Peat known as turf, is an accumulation of decayed vegetation or organic matter. It is unique to natural areas called peatlands, mires, moors, or muskegs; the peatland ecosystem is the most efficient carbon sink on the planet, because peatland plants capture CO2 released from the peat, maintaining an equilibrium. In natural peatlands, the "annual rate of biomass production is greater than the rate of decomposition", but it takes "thousands of years for peatlands to develop the deposits of 1.5 to 2.3 m, the average depth of the boreal peatlands". Sphagnum moss called peat moss, is one of the most common components in peat, although many other plants can contribute; the biological features of Sphagnum mosses act to create a habitat aiding peat formation, a phenomenon termed'habitat manipulation'. Soils consisting of peat are known as histosols. Peat forms in wetland conditions, where flooding obstructs the flow of oxygen from the atmosphere, slowing the rate of decomposition. Peatlands bogs, are the primary source of peat, although less-common wetlands including fens and peat swamp forests deposit peat.
Landscapes covered in peat are home to specific kinds of plants including Sphagnum moss, ericaceous shrubs, sedges. Because organic matter accumulates over thousands of years, peat deposits provide records of past vegetation and climate by preserving plant remains, such as pollen; this allows humans to reconstruct past environments and study changes in human land use. Peat is harvested as an important source of fuel in certain parts of the world. By volume, there are about 4 trillion cubic metres of peat in the world, covering a total of around 2% of the global land area, containing about 8 billion terajoules of energy. Over time, the formation of peat is the first step in the geological formation of other fossil fuels such as coal low-grade coal such as lignite. Depending on the agency, peat is not regarded as a renewable source of energy, due to its extraction rate in industrialized countries far exceeding its slow regrowth rate of 1 mm per year, as it is reported that peat regrowth takes place only in 30-40% of peatlands.
Because of this, the UNFCCC, another organization affiliated with the United Nations classified peat as a fossil fuel. However, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has begun to classify peat as a "slowly renewable" fuel; this is the classification used by many in the peat industry. At 106 g CO2/MJ, the carbon dioxide emission intensity of peat is higher than that of coal and natural gas. Peat forms when plant material does not decay in acidic and anaerobic conditions, it is composed of wetland vegetation: principally bog plants including mosses and shrubs. As it accumulates, the peat holds water; this creates wetter conditions that allow the area of wetland to expand. Peatland features can include ponds and raised bogs. Most modern peat bogs formed 12,000 years ago in high latitudes after the glaciers retreated at the end of the last ice age. Peat accumulates at the rate of about a millimetre per year. Peat material is either hemic, or sapric. Fibric peats are the least consist of intact fibre.
Hemic peats are decomposed and sapric are the most decomposed. Phragmites peat are composed of reed grass, Phragmites australis, other grasses, it is denser than many other types of peat. Engineers may describe a soil as peat which has a high percentage of organic material; this soil is problematic because it exhibits poor consolidation properties – it cannot be compacted to serve as a stable foundation to support loads, such as roads or buildings. In a cited article and Clarke defined peatlands or mires as...the most widespread of all wetland types in the world, representing 50 to 70% of global wetlands. They cover over 3 % of the land and freshwater surface of the planet. In these ecosystems are found one third of the world’s soil carbon and 10% of global freshwater resources; these ecosystems are characterized by the unique ability to accumulate and store dead organic matter from Sphagnum and many other non-moss species, as peat, under conditions of permanent water saturation. Peatlands are adapted to the extreme conditions of high water and low oxygen content, of toxic elements and low availability of plant nutrients.
Their water chemistry varies from alkaline to acidic. Peatlands occur on all continents, from the tropical to boreal and Arctic zones from sea level to high alpine conditions. Peatlands are areas of land with formed layers of peat, they can cover around 4 million square kilometres. In Europe, peatlands extend to about 515,000 km2. About 60% of the world's wetlands are made of peat. Peat deposits are found in many places around the world, including northern Europe and North America; the North American peat deposits are principally found in the Northern United States. Some of the world's largest peatlands include the West Siberian Lowland, the Hudson Bay Lowlands, the Mackenzie River Valley. There is less peat in part because there is less land; that said, the vast Magellanic Moorland in South America is an extensive peat-dominated landscape. Peat can be found in New Zealand
The Scottish Parliament is the devolved unicameral legislature of Scotland. Located in the Holyrood area of the capital city, Edinburgh, it is referred to by the metonym Holyrood; the Parliament is a democratically elected body comprising 129 members known as Members of the Scottish Parliament, elected for four-year terms under the additional member system: 73 MSPs represent individual geographical constituencies elected by the plurality system, while a further 56 are returned from eight additional member regions, each electing seven MSPs. The most recent general election to the Parliament was held on 5 May 2016, with the Scottish National Party winning a plurality; the original Parliament of Scotland was the national legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland, existed from the early 13th century until the Kingdom of Scotland merged with the Kingdom of England under the Acts of Union 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. As a consequence, both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England ceased to exist, the Parliament of Great Britain, which sat at Westminster in London was formed.
Following a referendum in 1997, in which the Scottish electorate voted for devolution, the powers of the devolved legislature were specified by the Scotland Act 1998. The Act delineates the legislative competence of the Parliament – the areas in which it can make laws – by explicitly specifying powers that are "reserved" to the Parliament of the United Kingdom; the Scottish Parliament has the power to legislate in all areas that are not explicitly reserved to Westminster. The British Parliament retains the ability to amend the terms of reference of the Scottish Parliament, can extend or reduce the areas in which it can make laws; the first meeting of the new Parliament took place on 12 May 1999. The competence of the Scottish Parliament has been amended numerous times since most notably by the Scotland Act 2012 and Scotland Act 2016, with some of the most significant changes being the expansion of the Parliament's powers over taxation and welfare. Before the Treaty of Union 1707 united the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England into a new state called "Great Britain", Scotland had an independent parliament known as the Parliament of Scotland.
Initial Scottish proposals in the negotiation over the Union suggested a devolved Parliament be retained in Scotland, but this was not accepted by the English negotiators. For the next three hundred years, Scotland was directly governed by the Parliament of Great Britain and the subsequent Parliament of the United Kingdom, both seated at Westminster, the lack of a Parliament of Scotland remained an important element in Scottish national identity. Suggestions for a'devolved' Parliament were made before 1914, but were shelved due to the outbreak of the First World War. A sharp rise in nationalism in Scotland during the late 1960s fuelled demands for some form of home rule or complete independence, in 1969 prompted the incumbent Labour government of Harold Wilson to set up the Kilbrandon Commission to consider the British constitution. One of the principal objectives of the commission was to examine ways of enabling more self-government for Scotland, within the unitary state of the United Kingdom.
Kilbrandon published his report in 1973 recommending the establishment of a directly elected Scottish Assembly to legislate for the majority of domestic Scottish affairs. During this time, the discovery of oil in the North Sea and the following "It's Scotland's oil" campaign of the Scottish National Party resulted in rising support for Scottish independence, as well as the SNP; the party argued that the revenues from the oil were not benefitting Scotland as much as they should. The combined effect of these events led to Prime Minister Wilson committing his government to some form of devolved legislature in 1974. However, it was not until 1978 that final legislative proposals for a Scottish Assembly were passed by the United Kingdom Parliament. Under the terms of the Scotland Act 1978, an elected assembly would be set up in Edinburgh provided that a referendum be held on 1 March 1979, with at least 40% of the total electorate voting in favour of the proposal; the 1979 Scottish devolution referendum failed: although the vote was 51.6% in favour of a Scottish Assembly, with a turnout of 63.6%, the majority represented only 32.9% of the eligible voting population.
Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, demand for a Scottish Parliament grew, in part because the government of the United Kingdom was controlled by the Conservative Party, while Scotland itself elected few Conservative MPs. In the aftermath of the 1979 referendum defeat, the Campaign for a Scottish Assembly was initiated as a pressure group, leading to the 1989 Scottish Constitutional Convention with various organisations such as Scottish churches, political parties and representatives of industry taking part. Publishing its blueprint for devolution in 1995, the Convention provided much of the basis for the structure of the Parliament. Devolution continued to be part of the platform of the Labour Party which, in May 1997, took power under Tony Blair. In September 1997, the Scottish devolution referendum was put to the Scottish electorate and secured a majority in favour of the establishment of a new devolved Scottish Parliament, with tax-varying powers, in Edinburgh. An election was held on 6 May 1999, on 1 July of that year power was transferred from Westminster to the new Parliament.
Since September 2004, the official home of the Scottish Parliament has been a new Scottish Parliament Building, in the Holyrood area of Edinburgh. The Scottish Parliament building was designed by Spanish architect Enric Miralles in partnership with local Ed
A promontory is a raised mass of land that projects into a lowland or a body of water. Most promontories either are formed from a hard ridge of rock that has resisted the erosive forces that have removed the softer rock to the sides of it, or are the high ground that remains between two river valleys where they form a confluence. Throughout history many forts and castles have been built on promontories because of their inherent defensibility; the promontory forts in Ireland are examples of this. The ancient town of Ras Bar Balla in southern Somalia, which in the Middle Ages was part of the Ajuran Sultanate's domain, was built on a small promontory. River confluences provide an added defensive advantage to promontories, acting as a reliable natural moat for the enemy to overcome; the Citadel of Namur, a prime fortified location from the 10th century to this day, lies on the promontory at the confluence of the Meuse and Sambre rivers in the Walloon capital city of Namur, Belgium. Another good example of a confluence promontory fort is Fort Pitt, an English fort during the American Revolution that had belonged to the French as Fort Duquesne during the French and Indian War.
The surrounding location is known as the city of Pennsylvania. Headlands and bays Promontory fort Law Promontory Promontory, Utah Monte Argentario Promontory Point, Utah Rabbit's Back Wilsons Promontory Bol, Croatia The dictionary definition of promontory at Wiktionary
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
North Tolsta is a village in the Scottish Outer Hebrides, on the east side of the Isle of Lewis. North Tolsta is within the parish of Stornoway. Tolsta is notable for its long sandy beach, popular with surfers; the village of Bail' Ùr Tholastaidh is to Gleann Tholastaidh to the south. At the end of Tolsta's long sandy beach there are 5 caves only visitable during low tide, these Caves are locally known as "The Caves of Life." The village has a Primary School, two Churches and a Post office and community shop "Buth Tholastaidh". Formed in 2005, Tolsta Community Development Limited is a community interest company based in the village; the company operates a wind turbine at Glen Tolsta with the profits being used to benefit the Tolsta community. Wildlife in the area includes the kittiwake and the herring gull. Seals, dolphins and whales can be seen offshore. Lewis and Harris History of the Outer Hebrides North Tolsta Historical Society Visitor's guide for the Island of Lewis Website of the Western Isles Council with links to other resources Disabled access to Lewis for residents and visitors "Lewis-with-Harris".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. 1911. Pp. 525–526
Dùn Èistean is a multi-period archaeological site on an inter- tidal sea stack on the north east coast of the Isle of Lewis, near the village of Knockaird in the area of Nis in the Western Isles of Scotland. It is accorded the status of traditional stronghold of Clan Morrison – once a powerful family within the Lordship of the Isles – in local oral tradition; the ruins of two large buildings and groups of inter-connecting cellular structures can be seen amongst the grassy tussocks on the top of the island, as well as an artificial pond and a low turf wall enclosing the site. The most prominent feature of the site is a large circular mound of rubble situated on the highest point of the stack, on the north east side of the site; the topographical survey of the site shows these buildings. The island would have provided all, needed for occupation, having its own fresh water supply in the form of the artificial pond, numerous buildings serving an array of purposes, from storage to sleeping quarters.
And archaeologically the Western Isles in the medieval period differed from mainland Scotland. The Western Isles were culturally Scandinavian and politically part of Norway during the period c AD 800 to c AD 1300. There are a variety of physically similar sites to Dùn Èistean around the coast of Lewis and the southern Western Isles, many of which have been occupied or used at the same time. There is evidence from these sites of activity in the Iron Age or earlier prehistoric periods, it is likely similar early evidence is awaiting discovery at Dùn Èistean below the Dun and turf buildings. With the demise of the Norse political control of the Western Isles in the 13th century, powerful clans emerged; the local traditions and stories relating to Dùn Èistean, the Clans of Morrison and Macaulay in particular, emerge from this volatile and violent period in Lewis’ history. Morrisons of Harris and Lewis can traditionally be found from Barvas to the Port of Nis, in the north-west Highlands in the county of Sutherland around the town of Durness, together with their traditional allies Clan Mackay.
All structures and finds from this Clan Morrison island date to within the period between the 16th and the 18th centuries – a significant fact given that the forfeiture of the Lordship of the Isles occurred in the late 15th century and that the intermittent clan wars and strife which followed the power vacuum created by the disappearance of the central power of the region and that the highlands and islands came under tighter government control with the destruction of the Clan system following the failed Jacobite Rebellions of the 18th century. Dùn Èistean is now the focus of a multi-disciplinary project researching the history and archaeology of Ness under the auspices of the University of Glasgow Archaeological Research Division. Clan Morrison Historic Scotland Isle of Lewis Lord of the Isles Norse–Gaels Home page for the Dùn Èistean Archaeology Project Home page for Glasgow University Archaeological Research Division