Tourism is travel for pleasure or business. Tourism may be international, or within the traveller's country; the World Tourism Organization defines tourism more in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure and not less than 24 hours and other purposes". Tourism can be domestic or international, international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments. Tourism suffered as a result of a strong economic slowdown of the late-2000s recession, between the second half of 2008 and the end of 2009, the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, but recovered. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.03 trillion in 2005, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010. International tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in 2012, emerging markets such as China and Brazil had increased their spending over the previous decade.
The ITB Berlin is the world's leading tourism trade fair. Global tourism accounts for ca. 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. The word tourist was used in 1772 and tourism in 1811, it is formed from the word tour, derived from Old English turian, from Old French torner, from Latin tornare. Tourism has become an important source of income for many regions and entire countries; the Manila Declaration on World Tourism of 1980 recognized its importance as "an activity essential to the life of nations because of its direct effects on the social, cultural and economic sectors of national societies and on their international relations."Tourism brings large amounts of income into a local economy in the form of payment for goods and services needed by tourists, accounting as of 2011 for 30% of the world's trade in services, for 6% of overall exports of goods and services. It generates opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy associated with tourism; the hospitality industries which benefit from tourism include transportation services.
This is in addition to goods bought by tourists, including souvenirs. On the flip-side, tourism can degrade sour relationships between host and guest. In 1936, the League of Nations defined a foreign tourist as "someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours", its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months. In 1941, Hunziker and Kraft defined tourism as "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity." In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities chosen and undertaken outside the home.
In 1994, the United Nations identified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics: Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another countryThe terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel implies a more purposeful journey; the terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited. By contrast, traveler is used as a sign of distinction; the sociology of tourism has studied the cultural values underpinning these distinctions and their implications for class relations. International tourist arrivals reached 1.035 billion in 2012, up from over 996 million in 2011, 952 million in 2010. In 2011 and 2012, international travel demand continued to recover from the losses resulting from the late-2000s recession, where tourism suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009.
After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007. The negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts. The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten destinations as the most visited in terms of the number of international travelers in 2017. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.26 Trillion in 2015, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 4.4% from 2014. The World Tourism Organization reports the following entities as the top ten tourism earners for the year 2015: The World Tourism Organizati
TUI Group is an Anglo-German travel and tourism company headquartered in Hannover, Germany. It is the largest leisure and tourism company in the world, owns travel agencies, airlines, cruise ships and retail stores; the group owns six European airlines - the largest holiday fleet in Europe - and several tour operators based in Europe. TUI is jointly listed on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange and the London Stock Exchange as a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index; the origins of the company lie in the industrial and transportation company Preussag AG, formed as a German mining company. It was incorporated on 9 October 1923, as Preußische Bergwerks- und Hütten-Aktiengesellschaft. In 1927 it was merged with the Ruhr coal company, Hibernia AG, electricity utility to become the Vereinigte Elekrizitäts und Bergwerks AG. With the sale of Salzgitter AG and purchase of the navigation and logistics company Hapag-Lloyd AG in 1997, Preussag AG became a global enterprise in the service and leisure industry. At that time, Hapag-Lloyd held a 30% interest in the tourism conglomerate TUI, increased to 100% by 1999.
In addition the company acquired 25% of Thomas Cook shares in 1997, which it doubled the following year. On 2 February 1999, the Carlson Leisure Group merged with Thomas Cook into a holding company owned by the German bank, Westdeutsche Landesbank, Carlson Inc and Preussag. However, in mid-2000 Preussag acquired Thomas Cook's rival Thomson Travel and was forced to sell its majority 50.1% stake in Thomas Cook by regulatory authorities. In 2002, Preussag renamed itself TUI AG. TUI announced a merger of its travel division with the British tour operator First Choice in March 2007, approved by the European Commission on 4 June 2007, on the condition that the merged company sell Budget Travel in Ireland. TUI held a 55% stake in the new company, TUI Travel PLC, which began operations in September 2007. In April 2008, Alexey Mordashov, who purchased his first shares in TUI Travel in autumn 2007, purchased additional TUI Travel shares under S-Group in order to expand TUI Travel into Eastern Europe and Russia.
Its logistics activities, concentrated in the shipping sector, were kept separate and bundled within Hapag-Lloyd AG. A majority stake in Hapag-Lloyd was sold to the Albert Ballin consortium of investors in March 2009 and a further stake was sold to Ballin in February 2012, as TUI worked to exit from the shipping business and to optimize its tourism business with expansion in Russia and India under Michael Frenzel. Prior to August 2010, John Fredriksen held the largest Norwegian held stake in TUI Travel and had a significant influence upon TUI Travel's direction and strategy; as Alexey Mordashov through his S-Group Travel Holding increased his stake in TUI Travel to a stake larger than Fredriksen's stake, the shipping business had to be sold. In June 2014 the company announced it would merge with TUI Travel to create a united group with a value of $US9.7 billion. The merger was completed on 17 December 2014 and the combined business began trading on the Frankfurt and London stock exchanges. Prior to this merger, Alexey Mordashov, the largest private shareholder in TUI Travel, held a blocking stake in TUI Travel through his S-Group.
After the merger, Alexey Mordashov's stake was reduced to less than a blocking stake of 25%. On 12 December 2016, Alexey Mordashov increased his stake in TUI Group from 18% to more than 20%. In October 2018, his 24.9% stake is the largest held stake in TUI Group. When Mordashov's stake increases to 25%, he will have a blocking stake in TUI Group at its annual meeting; the new TUI Group has: 1,600 travel agencies 150 aircraft 16 cruise liners 380 hotels and resorts Over 5M card payments annually 1-2-Fly First Choice Jumpstreet Tours Kras Nazar Nordic Sunjets.be Sunwing Travel Group TCS World Travel TUI Baltics TUI Belgium TUI Danmark TUI Deutschland TUI Holidays Ireland TUI Netherlands TUI Norge TUI Suomi TUI Sverige TUI UK VIP Selection VTB Reizen Wolters Reisen TUI Group owns six European airlines, inherited from TUI Travel, making it the largest tourism group in Europe. The group airlines operate both scheduled and charter flights to more than 150 destinations worldwide departing from more than 60 airports in 9 European countries.
With a Fleet of 137 In May 2015, the TUI Group announced it would rebrand its existing five airline brands under one airline banner in the course of the coming years, to be titled ‘TUI’. Arkefly, Thomson Airways, TUIfly and TUIfly Nordic will maintain the separate air operator's certificates, but will operate under "one central organisation" with "one engineering & maintenance function"; the TUI Group fleet includes the following aircraft, as of January 2019: TUI's hotel brands include: Blue - Premium resorts with a focus on local culture Family Life - Resorts with a focus on children's activities and entertainment Magic Life - All Inclusive resorts offering 24-hour facilities Sensatori - luxury, all-inclusive resorts Sensimar - hotels with up to 250 rooms, aimed at adult and couple travellers and not families TUI Cruises Marella Cruises Hapag-Lloyd International Expeditions Zegrahm Expeditions TUI sponsored Bundesliga club Hannover 96. The airline branch TUIfly's main hub is at Hannover-Langenhagen Airport and it had sponsored the football team since the 2002-2003 season.
On 31 March 2011, TUI announced Hannover 96 would be playing "with a smile on their chest" for another 3 years, as it extended the sponsorship contract. The current sponsor contract ran out, b
Tourism in London
London is one of the world's leading tourism destinations, the city is home to an array of famous tourist attractions. The city attracted 20.42 million international visitors in 2018, making it one of the world's most visited in terms of international visits. It welcomed an additional 27.8 million overnighting domestic tourists in 2017, had 280 million daytrippers in 2015. Overall London sees in nearly 50 million overnighters each year, over 300 million visitors if including daytrippers; the Travel & Tourism sector in the United Kingdom contributed GBP66.3 billion to the GDP, 3.4% of total GDP in 2016 and will rise by 2.2% pa, from 2017-2027, to GBP84.6 billion, 3.6% of total GDP in 2027. In 2011 visitors to London spent £9.4 billion, a little more than half of the total amount international visitors spent in the whole of the United Kingdom the same year. The tourism sector employed 700,000 people in 2013 according to Deloitte – Oxford Economics, accounting for 11.6 percent of the capital's GDP.
The London Eye is a giant Ferris wheel located on the edge of the River Thames. It has a diameter of 120 metres. A short walk away, the area boasts the London Aquarium, Big Ben, the Houses of Parliament, Westminster Abbey and Nelson's Column. In 2013, the tallest building in London, the Shard, opened a viewing platform to the public. Other major tourist attractions in London include the Tower of London, Buckingham Palace, Tower Bridge Experience, Madame Tussauds, ZSL London Zoo, London Dungeon and St Paul's Cathedral; the Association of Leading Visitor Attractions indicated that the following were the Top 10 visitor attractions in 2017: British Museum – 5.9 million visits Tate Modern – 5.7 million National Gallery – 5.2 million Natural History Museum, London – 4.4 million Victoria and Albert Museum – 3.7 million Science Museum, London – 3.3 million Southbank Centre – 3.2 million Somerset House – 3.2 million Tower of London – 2.8 million Royal Museums Greenwich – 2.6 million There are many museums and art galleries in the London area, the majority of which are free to enter.
Many of them are popular places for tourism. In addition to Tate Modern and the National Gallery, notable galleries include Tate Britain and the National Portrait Gallery. London has several parks for tourists to stroll and relax in, they include Hyde Park, Regent's Park, Green Park, St. James's Park, Hampstead Heath and Greenwich Park. London attracted 16.8 million foreign visitors in 2013, they accounted for 51.4% of all visitors. Below is the visitors information: France 1,904,000 United States 1,878,000 Germany 1,295,000 Italy 1,072,000 Spain 866,000 The Netherlands 687,000 Australia 687,000 Republic of Ireland 611,000 Belgium 531,000 Sweden 516,000 Public transportation is essential in transporting tourists to and from attractions, deciding the means of and cost of their travel. Public transportation can be an attraction in itself. London offers many forms of public transportation: the Underground, double-decker red buses, taxis. Tourists can purchase Travelcards to take the Tube, bus, or overground trains through designated zones.
The Transport for London website provides maps, information on line closures, a "Plan a journey" feature in which one can enter a location and a destination to determine which buses, Tube stations, walking directions are necessary for a trip. London travel guide from Wikivoyage Tourism in London
Visit Wales is the Welsh Government's tourism team within the Department for Heritage to promote Welsh tourism and assist the tourism industry. Visit Wales has taken over the functions of the former Wales Tourist Board, an Assembly Sponsored Public Body; the role of Visit Wales is to support the Welsh tourism industry, improve tourism in Wales and provide a strategic framework within which private enterprise can achieve sustainable growth and success, so improving the social and economic well being of Wales. The mission of Visit Wales is to "maximise tourism's contribution to the economic and cultural prosperity of Wales"; the baseline budget at the Wales Tourist Board for 2005/2006 was £22.6 million. Tourists spend over amounting to around £ 3 billion a year. In direct terms, tourism contributes, it is important to note. 100,000 people in Wales are employed in tourism, representing about 9% of the workforce. Over one million trips are taken to Wales annually by overseas tourists; the general United Kingdom accounts for 93% of tourism trips to Wales.
Seventy percent of tourists to Wales come from other parts of the United Kingdom for a holiday, 20% to visit friends or relatives and 7% for a business trip. Fifty percent of trips by UK tourists to Wales go to small towns/villages; the most popular origins of overseas visitors are Republic of Ireland, United States, Germany. The most popular activities undertaken by tourists in Wales are: walking, visiting historic attractions such as castles and visiting museums and galleries; the most popular attraction in Wales is the Museum of Welsh Life which attracts over 600,000 visitors annually. In serviced accommodation in Wales, there are over 80,000 bed spaces available. In 2015, the Welsh Government announced a 3-year plan, driven by Visit Wales, to promote Wales based on a series of annual themes: The Year of Adventure in 2016 The Year of Legends in 2017 The Year of the Sea in 2018It has been stated that these thematic years are: a long-term ambition to grow a stronger and more defined brand for tourism in Wales the opportunity to focus investment and innovation in tourism the need to drive an increase in visitor volume and value to Wales each year.
There are 74 tourist information centres around Wales, which act as the first port of call for visitors, offering local information and accommodation booking services, as well as many other services. This network of centres offers an essential service to the 13 million visitors that come to Wales every year, they are run by over 40 different managing authorities and Visit Wales co-ordinates the network to set and monitor standards of presentation and customer care. The Wales Tourist Board was established in 1969 as a result of the Development of Tourism Act 1969 and its role was enhanced following the Tourism Act 1992. An'Abolition Order' was passed by the National Assembly for Wales 23 November 2005 and full transfer of functions into the Welsh Assembly Government was made 1 April 2006. On that day, the Wales Tourist Board ceased to exist. Tourism in Wales VisitBritain VisitEngland VisitScotland Global website - www.visitwales.com - The official guide to places to stay and things to do in Wales.
Welsh Government - Tourism
City Sightseeing is the World's largest open-top, double-decker sightseeing tour bus operator. It provides tour bus services in more than 130 cities around the world; as City Sightseeing has grown and expanded, the company now provides boat tours, sightseeing train tours, guided walking tours. The buses pass by main tourist attractions and major landmarks, while a prerecorded audio commentary is provided through headphones in multiple languages giving important facts and information about what is being seen. Many tours have a live guide. Tourists may board and leave the buses within their ticket's time limit at the different bus stops on the circular routes; this is called hop-on-hop-off. Many cities have more than one route to showcase attractions. On some routes, buses leave the city for suburban sights. In some cities buses operate at night. In some cities, a boat tour is available; the United Kingdom, Italy and the United States are the countries with the largest number of cities with City Sightseeing service.
Each city has different ticketing options available, which range from a 24-hour pass to a 14-day pass. Furthermore, many tours include discounts for local restaurants. There are bundle packs, where customer's can buy tickets for several attractions when they purchase a bus or boat ticket. In 2015, more than 14 million tourists hopped-on a City Sightseeing tour. In 2015, US officials raised safety concerns about City Sightseeing tours after certain irregularities were discovered and a major crash occurred in San Francisco; the City Sightseeing name was first used in 1972 after Peter Newman used it for his City Coach Lines company, which ran tours of London four times a day. In 1998, Ensignbus developed the red livery in the Spanish city of Seville. There it helped an established sightseeing operator relaunch itself with double-deckers, using the experience and expertise developed with London Pride Sightseeing, through Ensignbus' vehicle business. With the sale of the London Pride Sightseeing, Peter Newman stated his intention to introduce a global brand of sightseeing buses.
It set up operations in Sydney, not as a franchise, but directly owned, during this year. In March 2000, the franchise model was initiated, with tours starting in Scotland. Startup operations employed a British manager until local staff were trained. During this year, operations expanded in the UK in York and Bath. Edinburgh's Lothian Buses introduced the first purpose built open top low floor buses. In December of that year, the online booking system was introduced. In 2001, operations expanded further in the UK, Spain and into Copenhagen, Denmark. In 2002, operations in Alberta, Canada have since closed. Ensignbus acquired City Sightseeing's biggest rival, Guide Friday, which had a base in Stratford-upon-Avon and operated tours across the UK and in major European cities. Operations were either re-branded as City Sightseeing, or absorbed into existing operators where Guide Friday had been a direct competitor; the acquisition brought City Sightseeing's operations up to nearly 70 cities worldwide with nearly 250 vehicles.
In 2003, operations started in Italy. During this year, City Sightseeing introduced the first purpose-built sightseeing bus, it was an Ayats Bravo City bodied Volvo B7Ls. They featured equipment designed for tours and were "Low floor." These appeared first in Spain and in the UK. By 2004 they were featured around the world. Since 2004, the company has been part of Singapore Ducktours, sold to RATP Group in September 2014. Both London and Singapore's City Sightseeing operations are under Extrapolitan Sightseeing Group. Ensignbus owned the operations in Bath, Cardiff and Windsor until its subsidiary, Bath Bus Company, was sold to the RATP Group in February 2011, it owned the operation in Cambridge and Stratford-upon-Avon, but these were passed to Stagecoach, who provided normal bus services in that area. In 2011, Ensignbus sold its 100% ownership of the business to the Spanish franchisee Enrique Ybarra's City Sightseeing Worldwide of Spain. Ensignbus retained its ownership of City Sightseeing in Sydney, but sold its interest in City Sightseeing Italy and its shareholding in Washington, D.
C.. This was sold to Big Bus Tours in September 2011. Sydney, along with a number of other locations, including Munich, Frankfurt and Bristol have all left City Sightseeing, now operate independently; the Mornington Peninsula service which commenced 1 November 2014, ceased on 25 January 2015. According to its website in November 2016, City Sightseeing had operations in 109 cities in 35 countries. In November 2015, a City Sightseeing bus injured 20 people in a crash at Union Square, San Francisco; the police concluded that this was due to driver error, although the driver maintained that the brakes had failed. A city official questioned the safety of City Sightseeing tours, the California Public Utilities Commission released a statement describing various irregularities and problems with City Sightseeing, including multiple permit suspensions since 2007 due to security infractions; the company has been developed along the franchise model. Some operations were owned by City Sightseeing, while some were joint ventures.
At a minimum, the franchise operator must use the City Sightseeing red base colour and graffiti style. They must use the global booking web-site, a percentage of any revenue paid to City Sightseeing. Big Bus Tours Gray Line New York Skyride Sightseeing Media related to City Sightseeing at Wikimedia Commons Company website
Lists of tourist attractions in England
This article contains lists of tourist attractions in England. Abbeys and priories in England List of amusement parks in the United KingdomAmongst the most popular amusement and theme parks in England are Pleasure Beach Blackpool, Alton Towers, Thorpe Park and Legoland Windsor. Anglo-Saxon sites in EnglandThere are few surviving Anglo-Saxon buildings in England, however countless artefacts from the age can be seen in museums across the country. Aquariums in EnglandSome of England's larger and most visited aquariums include the Blue Planet Aquarium, The Deep, the National Sea Life Centre and Oceanarium Bournemouth. Art museums and galleries in EnglandLondon's National Gallery and Tate Modern both received in excess of 4.7 million visitors in 2009. Other notable English art galleries include the National Portrait Gallery, Tate Britain, Tate Liverpool, Saatchi Gallery, Manchester Art Gallery, Tate St Ives and the Walker Art Gallery. Beaches in EnglandEngland, being part of the island of Great Britain, has many beaches.
The nation's favourites are cited as being in Devon and Cornwall although the northern towns of Blackpool and Scarborough are famed seaside resorts. Other notable beaches in England include Chesil Beach, Fistral Beach and the beaches of the Jurassic Coast. Casinos in EnglandEngland is not famed for its casinos, but other forms of betting are popular throughout the country. Castles in EnglandThe Tower of London is the most visited castle in England. Leeds Castle, Dover Castle, Windsor Castle, Lindisfarne Castle and Warwick Castle are amongst England's more notable castles. Festivals in EnglandThere are festivals and carnivals year-round in the UK, catering to every possible music and cultural genre; the Notting Hill Carnival is the second largest street festival in the world. Gardens in England Heritage railways in England Hill forts in England Historic houses in England Indoor Arenas in England Market towns in England Monuments and memorials in England Museums in England National parks in England Nature reserves in England Palaces in England Parks in England Piers in England Prehistoric sites in England Roman sites in England Seaside resorts in England Shopping centres in England Stadiums in England Zoos in England Tourism in England Economy of England Transport in England Lists of tourist attractions List of tourist attractions in the Isle of Wight List of tourist attractions in Kent List of tourist attractions in London List of tourist attractions in Oxford List of tourist attractions in Sheffield List of tourist attractions in Somerset
Carnival Corporation & plc
Carnival Corporation & PLC is a British-American cruise operator the world's largest travel leisure company, with a combined fleet of over 100 vessels across 10 cruise line brands. A dual listed company, Carnival is composed of two companies, Carnival Corporation and Carnival plc, which function as one entity. Carnival Corporation is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and Carnival PLC is listed on the London Stock Exchange; as such, Carnival is the only company in the world to be listed on both the S&P 500 and FTSE 100 indices. Carnival Corporation was founded as Carnival Cruise Line in 1972; the company grew throughout the 1970s and 1980s, making an initial public offering on the New York Stock Exchange in 1987. The capital generated was used to finance acquisitions, between 1989 and 1999, the company acquired Holland America Line, Windstar Cruises, Seabourn Cruise Line, Costa Cruises and Cunard Line; the name Carnival Corporation was adopted in 1993, to distinguish the parent company from its flagship cruise line subsidiary.
P&O Princess Cruises PLC was formed in 2000, following the demerger of the cruise ship division of the P&O group. Originating as the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company in England in 1837, P&O operated the world's first commercial passenger ships, the predecessor of modern cruise ships. Restructuring of the P&O group in the 20th century led to its cruise operations being rebranded as P&O Cruises and P&O Cruises Australia, with the company acquiring Princess Cruises in 1974. Following the demerger in 2000, the company acquired AIDA Cruises, as well as establishing the A'Rosa Cruises and Ocean Village brands. In 2003, Carnival Corporation acquired P&O Princess Cruises plc, it was agreed that P&O Princess Cruises plc would remain a separate company, listed on the London Stock Exchange and retaining its British shareholder body and management team. The company was renamed Carnival plc, with the operations of the two companies merged into one entity. Carnival Corporation and Carnival plc, jointly own all the operating companies in the Carnival group.
Prior to Carnival Corporation's acquisition, P&O Princess Cruises plc had agreed to a merger with Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. The deal unraveled as Carnival Corporation initiated a hostile takeover with improved terms for British shareholders. Carnival sold Windstar Cruises to Ambassadors Group in February 2007 and Swan Hellenic to Lord Sterling in March 2007. In October 2015, CSSC Carnival Cruise Shipping, a joint venture between Carnival, the China Investment Corporation, the China State Shipbuilding Corporation, was founded, with operations expected to commence in 2019. In March 2018, Carnival Corporation announced its intention to invest in the construction of a new terminal in the port of Sasebo, Japan, it is expected to open in 2020. In June 2018, Carnival Corporation announced that it had acquired White Pass’ port and retail operations in Skagway, Alaska; the Carnival group comprises 9 cruise line brands and 1 cruise experience brand operating a combined fleet of 104 ships. In 2011 the combined brands of the Carnival group controlled a 49.2% share of the total worldwide cruise market.
The following operating companies have full executive control of the Carnival brands in their portfolio, with the exception of CSSC Carnival Cruise Shipping in which 40% is controlled: Carnival Cruise Line - headquarters in Miami, Florida, USA P&O Cruises - headquarters in Southampton, UK Cunard Line - headquarters in Southampton, UK Holland America Line - headquarters in Seattle, Washington, USA Princess Cruises - headquarters in Santa Clarita, California, USA Seabourn Cruise Line - headquarters in Seattle, Washington, USA P&O Cruises Australia - headquarters in Sydney, Australia Carnival Australia - headquarters in Sydney, AU Carnival Cruise Shipping - headquarters in Hong Kong, China Costa Cruises - headquarters in Genoa, Italy AIDA Cruises - headquarters in Rostock, Germany AIDA Cruises originated from the state-owned German shipping conglomerate Deutsche Seereederei, established in Rostock, Germany in 1952. The company entered the passenger market in the 1960s, but after the unification of Germany in 1990, the company was privatised and its passenger ships acquired by Deutsche Seetouristik.
In 1996, the company launched its first new cruise ship AIDA, but after failing to achieve a profit, the ship was sold to Norwegian Cruise Line, continuing operations under a charter agreement. In 1999, Deutsche Seetouristik was acquired by British shipping company P&O, with the AIDA name being repurchased from NCL. P&O subsequently formed AIDA Cruises as a subsidiary brand, with two new ships ordered to form a fleet. AIDA was renamed AIDAcara, with AIDAaura launched in 2002 and 2003 respectively. Carnival Cruise Line was founded in 1972 as a subsidiary of American International Travel Service, by Ted Arison and Meshulam Riklis. Due to mounting debts, Riklis sold his stake in the company to Arison for $1 in 1974; however through the acquisition of existing ships, the company continued to grow and, in 1980, Carnival ordered its first new commission, the Tropicale, completed in 1981/2. Three further ships were commissioned during the 1980s, the Holiday and Celebration. In 1987, Carnival completed an initial public offering of 20 percent of its common stock on the New York Stock Exchange, raising $400m in capital.
The capital raised was used to finance acquisitions, so in 1993 the business was restructured as a holding company, under the name Carnival Corporation, with Carnival Cruise Line becoming its principal subsidiary. Costa Cruises originates from a cargo shipping company founded by Giacomo Costa fu Andrea in Genoa, Italy in 1854. Better known as Costa Line or C Line by the 1920s, its first passenger carrier