Let there be light
"Let there be light" is an English translation of the Hebrew יְהִי אוֹר found in Genesis 1:3 of the Torah, the first part of the Hebrew Bible. In Old Testament translations of the phrase, translations include the Greek phrase γενηθήτω φῶς and the Latin phrase fiat lux; the phrase comes from the third verse of the Book of Genesis. In the King James Bible, it reads, in context: In the Torah, the phrase in Genesis 1:3, translated in English as "let there be light" is in Hebrew וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים, יְהִי אוֹר. In the Koine Greek Septuagint the phrase is translated "καὶ εἶπεν ὁ Θεός γενηθήτω φῶς καὶ ἐγένετο φῶς" — kaì eîpen ho Theós genēthḗtō phôs kaì egéneto phôs. Γενηθήτω is the imperative form of γίγνομαι, "to come into being". The original Latinization of the Greek translation used in the Vetus Latina was lux sit, used although there is debate as to its accuracy. In the Latin Vulgate Bible, the Hebrew phrase יְהִי אוֹר is translated in Latin as fiat lux. In context, the translation is "dixitque Deus fiat lux et facta est lux".
Fiat lux would be translated as "let light be made". The Douay–Rheims Bible translates the phrase, from the Vulgate, as "Be light made, and light was made." Fiat lux or Sit lux appears in the motto and on the seals of a number of educational institutions, including: Albion College Alfred University Angelo State University Atlantic Union College Central Memorial High School Clark University Cornway College Dennis Memorial Grammar School, Nigeria Dover Grammar School for Boys Milwaukee Downer College Emmanuel College, University of Queensland Ethical Culture Fieldston School, New York City Fiat Lux Academe in Cavite, Philippines Green Mountain College Hartley College, Point Pedro, Sri Lanka Hiram College Jacksonville University, Florida Johnson C. Smith University, North Carolina Kitsilano Secondary School, British Columbia Kojonup District High School, Western Australia Limerick Institute of Technology Mayo College, India Moeding College in Otse, Botswana Monmouth College, Illinois Nelson McIntyre Collegiate Queen's College Rollins College Selma University St. Andrew's School, Bloemfontein St. Joseph's College, Colombo Tusculum College Union County College University of Akron University of California system University of Lethbridge University of Liverpool University of Victoria University of Washington University of Western States Waynesburg University Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, AustraliaFiat Lux appears on the outside of Kerns Religious Life Center at Capital University in Columbus, Ohio.
The second half of the same verse, Et facta est lux appears on the seal of Morehouse College. The English phrase concludes Isaac Asimov's The Last Question, symbolizing the godlike growth in power of an advanced computer as it creates a new universe from the ashes of a dead one, drawing comparisons and suggesting an explanation for the biblical Book of Genesis. Victor Hugo's novel Les Misérables speaks about the importance of daring and writes "That cry,'Audace,' is a Fiat Lux!" "Fiat Lux!" is the activating phrase in the setting of a Ward Major in Katherine Kurtz's novel series Chronicles of the Deryni. The Fiat Lux Agency is the name of Nestor Burma's private detective agency, in Léo Malet's novel series New Mysteries of Paris. One of the three main divisions of Walter M. Miller, Jr.'s novel A Canticle for Leibowitz is titled "Fiat Lux". Alexander Pope adapted the phrase in his epitaph for Isaac Newton, who made important advances in optics: "Nature and nature's laws lay hid in Night. / God said,'Let Newton be!' and all was light."
"Fiat Lux" is used in the 1982 novel Die Insel des zweiten Gesichts by Albert Vigoleis Thelen. Fiat Lux, Debevec. Fiat Lux Assisi to Rome pilgrimage, UK, archived from the original on 2007-10-06. Fiat Lux – Let There Be Lights, NZ: Web centre. Let There Be Light, Rollins College. Smith, Let There Be Light. Let there be light, Charlottesville, VA. Masonic Lodge, Lombard, IL, AF & AM
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Marie-Joseph "Eugène" Sue was a French novelist. He was one of several authors who popularized the genre of the serial novel in France with his popular and imitated The Mysteries of Paris, published in a newspaper from 1842 to 1843, he was born in Paris, the son of a distinguished surgeon in Napoleon's army, Jean-Joseph Sue, is said to have had the Empress Joséphine for godmother. Sue himself acted as surgeon both in the 1823 French campaign in Spain and at the Battle of Navarino. In 1829 his father's death put him in possession of a considerable fortune, he settled in Paris, his naval experiences supplied much of the materials of his first novels, Kernock le pirate, Atar-Gull, La Salamandre, La Coucaratcha, others, which were composed at the height of the Romantic movement of 1830. In the quasi-historical style he wrote Jean Cavalier, ou Les Fanatiques des Cevennes and Latréaumont, his Mathilde contains the first known expression of the popular proverb "La vengeance se mange très-bien froide" expressed in English as "Revenge is a dish best served cold".
He was affected by the socialist ideas of the day, these prompted his most famous works, the "anti-Catholic" novels: The Mysteries of Paris and The Wandering Jew, which were among the most popular specimens of the serial novel. These works depicted the intrigues of the nobility and the harsh life of the underclass to a wide public. Les Mystères de Paris spawned a class of imitations all over the city mysteries, he followed up with some singular though not edifying books: Les Sept pêchés capitaux, which contained stories to illustrate each of the seven deadly sins, Les Mystères du peuple, suppressed by the censor in 1857, several others, all on a large scale, though the number of volumes gives an exaggerated idea of their length. Some of his books, among them The Wandering Jew and The Mysteries of Paris, were dramatized by himself in collaboration with others, his period of greatest success and popularity coincided with that of Alexandre Dumas, with whom he has been compared. According to Umberto Eco, parts of Sue's book Les Mystères du peuple served as a source for Maurice Joly in his Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu, a book attacking Napoleon III and his political ambitions.
The two are depicted in Will Eisner's cartoon book The Plot, co-authored with Eco. After the French Revolution of 1848, he was elected to the Legislative Assembly from the Paris-Seine constituency in April 1850, he was exiled from Paris in consequence of his protest against the French coup d'état of 1851. This exile stimulated his literary production. Sue died in Annecy-le-Vieux, Savoy on August 3, 1857 and was buried at the Cimetière de Loverchy in the Non-Catholic's Carré des "Dissidents". Rue Eugène Sue in the 18th arrondissement of Paris near the Marcadet-Poissonniers station of the Paris Métro, not far from Montmartre and the Sacré-Cœur. Calle Eugenio Sue in Polanco, Mexico City. Sue is a character in Umberto Eco's 2010 novel The Prague Cemetery. United States socialist Eugene Victor Debs was named after Victor Hugo. In Thomas Pynchon's 2006 novel Against the Day, an intelligent dog named; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Sue, Eugène".
Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Wandering Jew and Wandering Jewess dramatic screenplay adaptations by Robert Douglas Manning ISBN 978-1-895507-03-4 Eugène Sue - Mini Biography Find A Grave Works by Eugène Sue at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Eugène Sue at Internet Archive Works by Eugène Sue at LibriVox
Sam Spade is a fictional private detective and the protagonist of Dashiell Hammett's 1930 novel, The Maltese Falcon. Spade appeared in four lesser-known short stories by Hammett; the Maltese Falcon, first published as a serial in the pulp magazine Black Mask, is the only full-length novel in which Spade appears. The character, however, is cited as a crystallizing figure in the development of hard-boiled private detective fiction—Raymond Chandler's Philip Marlowe, for instance, was influenced by Spade. Spade was a departure from Hammett's nameless and less-than-glamorous detective, The Continental Op. Spade combined several features of previous detectives, most notably his detached demeanor, keen eye for detail, unflinching determination to achieve his own justice. Spade was a new character created by Hammett for The Maltese Falcon. Hammett says about him: Spade has no original, he is a dream man in the sense that he is what most of the private detectives I worked with would like to have been and in their cockier moments thought they approached.
For your private detective does not—or did not ten years ago when he was my colleague—want to be an erudite solver of riddles in the Sherlock Holmes manner. From the 1940s onward, the character became associated with actor Humphrey Bogart, who played Spade in the third and best-known film version of The Maltese Falcon. Though Bogart's slight frame, dark features and no-nonsense depiction contrasted with Hammett's vision of Spade, his sardonic portrayal was well-received, is regarded as an influence on both film noir and the genre's archetypal private detective. Spade was played by Ricardo Cortez in the first film version in 1931. Despite being a critical and commercial success, an attempt to re-release the film in 1936 was denied approval by the Production Code Office due to the film's "lewd" content. Since Warner Bros. could not re-release the film, a second version was made. For the 1936 comedy Satan Met a Lady, the central character was renamed Ted Shane and was played by Warren William; the film was a notable box-office bomb.
On the radio, Spade was played by Edward G. Robinson in a 1943 Lux Radio Theatre production, by Bogart in both a 1943 Screen Guild Theater production and a 1946 Academy Award Theater production. A 1946-1951 radio show called The Adventures of Sam Spade starred Howard Duff as Sam Spade and Lurene Tuttle as Spade's devoted secretary Effie Perrine, took a more tongue-in-cheek approach to the character. George Segal played Jr. son of the original, in the 1975 film spoof, The Black Bird. The Black Bird was panned by both audiences alike. Peter Falk delivered a more successful spoof the following year as "Sam Diamond" in Neil Simon's Murder by Death; this was preceded by the spoof character "Sam Diamond" in the 1965 Addams Family episode "Thing Is Missing", portrayed by Tommy Farrell. In 2009, with the approval of the estate of Dashiell Hammett, the veteran detective-story writer Joe Gores published Spade & Archer: The Prequel to Dashiell Hammett's THE MALTESE FALCON with Alfred A. Knopf, the original publisher of Hammett's The Maltese Falcon.
The Maltese Falcon Serialized in five parts, in the September 1929 to January 1930 issues of Black Mask Spade and Archer by Joe Gores The Radio Adventures of Sam Spade by Martin Grams, Jr. OTR Publishing, Maryland. ISBN 978-0-9703310-7-6 "A Man Called Spade" "Too Many Have Lived" "They Can Only Hang you Once" "A Knife will Cut for anybody" A Man Called Spade and Other Stories Nightmare Town The Maltese Falcon, starring Ricardo Cortez as Sam Spade Satan Met a Lady, starring Warren William in the lead role The Maltese Falcon, starring Humphrey Bogart as Sam Spade The Life of Riley, played by Howard Duff The Black Bird, a comedy sequel to the 1941 film, starring George Segal as "Sammy" Spade, Jr; the Strange Case of the End of Civilization as We Know It, played by Mike O'Malley. Lux Radio Theatre: "The Maltese Falcon": a 60-minute version of the novel, starring Edward G. Robinson as Spade and Laird Cregar as Gutman Academy Award Theatre: "The Maltese Falcon": 30-minute version of the story, starring Humphrey Bogart, Mary Astor, Sydney Greenstreet Suspense: "The House in Cypress Canyon" (December 5, 1946, CB
Television, sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising and news. Television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, television sets became commonplace in homes and institutions. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in most other developed countries; the availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax, VHS tape, local disks, DVDs, flash drives, high-definition Blu-ray Discs, cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material—such as movies—at home on their own time schedule.
For many reasons the convenience of remote retrieval, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions increased in popularity. Another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution, higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 1080p, 720p. Since 2010, with the invention of smart television, Internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the Internet through streaming video services such as Netflix, Amazon Video, iPlayer and Hulu. In 2013, 79 % of the world's households owned; the replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tube screen displays with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as LCDs, OLED displays, plasma displays was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel LEDs.
Major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are expected to be replaced by OLEDs. Major manufacturers have announced that they will produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s. Television signals were distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and, since the 2000s via the Internet; until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s. A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is called a video monitor rather than a television.
The word television comes from Ancient Greek τῆλε, meaning'far', Latin visio, meaning'sight'. The first documented usage of the term dates back to 1900, when the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi used it in a paper that he presented in French at the 1st International Congress of Electricity, which ran from 18 to 25 August 1900 during the International World Fair in Paris; the Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907, when it was still "...a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires". It was "...formed in English or borrowed from French télévision." In the 19th century and early 20th century, other "...proposals for the name of a then-hypothetical technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote and televista." The abbreviation "TV" is from 1948. The use of the term to mean "a television set" dates from 1941; the use of the term to mean "television as a medium" dates from 1927. The slang term "telly" is more common in the UK; the slang term "the tube" or the "boob tube" derives from the bulky cathode ray tube used on most TVs until the advent of flat-screen TVs.
Another slang term for the TV is "idiot box". In the 1940s and throughout the 1950s, during the early rapid growth of television programming and television-set ownership in the United States, another slang term became used in that period and continues to be used today to distinguish productions created for broadcast on television from films developed for presentation in movie theaters; the "small screen", as both a compound adjective and noun, became specific references to television, while the "big screen" was used to identify productions made for theatrical release. Facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century. Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846. Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851. Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in 1873; as a 23-year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in 1884.
This was a spinning disk with a spiral pattern of holes in it, so each hole scanned a line of the image. Although he never built a working model
A graphic novel is a book made up of comics content. Although the word "novel" refers to long fictional works, the term "graphic novel" is applied broadly and includes fiction, non-fiction, anthologized work, it is distinguished from the term "comic book", used for comics periodicals. Fan historian Richard Kyle coined the term "graphic novel" in an essay in the November 1964 issue of the comics fanzine Capa-Alpha; the term gained popularity in the comics community after the publication of Will Eisner's A Contract with God and the start of Marvel's Graphic Novel line and became familiar to the public in the late 1980s after the commercial successes of the first volume of Art Spiegelman's Maus in 1986 and the collected editions of Frank Miller's The Dark Knight Returns in 1986 and Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons' Watchmen in 1987. The Book Industry Study Group began using "graphic novel" as a category in book stores in 2001; the term is not defined, though Merriam-Webster's full dictionary definition is "a fictional story, presented in comic-strip format and published as a book", while its simplest definition is given as "cartoon drawings that tell a story and are published as a book".
In the publishing trade, the term extends to material that would not be considered a novel if produced in another medium. Collections of comic books that do not form a continuous story, anthologies or collections of loosely related pieces, non-fiction are stocked by libraries and bookstores as "graphic novels"; the term is sometimes used to distinguish between works created as standalone stories, in contrast to collections or compilations of a story arc from a comic book series published in book form. In continental Europe, both original book-length stories such as La rivolta dei racchi by Guido Buzzelli, collections of comics have been published in hardcover volumes called "albums", since the end of the 19th century; as the exact definition of the graphic novel is debated, the origins of the form are open to interpretation. The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck is the oldest recognized American example of comics used to this end, it originated as the 1828 publication Histoire de M. Vieux Bois by Swiss caricaturist Rodolphe Töpffer, was first published in English translation in 1841 by London's Tilt & Bogue, which used an 1833 Paris pirate edition.
The first American edition was published in 1842 by Wilson & Company in New York City using the original printing plates from the 1841 edition. Another early predecessor is Journey to the Gold Diggins by Jeremiah Saddlebags by brothers J. A. D. and D. F. Read, inspired by The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck. In 1894 Caran d'Ache broached the idea of a "drawn novel" in a letter to the newspaper Le Figaro and started work on a 360-page wordless book. In the United States there is a long tradition of reissuing published comic strips in book form. In 1897 the Hearst Syndicate published such a collection of The Yellow Kid by Richard Outcault and it became a best seller; the 1920s saw a revival of the medieval woodcut tradition, with Belgian Frans Masereel cited as "the undisputed king" of this revival. His works include Passionate Journey. American Lynd Ward worked in this tradition, publishing Gods' Man, in 1929 and going on to publish more during the 1930s. Other prototypical examples from this period include American Milt Gross's He Done Her Wrong, a wordless comic published as a hardcover book, Une semaine de bonté, a novel in sequential images composed of collage by the surrealist painter Max Ernst.
Charlotte Salomon's Life? or Theater? Combines images and captions; the 1940s saw the launching of Classics Illustrated, a comic-book series that adapted notable, public domain novels into standalone comic books for young readers. In 1947 Fawcett Comics published Comics Novel #1: "Anarcho, Dictator of Death", a 52-page comic dedicated to one story. In 1950, St. John Publications produced the digest-sized, adult-oriented "picture novel" It Rhymes with Lust, a film noir-influenced slice of steeltown life starring a scheming, manipulative redhead named Rust. Touted as "an original full-length novel" on its cover, the 128-page digest by pseudonymous writer "Drake Waller", penciler Matt Baker and inker Ray Osrin proved successful enough to lead to an unrelated second picture novel, The Case of the Winking Buddha by pulp novelist Manning Lee Stokes and illustrator Charles Raab. Presaging Will Eisner's multiple-story graphic novel A Contract with God, cartoonist Harvey Kurtzman wrote and drew the four-story mass-market paperback Harvey Kurtzman's Jungle Book, published in 1959.
By the late 1960s, American comic book creators were becoming more adventurous with the form. Gil Kane and Archie Goodwin self-published a 40-page, magazine-format comics novel, His Name Is... Savage in 1968—the same year Marvel Comics published two issues of The Spectacular Spider-Man in a similar format. Columnist and comic-book writer Steven Grant argues that Stan Lee and Steve Ditko's Doctor Strange story in Strange Tales #130–146, although published serially from 1965–1966, is "the first American graphic novel". Critic Jason Sacks referred to the 13-issue "Panther's Rage"—comics' first-known titled, self-contained, multi-issue story arc—that ran from 1973 to 1975 in the Black Panther series in Marvel's Jungle Action as "Marvel's first graphic novel". Meanwhile, in continental Europe, the tradition of collecting ser