National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
Newberry National Volcanic Monument
Newberry National Volcanic Monument was designated on November 5, 1990, to protect the area around the Newberry Volcano in the U. S. state of Oregon. It was created within the boundaries of the Deschutes National Forest and is managed by the U. S. Forest Service, it includes 50,000 acres of lakes, lava flows, spectacular geologic features in central Oregon. Newberry National Volcanic Monument consists of four primary visitor destinations: Lava Butte, Lava River Cave, Lava Cast Forest, Newberry Caldera; the highest point within the monument is the summit of Paulina Peak at 7,985 ft, with views of the Oregon Cascades and the high desert. Paulina Peak may be accessed by road during the summer months, as the road is both steep and rough, with hairpin turns towards the summit, trailers or long vehicles are discouraged; the summit area of Newberry Volcano holds two alpine lakes full of trout, East Lake and Paulina Lake. The Big Obsidian Flow, created 1,300 years ago, covers 700 acres; the black, shiny obsidian field is accessible from good roads within the caldera, or a trail that traverses the flow.
Lava Cast Forest is 25 miles south of Bend, accessible via a 9-mile gravel road from U. S. Highway 97. Lava Cast Forest contains a 6,000-year-old lava flow. Lava Butte is 11 miles south of Bend, Oregon. Lava Butte is a cinder cone volcano, it can hiking up a paved road. Interpretive signs, views of the surrounding lava flow and mountains, an active fire lookout are found on top. Lava River Cave is 13 miles south of Bend. Lava River Cave is open to visitors from May through September. Lava River Cave is the largest uncollapsed lava tube in Oregon, may be explored by lantern. Temperatures in the cave average 42 °F. White-nose syndrome has not yet affected resident bats in the cave. Newberry Caldera is 37 miles from Bend and 19 miles from La Pine. Newberry Caldera is the largest developed area within the national monument; the caldera was formed. Over time the caldera filled up with water that created Paulina Lake and East Lake. Newberry Caldera has many natural tourism opportunities. Visitors have access to campgrounds, water recreation, lodging and interpretive guides with Forest Service staff.
Newberry Caldera has medium use most of the year with some high usage during peak times of the year.'There are twelve trails within Newberry Caldera ranging from 0.25 miles to 21 miles. These trails offer a variety of uses from hiking only to multiuse with hiking and horse allowed. Along the trails you can find access to fishing, interpretive signs, picnic areas, hot springs. There are seven boat launches for water recreationists; the Caldera offers nine camp sites accommodating both tent and RV camper. Newberry Caldera offers a variety of winter activates such as snowmobiling, cross country skiing, rooms for rent at the resorts.' List of National Monuments of the United States Official Website Volcanic Vistas: Guide to Newberry National Volcanic Monument
Mudflats or mud flats known as tidal flats, are coastal wetlands that form when mud is deposited by tides or rivers. They are found in sheltered areas such as bays, bayous and estuaries. Mudflats may be viewed geologically as exposed layers of bay mud, resulting from deposition of estuarine silts and marine animal detritus. Most of the sediment within a mudflat is within the intertidal zone, thus the flat is submerged and exposed twice daily. In the past tidal flats were considered unhealthy, economically unimportant areas and were dredged and developed into agricultural land. Several shallow mudflat areas, such as the Wadden Sea, are now popular among those practising the sport of mudflat hiking. On the Baltic Sea coast of Germany in places, mudflats are exposed not by tidal action, but by wind-action driving water away from the shallows into the sea; these wind-affected mudflats are called windwatts in German. Tidal flats, along with intertidal salt marshes and mangrove forests, are important ecosystems.
They support a large population of wildlife, are a key habitat that allows tens of millions of migratory shorebirds to migrate from breeding sites in the northern hemisphere to non-breeding areas in the southern hemisphere. They are of vital importance to migratory birds, as well as certain species of crabs and fish. In the United Kingdom mudflats have been classified as a Biodiversity Action Plan priority habitat; the maintenance of mudflats is important in preventing coastal erosion. However, mudflats worldwide are under threat from predicted sea level rises, land claims for development, dredging due to shipping purposes, chemical pollution. In some parts of the world, such as East and South-East Asia, mudflats have been reclaimed for aquaculture and industrial development. For example, around the Yellow Sea region of East Asia, more than 65% of mudflats present in the early 1950s had been destroyed by the late 2000s. Mudflat sediment deposits are focused into the intertidal zone, composed of a barren zone and marshes.
Within these areas are various ratios of sand and mud that make up the sedimentary layers. The associated growth of coastal sediment deposits can be attributed to rates of subsidence along with rates of deposition and changes in sea level. Barren zones extend from the lowest portion of the intertidal zone to the marsh areas. Beginning in close proximity to the tidal bars, sand dominated layers are prominent and become muddy throughout the tidal channels. Common bedding types include laminated sand, ripple bedding, bay mud. Bioturbation has a strong presence in barren zones. Marshes contain an abundance of herbaceous plants while the sediment layers consist of thin sand and mud layers. Mudcracks are a common as well as wavy bedding planes. Marshes are the origins of coal/peat layers because of the abundant decaying plant life. Salt pans can be distinguished in; the main source of the silt comes from rivers. Dried up mud along with wind erosion forms silt dunes; when flooding, rain or tides come in, the dried sediment is re-distributed.
Arcachon Bay, France Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania Great Rann of Kutch, India Belhaven, East Lothian Scotland, United Kingdom Bridgwater Bay and Morecambe Bay, United Kingdom Cape Cod Bay, United States Cook Inlet, United States Lindisfarne Island, United Kingdom Minas Basin, Nova Scotia, Canada Green Beach, South Korea Padilla Bay, United States Plymouth Bay, United States Port of Tacoma, United States Skagit Bay, Washington Snettisham Norfolk England, United Kingdom Wadden Sea: Netherlands, Denmark West coast of Andros Island, Bahamas Yellow Sea, China / South Korea Moreton Bay, Australia Port Susan, Warm Beach, United States Tidal Flats Tidal Flats Field Sites
Pacific City, Oregon
Pacific City is a census-designated place and unincorporated community in Tillamook County, United States. The population was 1,027 at the 2000 census. Pacific City's main attraction is the Cape Kiwanda State Natural Area. In 1845, Mr. Johnson, a cook on an English ship sailing along the Columbia River and traveled down the Willamette Valley. Establishing a land claim in Champoeg, he began removing brush and that summer set off a burn to clear debris; the Champoeg Fire spread eastward. The wind reversed direction and strengthened, blowing the blaze around the previous burn and fanning it into the dry Coast Range, where it burned in the Yamhill basin for weeks, consuming 1,500,000 acres of old growth forest - the largest such area destroyed in a single forest fire in the United States. Settlers did not live west of the Coast Range, but the small tribes of Native Americans in the area depleted by 80% due to malaria and other epidemics from 1830–1841, were driven from their lands; the Nestuggas were one such tribe, encamped just north of Pacific City near the town of Woods.
They had noticed the smoke for several weeks, but were surprised one morning as the bright flames flickered atop the crests of the surrounding hills and rushed down on them. The Nestuggas fled by canoe down the Big Nestucca River to the ocean, took refuge on the half-mile wide bare sandspit between Nestucca Bay and the ocean. After several weeks the fires were ended by a heavy rain, but the devastation had been complete: The forests were gone, the game found to be charred crisp or cooked in the water they had sought refuge in. Nestucca Bay was a rich fishing area, allowing the Nestuggas to survive despite the destruction of game. However, beginning in 1854 settlers began arriving in the Tillamook Valley, by 1876 Chief Nestugga Bill and the 200 remaining people of the small tribe were relocated to a reservation on the Salmon and Siletz River. Many early pioneers arrived via seagoing steamers, others arrived from across the mountains; the town of Woods established itself as a depot for the new arrivals and a source of supplies and trade for the settlers.
In 1886 the Linewebber and Brown cannery was started to take advantage of the plentiful fish in Nestucca Bay, shipping 12,000 cans of salmon a year and providing an economic basis until 1926 for the region, along with logging and dairy farming. The area became a "vacation" destination for Oregon Trail pioneers from the midwest, who had never seen the ocean. In 1893, Thomas Malaney platted the town of Ocean Park directly across the river from Woods; when a flood in 1894 wiped out the first lots, Malaney moved the town south to higher ground. The Sea View hotel was built around 1895 to serve vacationers from the Willamette Valley. Other buildings and campgrounds were established for visitors, Ferry Street was "paved" with wooden planks for automobiles; the town gained its modern name of Pacific City in 1909 to avoid confusion with the Washington town of Ocean Park. By 1926, overfishing from gillnetting had left the bay depleted of salmon, so commercial harvesting was stopped and fishermen switched to surf-launched dories.
Tourism in the 1920s became the mainstay of the economy. An airport was built to attract barnstormers and aviators, other roads and bridges were opened. Pacific City is located along the Pacific Ocean adjacent to Bob Straub State Park and spans the Nestucca River with about half the city's area being behind Nestucca Bay, it is part of the Oregon Coast. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 3.8 square miles, of which, 3.7 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. The area is located 13 feet above sea-level; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,027 people, 485 households, 317 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 274.7 people per square mile. There were 1,090 housing units at an average density of 291.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 94.16% Caucasian, 1.75% Native American, 0.58% Asian, 2.04% from other races, 1.46% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.02% of the population. There were 485 households out of which 13.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.8% were married couples living together, 6.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.6% were non-families.
30.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.55. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 16.1% under the age of 18, 4.0% from 18 to 24, 17.6% from 25 to 44, 35.0% from 45 to 64, 27.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 53 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.1 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $33,250, the median income for a family was $55,368. Males had a median income of $26,042 versus $26,250 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $25,819. About 8.4% of families and 7.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.8% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over. The shore station for the National Science Foundation's Ocean Observatories Initiative Regional Scale Nodes underwater cabled observatory is located in Pacific City.
Pacific City is located 2.8 miles from U. S. Route
Cascadia subduction zone
The Cascadia subduction zone is a convergent plate boundary that stretches from northern Vancouver Island in Canada to Northern California in the United States. It is a long, sloping subduction zone where the Explorer, Juan de Fuca, Gorda plates move to the east and slide below the much larger continental North American Plate; the zone varies in width and lies offshore beginning near Cape Mendocino Northern California, passing through Oregon and Washington, terminating at about Vancouver Island in British Columbia. The Explorer, Juan de Fuca, Gorda plates are some of the remnants of the vast ancient Farallon Plate, now subducted under the North American Plate; the North American Plate itself is moving in a southwest direction, sliding over the smaller plates as well as the huge oceanic Pacific Plate in other locations such as the San Andreas Fault in central and southern California. Tectonic processes active in the Cascadia subduction zone region include accretion, deep earthquakes, active volcanism of the Cascades.
This volcanism has included such notable eruptions as Mount Mazama about 7,500 years ago, the Mount Meager massif about 2,350 years ago, Mount St. Helens in 1980. Major cities affected by a disturbance in this subduction zone include Vancouver and Victoria, British Columbia. There are no contemporaneous written records of the 1700 Cascadia earthquake. Orally transmitted legends from the Olympic Peninsula area tell of an epic battle between a thunderbird and a whale. In 2005, seismologist Ruth Ludwin set out to collect and analyze anecdotes from various First Nations groups. Reports from the Huu-ay-aht, Hoh, Quileute and Duwamish peoples referred to earthquakes and saltwater floods; this collection of data allowed the researchers to come up with an estimated date range for the event. During low tide one day in March 1986, paleogeologist Brian Atwater dug along Neah Bay with a nejiri gama, a small hand hoe. Under a top layer of sand, he uncovered a distinct plant—arrowgrass—that had grown in a layer of marsh soil.
This finding was evidence that the ground had sunk under sea level, causing saltwater to kill the vegetation. The event had happened so that the top layer of sand sealed away the air, thus preserving centuries-old plants. In 1987, Atwater mounted another expedition paddling up the Copalis River with Dr. David Yamaguchi, studying the eruptions of Mount St. Helens; the pair happened upon a section of "ghost forest," so-called due to the dead, gray stumps left standing after a sudden inundation of salt water had killed them hundreds of years ago. Thought to have died due to a gradual rise in sea level, closer inspection yielded a different story: the land plummeted up to two meters during an earthquake. Having tested spruce using tree-ring dating, they found that the stumps were too rotted to count all the outer rings. However, upon having examined those of the western red cedar and comparing them to the living specimens meters away from the banks, they were able to approximate their year of death.
There were rings up until the year 1699, indicating that the incident had occurred shortly thereafter. Root samples confirmed their conclusion, narrowing the time frame to the winter of 1699 to 1700; as with the arrowgrass site, the banks of the Copalis River are lined with a layer of marsh followed by a layer of sand. Jody Bourgeois and her team went on to demonstrate that the sand cover had originated with a tsunami surge rather than a storm surge. In 1995, an international team led by Alan Nelson of the USGS further corroborated these findings with 85 new samples from the rest of the Pacific Northwest. All along British Columbia, Washington State, Oregon, the coast had fallen due to a violent earthquake and been covered by sand from the subsequent tsunami. A further ghost forest was identified by Gordon Jacoby, a dendrochronologist from Columbia University, 60 feet underwater in Lake Washington. Unlike the other trees, these suffered from a landslide rather than a dip in the fault during a separate event around 900 CE.
In the 1960s, underground fractures were uncovered by oil companies in Puget Sound. These were believed to be inactive through the 1990s. In the 1980s, geophysicists Tom Heaton and Hiroo Kanamori of Caltech compared the quiet Cascadia to more active subduction zones elsewhere in the Ring of Fire, they found similarities to faults in Chile and Japan's Nankai Trough, locations known for megathrust earthquakes, a conclusion, met with skepticism from other geophysicists at the time. A 1996 study published by seismologist Kenji Satake supplemented the research by Atwater et al. with tsunami evidence across the Pacific. Japanese annals, which have recorded natural disasters since 600 CE, had reports of a sixteen-foot tsunami that struck the coast of Honshu Island during the Genroku. Since no earthquake had been observed to produce it, scholars dubbed it an "orphan tsunami." Translating the Japanese calendar, Satake found the incident had taken place around midnight of 27–28 January 1700, ten hours after the earthquake occurred.
The original magnitude 9.0 earthquake in the Pacific Northwest had thus occurred around 9pm local time on 26 January 1700. The Cascadia Subduction Zone is a 1,000 km long dipping fault that stretches from Northern Vancouver Island to Cape Mendocino in northern California, it separates the Juan de North America plates. New Juan de Fuca plate is created offshore along the Juan de Fuca Ridge; the Juan de Fuca plate moves toward, ev
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
A tsunami or tidal wave known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water in an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami. Unlike normal ocean waves, which are generated by wind, or tides, which are generated by the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun, a tsunami is generated by the displacement of water. Tsunami waves do not resemble normal undersea currents or sea waves because their wavelength is far longer. Rather than appearing as a breaking wave, a tsunami may instead resemble a rising tide. For this reason, it is referred to as a "tidal wave", although this usage is not favoured by the scientific community because it might give the false impression of a causal relationship between tides and tsunamis. Tsunamis consist of a series of waves, with periods ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in a so-called "internal wave train".
Wave heights of tens of metres can be generated by large events. Although the impact of tsunamis is limited to coastal areas, their destructive power can be enormous, they can affect entire ocean basins; the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was among the deadliest natural disasters in human history, with at least 230,000 people killed or missing in 14 countries bordering the Indian Ocean. The Ancient Greek historian Thucydides suggested in his 5th century BC History of the Peloponnesian War that tsunamis were related to submarine earthquakes, but the understanding of tsunamis remained slim until the 20th century and much remains unknown. Major areas of current research include determining why some large earthquakes do not generate tsunamis while other smaller ones do; the term "tsunami" is a borrowing from the Japanese tsunami 津波, meaning "harbour wave". For the plural, one can either follow ordinary English practice and add an s, or use an invariable plural as in the Japanese; some English speakers alter the word's initial /ts/ to an /s/ by dropping the "t", since English does not natively permit /ts/ at the beginning of words, though the original Japanese pronunciation is /ts/.
Tsunamis are sometimes referred to as tidal waves. This once-popular term derives from the most common appearance of a tsunami, that of an extraordinarily high tidal bore. Tsunamis and tides both produce waves of water that move inland, but in the case of a tsunami, the inland movement of water may be much greater, giving the impression of an high and forceful tide. In recent years, the term "tidal wave" has fallen out of favour in the scientific community, because the causes of tsunamis have nothing to do with those of tides, which are produced by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun rather than the displacement of water. Although the meanings of "tidal" include "resembling" or "having the form or character of" the tides, use of the term tidal wave is discouraged by geologists and oceanographers. A 1969 episode of Hawaii Five-O entitled "Forty Feet High And It Kills!" used the terms "tsunami" and "tidal wave" interchangeably. The term seismic sea wave is used to refer to the phenomenon, because the waves most are generated by seismic activity such as earthquakes.
Prior to the rise of the use of the term tsunami in English, scientists encouraged the use of the term seismic sea wave rather than tidal wave. However, like tsunami, seismic sea wave is not a accurate term, as forces other than earthquakes – including underwater landslides, volcanic eruptions, underwater explosions, land or ice slumping into the ocean, meteorite impacts, the weather when the atmospheric pressure changes rapidly – can generate such waves by displacing water. While Japan may have the longest recorded history of tsunamis, the sheer destruction caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami event mark it as the most devastating of its kind in modern times, killing around 230,000 people; the Sumatran region is accustomed to tsunamis, with earthquakes of varying magnitudes occurring off the coast of the island. Tsunamis are an underestimated hazard in the Mediterranean Sea and parts of Europe. Of historical and current importance are the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami, the 1783 Calabrian earthquakes, each causing several tens of thousands of deaths and the 1908 Messina earthquake and tsunami.
The tsunami claimed more than 123,000 lives in Sicily and Calabria and is among the most deadly natural disasters in modern Europe. The Storegga Slide in the Norwegian Sea and some examples of tsunamis affecting the British Isles refer to landslide and meteotsunamis predominantly and less to earthquake-induced waves; as early as 426 BC the Greek historian Thucydides inquired in his book History of the Peloponnesian War about the causes of tsunami, was the first to argue that ocean earthquakes must be the cause. The cause, in my opinion, of this phenomenon must be sought in the earthquake. At the point where its shock has been the most violent the sea is driven back, recoiling with redoubled force, causes the inundation. Without an earthquake I do not see; the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus described the typical sequence of a tsunami, including an incipient earthquake, the sudden retreat of the sea and a followin