between Little Mountain and Line Mountain and exiting Little Mahanoy Township. At this point, the creek enters Jackson Township and picks up Schwaben Creek, its last tributary, Mahanoy Creek meanders west to its mouth on the Susquehanna River north of Herndon and ten miles south of Sunbury
Tamaqua is a borough in eastern Schuylkill County, United States. The borough, located in Central Eastern Pennsylvanias Southern Coal Region, had a population of 7,107 as of the 2010 U. S. Census, in 2013, population of 6,976, Tamaqua is part of the Pottsville, PA Micropolitan Statistical Area. Tamaqua, was taken from the territory of West Penn and Schuylkill Townships, named for the Tuscarora king of the Turkey Clan, Chief Tahkamochk, the name is unique because Tamaqua is the only community in the world with this name. Tamaqua is located in a basin at 40°47′55″N 75°57′59″W situated within the Pennsylvania Southern Coal Region section of the Appalachian Mountains in the Schuylkill River drainage basin. Tamaquas valley is just off the end of the Pocono Mountains. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the borough has an area of 10.0 square miles. Panther Creek, flows southwest from Lansford,5 miles away, the Wabash Creek joins the Little Schuylkill from the west. The town gained recognition as a railroad center, the nearest city to Tamaqua is Hazleton, located just 12.5 miles north.
Tamaquas average elevation is 870 feet above sea level, elevations can reach up to 1,000 feet above sea level. Until the late 1960s, Tamaqua was a hub of activity, namely the Reading Company. A large rail yard existed in the part of town that actually extended through downtown. An engine house and car shop were located across the street from the station in what is now the St. Lukes Medical Center parking lot. The collapse of the coal industry in the early 1960s, the Penn Central merger. Today, all that remains is a track line through town operated by the Reading. A second important highway in the borough is U. S. Route 209 that runs along the Panther Creek, Route 209 runs for approximately 212 miles from Millersburg, Pennsylvania in Dauphin County to the town of Ulster in Ulster County, New York. U. S.209 connects Tamaqua to many municipalities, including the Schuylkill County seat at Pottsville in the west. The town once hosted trackage of the Pennsylvania Railroad, the Reading Railroad, the Lehigh Valley Railroad, in addition, Interstates 81,80,476, and 78 are not far from the town.
As of the census of 2000, there were 7,174 people,3,179 households, the population density was 729.9 people per square mile
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earths surface and within bodies of water. Sedimentation is the name for processes that cause mineral and/or organic particles to settle in place. The particles that form a rock by accumulating are called sediment. Sedimentation may occur as minerals precipitate from solution or shells of aquatic creatures settle out of suspension. The sedimentary rock cover of the continents of the Earths crust is extensive, sedimentary rocks are only a thin veneer over a crust consisting mainly of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Sedimentary rocks are deposited in layers as strata, forming a structure called bedding, sedimentary rocks are important sources of natural resources like coal, fossil fuels, drinking water or ores. The study of the sequence of rock strata is the main source for an understanding of the Earths history, including palaeogeography, paleoclimatology. The scientific discipline that studies the properties and origin of rocks is called sedimentology.
Sedimentology is part of both geology and physical geography and overlaps partly with other disciplines in the Earth sciences, such as pedology, geochemistry, sedimentary rocks have been found on Mars. Clastic sedimentary rocks are composed of rock fragments that were cemented by silicate minerals. Clastic rocks are composed largely of quartz, rock fragments, clay minerals, and mica, any type of mineral may be present, clastic sedimentary rocks, are subdivided according to the dominant particle size. Most geologists use the Udden-Wentworth grain size scale and divide unconsolidated sediment into three fractions, gravel and mud and this tripartite subdivision is mirrored by the broad categories of rudites and lutites, respectively, in older literature. The subdivision of these three categories is based on differences in clast shape and breccias), composition. Conglomerates are dominantly composed of rounded gravel, while breccias are composed of dominantly angular gravel, composition of framework grains The relative abundance of sand-sized framework grains determines the first word in a sandstone name.
Naming depends on the dominance of the three most abundant components quartz, feldspar, or the lithic fragments that originated from other rocks, all other minerals are considered accessories and not used in the naming of the rock, regardless of abundance. Clean sandstones with open space are called arenites. Muddy sandstones with abundant muddy matrix are called wackes, six sandstone names are possible using the descriptors for grain composition and the amount of matrix. Mudrocks are sedimentary rocks composed of at least 50% silt- and clay-sized particles and these relatively fine-grained particles are commonly transported by turbulent flow in water or air, and deposited as the flow calms and the particles settle out of suspension
Nesquehoning Creek is an east flowing 14. 9-mile-long tributary of the Lehigh River in northeastern Pennsylvania in the United States. Nesquehoning Creek joins the Lehigh River 2 miles upstream of the borough of Jim Thorpe in Carbon County, Nesquehoning Creek rises along the slopes of Nesquehoning Ridge and Broad Mountain and flows through two man-made lakes in its descent through a generally steep sided gully bottomed V-shaped valley. Along most of its run the stream hugs Broad Mountain which contributes tributary waters, all the mountains in the area are among a series of near parallel ridgelines in the region. Approximately 7.2 square miles of the basin or watershed is located in Schuylkill County while 26.7 square miles is located in Carbon County. From their confluence the creek flows south for about 2 miles turns to the northeast and flows into and through Greenwood Lake, approximately 600 feet downstream from the spillway, it discharges into Lake Hauto, both lakes being man-made. It continues to the northeast in a narrow valley over its steepest stretch flattens out and slows making its way through Nesquehoning.
Six left bank tributaries enter the stream below Hauto Dam from State Game Lands No, the heavily forested, relatively steep slopes of Broad and Nesquehoning Mountains and the occasional culm piles characterize the land within the watershed. All travel is channeled in the area by the terrain, so north-south oriented highways are rare, Hometown, a small high-elevation outlier of Tamaqua sits in such a pass astride the junction of PA-54 and U. S. The Nesquehoning Creek valley consists of residential and industrial development, including a power plant. Nesquehoning Junction is a small railyard downstream and within the town of that name along the lower creek. Right bank urban development is concentrated in the Borough of Nesquehoning, left bank development in New Columbus opposite Nesquehoning, large areas in the valley have been dramatically disturbed by coal mining related activities. Much of the runoff from strip mines is retained in abandoned pits, the middle two lesser tributary rills noted previously join in one such containment pond in an old Broad Mountain strip mine just above Nesquehoning.
The trackage today is used by both the Reading, Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad and Norfolk Southern, the Lehigh Valley Railroad and the Central Railroad of Pennsylvania, both Class I railroads ran trackage up slope to cross north and west over the mountain ridges
The Pocono Mountains, commonly referred to as the Poconos, is a geographical and cultural region located in Northeastern Pennsylvania, United States. The Poconos are an upland of the larger Allegheny Plateau and it comes from the Munsee word Pokawachne, which means Creek Between Two Hills. Much of the Poconos region lies within the Greater New York-Newark, the Pocono Mountains are a popular recreational destination for local and regional visitors. While the area has long been a popular tourist destination, many communities have seen a rise in population, especially in Coolbaugh Township and other communities within Monroe County. The region has a population of about 340,300, which is growing at a pace, largely attributable to vacationers from New York. The Poconos now serves as a community for New York City. The commute often takes as much as two each way due to traffic. The most-used of these highways include Pennsylvania Route 115, Pennsylvania Route 715, Pennsylvania Route 903, Pennsylvania Route 33, Pennsylvania Route 940, Pennsylvania Route 309, a major north-south route connecting Northeastern Pennsylvania with the Delaware Valley region passes through the western end of the region.
Highways in the Pocono Mountains region, the most used is Route 209, which goes from Ulster, New York to Millersburg, Pennsylvania. The halfway point of the route is in the north of Stroudsburg. It is designated a scenic route in Pennsylvania,11,22, and U. S. Route 46 are not far from the region and serve it indirectly. The main east-west Interstate Highway in the region is Interstate 80, off of which branches Interstate 380, which connects the Poconos to Scranton. C. Other Interstates that serve the region are Interstate 84, which begins in Scranton and goes east to New England, NJ Transit is rebuilding trackage on the Lackawanna Cut-Off route from Scranton through the Poconos to Hoboken, New Jersey. There is no clear estimated target year when the Lackawanna Cut-Off Restoration Project will be completed, the service would consist of nine trains per day in each direction. Until 1970, the Erie Lackawanna Railway operated long distance trains through the Poconos to Buffalo and Chicago to the west, the Pocono Mountains is a defined area encompassing portions of Carbon, Monroe and southern Wayne counties of Pennsylvania.
In total, the Poconos encompasses over 2,500 square miles, some definitions extend the Poconos to Lackawanna, far eastern Schuylkill, and Susquehanna counties. The Poconos are geologically part of the Allegheny Plateau, like the nearby Catskills, the Poconos highest summit, Camelback Mountain, reaches 2,133 feet, while its lowest elevation is 350 feet in Pike County. The Delaware River flows through the Pocono Mountains and gives the region its name, the Lehigh and Lackawaxen Rivers flow through the region, totaling about 170 miles of waterways
The Appalachian Mountains, often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the Ordovician Period and it once reached elevations similar to those of the Alps and the Rocky Mountains before naturally occurring erosion. The Appalachian chain is a barrier to east-west travel, as it forms a series of alternating ridgelines, definitions vary on the precise boundaries of the Appalachians. A common variant definition does not include the Adirondack Mountains, which belong to the Grenville Orogeny and have a different geological history from the rest of the Appalachians. The range covers parts of the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the system is divided into a series of ranges, with the individual mountains averaging around 3,000 ft. The highest of the group is Mount Mitchell in North Carolina at 6,684 feet, the term Appalachian refers to several different regions associated with the mountain range.
Most broadly, it refers to the mountain range with its surrounding hills. The Ouachita Mountains in Arkansas and Oklahoma were originally part of the Appalachians as well, the name was soon altered by the Spanish to Apalachee and used as a name for the tribe and region spreading well inland to the north. Pánfilo de Narváezs expedition first entered Apalachee territory on June 15,1528, now spelled Appalachian, it is the fourth-oldest surviving European place-name in the US. After the de Soto expedition in 1540, Spanish cartographers began to apply the name of the tribe to the mountains themselves. The first cartographic appearance of Apalchen is on Diego Gutierrezs map of 1562, the name was not commonly used for the whole mountain range until the late 19th century. A competing and often more popular name was the Allegheny Mountains, Alleghenies, in the early 19th century, Washington Irving proposed renaming the United States either Appalachia or Alleghania. In U. S. dialects in the regions of the Appalachians.
In northern parts of the range, it is pronounced /ˌæpəˈleɪtʃᵻnz/ or /ˌæpəˈleɪʃᵻnz/, the third syllable is like lay. There is often debate between the residents of the regions as to which pronunciation is the more correct one. Elsewhere, a commonly accepted pronunciation for the adjective Appalachian is /ˌæpəˈlætʃiən/, the whole system may be divided into three great sections, The northern section runs from the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador to the Hudson River. The Monteregian Hills, which cross the Green Mountains in Quebec, are unassociated with the Appalachians, The central section goes from the Hudson Valley to the New River running through Virginia and West Virginia. Southern, The southern section runs from the New River onwards and it consists of the prolongation of the Blue Ridge, which is divided into the Western Blue Ridge Front and the Eastern Blue Ridge Front, the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, and the Cumberland Plateau
In geomorphology, a col is the lowest point on a mountain ridge between two peaks. It may be called a notch, a gap or a saddle, although the last-named usually has a wider meaning, the term col tends to be associated more with mountain, rather than hill, ranges. The height of a summit above its highest col is effectively a measure of a mountains prominence, cols lie on the line of the watershed between two mountains, often on a prominent ridge or arête. Particularly rugged and forbidding cols in the terrain are usually referred to as notches and they are generally unsuitable as mountain passes, but are occasionally crossed by mule tracks or climbers routes. For example, the highest col in Austria, the Obere Glocknerscharte, the notch is about 8 metres wide and links the two peaks with a usually corniced, often only two foot wide, snow-covered ridge. Hardly anyone has ever considered crossing the Glockner massif via this col, the overwhelming majority of cols are, however and are either never transited or only crossed in the course of negotiating a ridge line.
For example, every Gratturm has a col, many double summits are separated by prominent cols. The number of cols gave rise to the name of the Lyskamm, the distinction with other names for breaks in mountain ridges such as saddle, wind gap or notch is not sharply defined and may vary from place to place
Funiculars of one sort or another have existed for hundreds of years and continue to be used for moving both passengers and goods. Its name derives from the latin, diminutive of funis, the basic idea of funicular operation is that two cars are always attached to each other by a cable, which runs through a pulley at the top of the slope. Counterbalancing of the two cars, with one going up and one going down, minimizes the energy needed to lift the car going up, winching is normally done by an electric drive that turns the pulley. Sheave wheels guide the cable to and from the drive mechanism, early funiculars used two parallel straight tracks, four rails, with separate station platforms for each vehicle. The tracks are laid with sufficient space between them for the two cars to pass at the midpoint, the wheels of the cars are usually single-flanged, as on standard railway vehicles. Examples of this type of track layout are the Duquesne Incline in Pittsburgh, layouts that require less width have been developed, with only two or three rails for the most part of the slope and four rails only at the passing section.
In layouts using three rails, the rail is shared by both cars. The three-rail layout is wider than the layout, but the passing section is simpler to build. If a rack for braking is used, that rack can be mounted higher in a three-rail layout, some four-rail funiculars have the upper and lower sections interlaced and a single platform at each station. The Hill Train at Legoland, Windsor, is an example of this configuration, until the end of the 1870s, the four-rail parallel-track funicular was the normal configuration. Carl Roman Abt developed the Abt Switch allowing the two-rail layout, in the United States, the first funicular to use a two-rail layout was the Telegraph Hill Railroad in San Francisco, which was in operation from 1884 until 1886. The Mount Lowe Railway in Altadena, was the first mountain railway in the United States to use the three-rail layout, three- and two-rail layouts considerably reduced the space required for building a funicular, reducing grading costs on mountain slopes and property costs for urban funiculars.
These layouts enabled a funicular boom in the half of the 19th century. The cars can be attached to a cable running through a pulley at the bottom of the incline in case the gravity force acting on the vehicles is too low to operate them on the slope. One of the pulleys must be designed as a wheel to avoid slack in the ropes. In this case, the winching can be done at the end of the incline. Funiculars used in mines were sometimes unpowered gravity planes, known as self-acting inclines or brake inclines, the weight of descending loaded wagons was used to pull the empty mine wagons. A few funiculars have been using water tanks under the floor of each car that are filled or emptied until just sufficient imbalance is achieved to allow movement
U.S. Route 209
U. S. Route 209 is a 211. 74-mile long U. S. Highway in the states of Pennsylvania and New York. Although the route is a spur of US9, US209 never intersects US9, the southern terminus of the route is at Pennsylvania Route 147 in Millersburg, Pennsylvania. The northern terminus is at US 9W north of Kingston in Ulster, New York, US209 is one of the original highways in the 1926 U. S. Highway System plan. US209 was assigned as part of the establishment of the U. S. Highway System in 1926, the route was initially an intrastate highway contained entirely within the state of Pennsylvania. It began at an intersection with US11 in Clarks Ferry, US209 was extended northward to US 9W in Kingston, New York, in April 1935 and truncated to Millersburg, Pennsylvania, by 1938. The portion of US209 in New York north of Port Jervis was previously designated as US6 from 1926 to 1928, US209 was realigned onto limited-access highways in two locations along its routing during the 1960s. In Kingston, New York, construction began on a highway bypassing downtown to the northwest in the early 1960s, the highway began at US209 south of the city and ended at US 9W north of downtown Kingston.
It opened to traffic as a realignment of US209 by 1964, in Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, US209 was moved onto a pair of new expressways south and east of the borough in the 1960s. US 209s former routing into Stroudsburg was redesignated as US209 Business, although signed as a north–south route in both states for its entire length,209 actually runs closer to east–west along its southern sections in Pennsylvania, only gently trending northward. Only at Stroudsburg does it begin to more to the north as it begins to follow the Delaware River. In New York it runs almost due northeast for its entire length, much of the highway in both states is a two-lane road, running through narrow mountain valleys, but there are expressway portions. In Pennsylvania, one near Stroudsburg connects concurrencies with PA33 and Interstate 80, in New York, from there it follows the Nesquehoning Creek valley down to the Lehigh River, which 209 follows southeasterly through Jim Thorpe to Lehighton. Business 209 leaves the road at Sciota for travelers wishing to bypass the expressway, at the next exit,209 takes its own short branch of expressway several miles to I-80 just outside Stroudsburg.
It stays with the Interstate through the borough and neighboring East Stroudsburg from exits 304 to 309 and this 20-mile segment provides access to New Jersey via toll bridges at Dingmans Bridge and Milford Crossing, where US206 comes to its northern end. Just beyond the bridge, the road reaches Milford, where US6 joins it. The two highways eventually start to run alongside I-84, and development picks up as they approach Matamoras, after crossing under the interstate at its final Pennsylvania interchange, they form the boroughs Main Street and cross into New York via the Mid-Delaware Bridge. 6 and 209 remain concurrent as they enter Port Jervis, while the scenery is often spectacular, the settlements along the road are few, with only one blinker between Port Jervis and the Sullivan County line. At Wurtsboro, shortly after the NY17 interchange, the first light is finally reached, just past it, in the hamlet of Napanoch, it picks up its first concurrency partner since route 6, NY55
Nesquehoning is a borough in Carbon County, United States. The population was 3,349 at the 2010 census, Nesquehoning was established as a result of the anthracite coal mining industry. It was incorporated as a borough in 1974, having previously been a part of Mauch Chunk Township, the former Nesquehoning High School was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2003. Nesquehoning is located at 40°52′5″N 75°49′27″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 21.6 square miles, of which,21.2 square miles of it is land and 0.4 square miles of it is water. Nesquehoning is located 3 miles west of Jim Thorpe and 4 miles northeast of Lansford, nesquehonings elevation is at 830 feet above sea level. More than half of the Boroughs residents live in this neighborhood, new Columbus - This neighborhood includes the area north of the Nesquehoning Creek, opposite Nesquehoning Village. Old Hauto - This neighborhood is in the section of the Borough. It is bordered by the Nesquehoning Creek and the former Nesquehoning Valley Railroad on the north, there are two hamlets or housing clusters in this neighborhood.
One is the historical Old Hauto Village area, which is located in the west along PA State Route 54, the other housing cluster is a subdivision development located in the easterly part of the neighborhood between PA Route 54 and Park Avenue. It was developed beginning in the late 1960s and is known locally as Hauto Valley Estates, Lake Hauto - This neighborhood is a lakeside resort type community situated on the northern side of Lake Hauto. Lake Hauto is a private community, although often thought of as being in Nesquehoning, the majority of the Lake Hauto community is actually located in neighboring Rush Township, Schuylkill County. As of the census of 2010, there were 3,349 people,1,440 households, the population density was 155.04 people per square mile. There were 1,701 housing units at a density of 78.75 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 96. 7% White,1. 2% African American,0. 24% Native American,0. 06% Asian,0. 95% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 2. 4% of the population. 32. 0% of all households were made up of individuals and 17. 6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.89.
The median age was 41 years, for every 100 females, there were 98.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.3 males, the median income for a household in the borough was $35,902, and the median income for a family was $41,855. Males had an income of $30,417 versus $19,291 for females