Christianity has used symbolism from its beginnings. Each saint has a reason why they led an exemplary life. Symbols have been used to tell these stories throughout the history of the Church. A number of Christian saints are traditionally represented by a symbol or iconic motif associated with their life, termed an attribute or emblem, in order to identify them; the study of these forms part of iconography in art history. They were used so that the illiterate could recognize a scene, to give each of the Saints something of a personality in art, they are carried in the hand by the Saint. Attributes vary with either time or geography between Eastern Christianity and the West. Orthodox images more contained inscriptions with the names of saints, so the Eastern repertoire of attributes is smaller than the Western. Many of the most prominent saints, like Saint Peter and Saint John the Evangelist can be recognised by a distinctive facial type – as can Christ. In the case of saints their actual historical appearance can be used.
Some attributes are general, such as the palm frond carried by martyrs. The use of a symbol in a work of art depicting a Saint reminds people, being shown and of their story; the following is a list of some of these attributes. Mary is portrayed wearing blue, her attributes include a blue mantle, crown of 12 stars, pregnant woman, woman with child, woman trampling serpent, crescent moon, woman clothed with the sun, heart pierced by sword, Madonna lily and rosary beads. Delaney, John P.. Dictionary of Saints. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-13594-7. Lanzi, Fernando. Saints and their Symbols: Recognizing Saints in Art and in Popular Images. Translated by O'Connell, Matthew J. ISBN 9780814629703. Post, W. Ellwood. Saints and Symbols. SPCK Publishing. ISBN 9780281028948. Walsh, Michael. A New Dictionary of Saints: East and West. Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0-8146-3186-7. Whittemore, Carroll E.. Symbols of the Church. Abingdon Press. ISBN 0687183014. Calendar of saints Christian symbolism Christianization of saints and feasts Doctor of the Church Iconography List of canonizations, for a list of Catholic canonizations by date Martyrology Patron saint Weather saints "Christian Iconography".
Augusta State University. Archived from the original on 2014-03-18. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown "Hagiographies and icons for many Orthodox saints". Orthodox Church in America. "Catholic Forum Patron Saints Index". Archived from the original on 2005-05-31. "Saints' Badges or Shields". "On the Canonizations of John Paul II". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28
In the Eastern Orthodox tradition, a hieromartyr is a martyr, a bishop or priest. Analogously, a monk, a priest is known as a hieromonk. New Martyr Webster: Hieromartyr
Menologion of Basil II
The Menologion of Basil II is an illuminated manuscript designed as a church calendar or Eastern Orthodox Church service book, compiled c. 1000 AD, for the Byzantine Emperor Basil II. It contains a synaxarion, a short collection of saints' lives, compiled at Constantinople for liturgical use, around 430 miniature paintings by eight different artists, it was unusual for a menologion from that era to be so richly painted. It resides in the Vatican Library. A full facsimile was produced in 1907; the manuscript is not technically a menologion, but a synaxarion: a liturgical book containing a list of the saints and their feast days with a short description of sixteen lines of text and a painting of a saint or grouping of saints. The more than 430 images are important examples of hagiography, the veneration of saints, in Byzantine illumination. Text and images cover only half of the religious calendar of the Byzantine liturgical year, so it is assumed that there was a second volume to the work, but this was never produced, since some pages within the manuscript were left unfinished.
The miniatures themselves have no liturgical role—it's possible that their purpose was to act as protectors of the Emperor. The manuscript inspired the illustration of a number of subsequent menologia; the work glorifies Emperor Basil II showing him as a warrior defending Orthodox Christendom against the attacks of the Bulgarian Empire, whose attacks on Christians are graphically illustrated. Figures like the archangels were depicted in military guise by the painters; the manuscript was copied and painted at Constantinople at the command of, or as a gift for, the Emperor Basil II. It was completed between the early years of the 11th century. In the course of the 14th century it came into the possession of a Genoese doctor who resided in Constantinople. In the 15th century it was acquired by Duke of Milan. At the beginning of the 17th century the cardinal Paolo Emilio Sfondrati gave it to Pope Paul V and the manuscript now resides in the Vatican library; the artists who produced the images for the Menologion employed perspective and moved away from the flat depictions common up to that time.
The figures' gestures and drapery are depicted in a lifelike manner, with architecture and backgrounds well-rendered. Facial expressions are painted in a naturalistic style; the work thus demonstrates the painting style of the period, referred to as the Macedonian Renaissance in which painters returned to ancient models with gusto. Unusual for a Byzantine manuscript, the name of the painter of each illustration is recorded by a scribe at the edge of each image. A total of eight names can be recognised. One painter, by the name of Pantoleon, who may be referred to in other documents of the time, seems to have been in charge of the group, they worked together in a workshop connected to the Imperial court. The other painters are Georgios, Michael the Younger, Michael of Blachernai, Simeon of Blachernai and Nestor; the names are not the signatures of the artists themselves, since they are all recorded in the same handwriting. It is rare for artistic works from the Middle Ages to record the name of the artist, since it was not the individual artist so much as the meaning of the image, most important.
The reason for the recording of the names of the painters below their works in the Menologion of Basil II is not clear. Il Menologio di Basilio II. Turin 1907. Francesco D'Aiuto: El "Menologio de Basilio II". Città del Vaticano, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Vat. Gr. 1613. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Città del Vaticano / Diaconía Apostólica de la Iglesia de Grecia, Athen / Testimonio Compañia Editorial, Madrid 2008, ISBN 978-88-210-0789-7, ISBN 978-960-315-615-4, ISBN 978-84-95767-58-5. Evans, Helen C. & Wixom, William D. The glory of Byzantium: art and culture of the Middle Byzantine era, A. D. 843-1261, no. 55, 1997, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, ISBN 9780810965072. In: El „Menologio‟ de Basilio II: Città del Vaticano, Vat. gr. 1613: libro de estudios con ocasión de la edición facsímil. Dirigado por Francesco D'Aiuto. Biblioteca Apostólica Vaticana, Città del Vaticano 2008. 47–75. Nancy Patterson Ševčenko: Menologion of Basil II. In: Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. New York, Oxford, 1991, Bd.
2, S. 1341–1342. Ihor Ševčenko: The Illuminators of the Menologium of Basil II. In: Dumbarton Oaks Papers16, 1962, S. 248–276. Facsimile of Vat.gr.1613 from the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana Greek-Latin edition
The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law. In ancient Rome, a magistratus was one of the highest ranking government officers, possessed both judicial and executive powers. In other parts of the world, such as China, a magistrate was responsible for administration over a particular geographic area. Today, in some jurisdictions, a magistrate is a judicial officer who hears cases in a lower court, deals with more minor or preliminary matters. In other jurisdictions, magistrates may be volunteers without formal legal training who perform a judicial role with regard to minor matters. In ancient Rome, the word magistratus referred to one of the highest offices of state. Analogous offices in the local authorities, such as municipium, were subordinate only to the legislature of which they were members, ex officio a combination of judicial and executive power, constituting one jurisdiction. In Rome itself, the highest magistrates were members of the so-called cursus honorum -'career of honors'.
They held both judicial and executive power within their sphere of responsibility, had the power to issue ius honorarium, or magisterial law. The Consul was the highest Roman magistrate; the Praetor was the highest judge in matters of private law between individual citizens, while the Curule Aediles, who supervised public works in the city, exercised a limited civil jurisdiction in relation to the market. Roman magistrates were advised by jurists who were experts in the law; the term was maintained in most feudal successor states to the western Roman Empire. However, it was used in Germanic kingdoms in city-states, where the term magistrate was used as an abstract generic term denoting the highest office, regardless of the formal titles when, a council; the term "chief magistrate" applied to the highest official, in sovereign entities the head of state and/or head of government. Under the "civil law" systems of European countries, such as Belgium, France and the Netherlands, magistrat and magistraat are generic terms which comprise both prosecutors and judges, distinguished as the'standing' versus'sitting' magistrature, respectively.
In Portugal, besides being used in the scope of the judiciary to designate prosecutors and judges, the term magistrado was used to designate certain government officials, like the former civil governors of district. These were referred as "administrative magistrates" to distinguish them from the judiciary magistrates; the President of Portugal is considered the Supreme Magistrate of the Nation. In Finland, maistraatti is a state-appointed local administrative office whose responsibilities include keeping population information and public registers, acting as a public notary and conducting civil marriages. In Mexico's Federal Law System, a magistrado is a superior judge, hierarchically beneath the Supreme Court Justices; the magistrado reviews the cases seen by a judge in a second term if any of the parties disputes the verdict. For special cases, there are magistrados superiores who review the verdicts of special court and tribunal magistrates. In the courts of England and Wales, magistrates—also known as justices of the peace —are volunteers who hear prosecutions for and dispose of'summary offences' and some'triable-either-way offences' by making orders with regard to and placing additional requirements on offenders.
Magistrates/JPs are limited to issuing sentences of no longer than twelve months. Magistrates/JPs have other limitations in their sentencing authority with powers extending to fines, community orders which can include curfews, electronic tagging, requirements to perform unpaid work up to 300 hours, supervision for up to three years. In more serious cases, magistrates can send'either-way' offenders to the Crown Court for sentencing when the magistrate feels a penalty should be imposed, more severe than the magistrate is capable of sentencing. A wide range of other legal matters is within the remit of magistrates. In the past, magistrates have been responsible for granting licenses to sell alcohol, for instance, but this function is now exercised by local councils. Magistrates are responsible for granting search warrants to the police and other authorities. However, commission areas were replaced with Local Justice Areas by the Courts Act 2003, meaning magistrates no longer need to live within 15 miles.
Section 7 of the Courts Act 2003 states that "There shall be a commission of the peace for England and Wales—…b) addressed and not by name, to all such persons as may from time to time hold office as justices of the peace for England and Wales". Thus, every magistrate in England and Wales may act as a magistrate anywhere in Wales. There are two types of magistrates in England and Wales: justices of the peace and district judges who hold office as members of the professional judiciary. According to requirements, arou
Lycia was a geopolitical region in Anatolia in what are now the provinces of Antalya and Muğla on the southern coast of Turkey, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, Burdur Province inland. Known to history since the records of ancient Egypt and the Hittite Empire in the Late Bronze Age, it was populated by speakers of the Luwian language group. Written records began to be inscribed in stone in the Lycian language after Lycia's involuntary incorporation into the Achaemenid Empire in the Iron Age. At that time the Luwian speakers were decimated, Lycia received an influx of Persian speakers. Ancient sources seem to indicate. Lycia fought for the Persians in the Persian Wars, but on the defeat of the Achaemenid Empire by the Greeks, it became intermittently a free agent. After a brief membership in the Athenian Empire, it seceded and became independent, was under the Persians again, revolted again, was conquered by Mausolus of Caria, returned to the Persians, fell under Macedonian hegemony upon the defeat of the Persians by Alexander the Great.
Due to the influx of Greek speakers and the sparsity of the remaining Lycian speakers, Lycia was Hellenized under the Macedonians, the Lycian language disappeared from inscriptions and coinage. On defeating Antiochus III in 188 BC the Romans gave Lycia to Rhodes for 20 years, taking it back in 168 BC. In these latter stages of the Roman republic Lycia came to enjoy freedom as a Roman protectorate; the Romans validated home rule under the Lycian League in 168 BC. This native government was an early federation with republican principles. Despite home rule, Lycia had not been since its defeat by the Carians. In 43 AD the Roman emperor Claudius dissolved the league, Lycia was incorporated into the Roman Empire with provincial status, it became an eparchy of the Eastern, or Byzantine Empire, continuing to speak Greek after being joined by communities of Turkish language speakers in the early 2nd millennium. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century, Lycia was under the Ottoman Empire, was inherited by the Turkish Republic on the fall of that empire.
The Greek and Turkish population was exchanged when the border between Greece and Turkey was negotiated in 1923. The borders of Lycia varied over time, but at its centre was the Teke peninsula of southwestern Turkey, which juts southward into the Mediterranean Sea, bounded on the west by the Gulf of Fethiye, on the east by the Gulf of Antalya. Lycia comprised what is now the westernmost portion of Antalya Province, the easternmost portion of Muğla Province, the southernmost portion of Burdur Province. In ancient times the surrounding districts were, from west to east, Caria and Pamphylia, all as ancient, each speaking its own Anatolian language; the name of the Teke Peninsula comes from the former name of Antalya Province, Teke Province, named from the Turkish tribe that settled in the region. Four ridges extend from northeast to southwest forming the western extremity of the Taurus Mountains. Furthest west of the four are Boncuk Dağlari, or "the Boncuk Mountains," extending from about Altinyayla, southwest to about Oren north of Fethiye.
This is a low range peaking at about 2,340 m. To the west of it the steep gorges of Dalaman Çayi, the ancient Indus, formed the traditional border between Caria and Lycia; the stream, 229 km long, enters the Mediterranean to the west of modern-day Dalaman. Upstream it is dammed in four places, after an origin in the vicinity of Sarikavak in Denizli Province; the next ridge to the east is Akdağlari, "the White Mountains," about 150 km long, with a high point at Uyluktepe, "Uyluk Peak," of 3,024 m. This massif may have been ancient Mount Cragus. Along its western side flows Eşen Çayi, "the Esen River," anciently the Xanthus, Lycian Arñna, originating in the Boncuk Mountains, flowing south, transecting the several-mile-long beach at Patara; the Xanthus Valley was the country called Tŗmmis in dynastic Lycia, from which the people were the Termilae or Tremilae, or Kragos in the coin inscriptions of Greek Lycia: Kr or Ksan Kr. The name of western Lycia was given by points of Lycia west of it; the next ridge to the east, Beydağlari, "the Bey Mountains," peaks at Kizlarsevrisi, 3,086 m, the highest point of the Teke Peninsula.
It is most the ancient Masicytus range. Between Beydağlari and Akdağlari is an upland plateau, where ancient Milyas was located; the elevation of the town of Elmali, which means "Apple Town," from the density of fruit-bearing groves in the region, is 1,100 m, the highest part of the valley below it. Fellows considered the valley to be central Lycia; the Akçay, or "White River," the ancient Aedesa, brought water from the slopes to the plain, where it pooled in two lakes below the town, Karagöl and Avlangöl. The two lakes are dry, the waters being captured on an ongoing basis by irrigation systems for the trees; the Aedesa once drained the plain through a chasm to the east, but now flows through pipelines covering the same route, but emptying into the water supplies of Arycanda and Arif. An effort has been made to restore some of the cedar forests cleared in antiquity; the easternmost ridge extends along the east coast of the Teke Peninsula, is called Tahtali Dağlari, "The Tahtali Mo
The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome; the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and Ravenna, an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Roman Senate sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople; the fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.
In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC; the following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus making him the first emperor; the first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.
Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD; the Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453. Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, architecture, philosophy and forms of government in the territory it governed Europe; the Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of republics such as the United States and France; the corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian peninsula until the 3rd century BC, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves and provinces administered by military commanders, it was ruled, not by annually elected magistrates in conjunction with the senate. For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which led to rule by emperors.
The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which means "command". Successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator, this is the origin of the word emperor since this title was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts and civil wars from the late second century BC onward, while extending its power beyond Italy; this was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was perpetual dictator before being assassinated; the faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, ending the Final War of the Roman Republic. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citi
Perga or Perge was an ancient Anatolian city, once the capital of Pamphylia Secunda, now in Antalya province on the southwestern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Today, it is a large site of ancient ruins 15 kilometres east of Antalya on the coastal plain. An acropolis located there dates back to the Bronze Age. Perga was an important city of Pamphylia, between the rivers Catarrhactes and Cestrus. A treaty between the Hittite Great King Tudhaliya IV and his vassal, the king of Tarhuntassa, defined the latter's western border at the city "Parha" and the "Kastaraya River"; the river is assumed to be the classical Cestrus. West of Parha were the "Lukka Lands". Parha spoke a late Luwian dialect like Lycian and that of the neo-Hittite kingdoms. Perge returns to history as a Pamphylian Greek city, with Pamphylia came under successive rule by Persians and Persians again. Alexander the Great, after quitting Phaselis, occupied Perge with a part of his army; the road between these two towns is described as difficult.
Alexander's rule was followed by the Diadochi empire of the Seleucids the Romans. Perge gained renown for the worship of Artemis, whose temple stood on a hill outside the town, in whose honour annual festivals were celebrated; the coins of Perge represent both her temple. In 46 A. D. according to the Acts of the Apostles, St. Paul journeyed to Perga, from there continued on to Antiocheia in Pisidia returned to Perga where he preached the word of God, he left the city and went to Attaleia. As the Cestrus silted up over the late Roman era, Perga declined as a secular city. In the first half of the 4th century, during the reign of Constantine the Great, Perga became an important centre of Christianity, which soon became the official religion of the Roman Empire; the city retained its status as a Christian centre in the 6th centuries. St. Paul the Apostle and his, companion St. Barnabas, twice visited Perga as recorded in the biblical book, the Acts of the Apostles, during their first missionary journey, where they "preached the word" before heading for and sailing from Attalia, 15 kilometres to the southwest, to Antioch.
Paul and Barnabas came to Perge during their first missionary journey, but stayed there only a short time, do not seem to have preached there. On his return from Pisidia, Paul preached at Perge. St. Matrona of Perge of the 6th century was a female saint known for temporarily cross-dressing to avoid her abusive husband, she is known for opposing the Monophysite policy of the emperor Anastasios I. Matrona hid in the monastery of St. Bassion as the enuch Babylos. Once revealed, she was sent to a woman's monastery, she was famous for her miraculous gift of healing. She went on to found a nunnery in Constantinople. St Matrona died at the age of 100, her life was told through a vita prima whose exact time period remains a mystery. The Greek Notitiae episcopatuum mentions the city as metropolis of Pamphylia Secunda until the 13th century. Le Quien gives the names of 11 of its bishops: Epidaurus, present at the Council of Ancyra in 312. No longer a residential, the bishopric is included in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees.
Perga remained inhabited until the foundation of the Seljuk Empire 1000 CE. Perga's most celebrated ancient inhabitant, the mathematician Apollonius and worked there, he wrote a series of eight books describing a family of curves known as conic sections, comprising the circle, ellipse and hyperbola. Perga is today a tourist attraction. There were numerous excavations and discoveries since 1946. Ancient Perge, one of the chief cities of Pamphylia, was situated between the Rivers Catarrhactes and Cestrus, 60 stadia from the mouth of the latter, its ruins include a palaestra, a temple of Artemis and two churches. The temple of Artemis was located outside the town. Many of the coins struck in the city portrayed both her sanctuary. Another big ancient city in the area is Selge, located about 20km to the northeast; the Perge has been dubbed as “Turkey’s second Zeugma” for the alluring appearance of the mosaics that have been unearthed so far. In 2003, archaeologists discovered well-preserved Greek mosaics showcasing Medusa.
In 2017, discovered a mosaic depicting the sacrifice of Iphigenia. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Perga". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Perge". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Matthew George. "article name needed"