Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, interest groups, standards organizations and governments Standardization can help to maximize compatibility, safety, repeatability, or quality. It can facilitate commoditization of custom processes. In social sciences, including economics, the idea of standardization is close to the solution for a coordination problem, a situation in which all parties can realize mutual gains, but only by making mutually consistent decisions; this view includes the case of "spontaneous standardization processes", to produce de facto standards. Standard weights and measures were developed by the Indus Valley Civilization; the centralized weight and measure system served the commercial interest of Indus merchants as smaller weight measures were used to measure luxury goods while larger weights were employed for buying bulkier items, such as food grains etc.
Weights existed in categories. Technical standardisation enabled gauging devices to be used in angular measurement and measurement for construction. Uniform units of length were used in the planning of towns such as Lothal, Kalibangan, Dolavira and Mohenjo-daro; the weights and measures of the Indus civilization reached Persia and Central Asia, where they were further modified. Shigeo Iwata describes the excavated weights unearthed from the Indus civilization: A total of 558 weights were excavated from Mohenjodaro and Chanhu-daro, not including defective weights, they did not find statistically significant differences between weights that were excavated from five different layers, each measuring about 1.5 m in depth. This was evidence; the 13.7-g weight seems to be one of the units used in the Indus valley. The notation was based on decimal systems. 83% of the weights which were excavated from the above three cities were cubic, 68% were made of chert. The implementation of standards in industry and commerce became important with the onset of the Industrial Revolution and the need for high-precision machine tools and interchangeable parts.
Henry Maudslay developed the first industrially practical screw-cutting lathe in 1800. This allowed for the standardisation of screw thread sizes for the first time and paved the way for the practical application of interchangeability to nuts and bolts. Before this, screw threads were made by chipping and filing. Nuts were rare. Metal bolts passing through wood framing to a metal fastening on the other side were fastened in non-threaded ways. Maudslay standardized the screw threads used in his workshop and produced sets of taps and dies that would make nuts and bolts to those standards, so that any bolt of the appropriate size would fit any nut of the same size; this was a major advance in workshop technology. Maudslay's work, as well as the contributions of other engineers, accomplished a modest amount of industry standardization. Joseph Whitworth's screw thread measurements were adopted as the first national standard by companies around the country in 1841, it came to be known as the British Standard Whitworth, was adopted in other countries.
This new standard specified a 55° thread angle and a thread depth of 0.640327p and a radius of 0.137329p, where p is the pitch. The thread pitch increased with diameter in steps specified on a chart. An example of the use of the Whitworth thread is the Royal Navy's Crimean War gunboats; these were the first instance of "mass-production" techniques being applied to marine engineering. With the adoption of BSW by British railway lines, many of which had used their own standard both for threads and for bolt head and nut profiles, improving manufacturing techniques, it came to dominate British manufacturing. American Unified Coarse was based on the same imperial fractions; the Unified thread angle has flattened crests. Thread pitch is the same in both systems except that the thread pitch for the 1⁄2 in bolt is 12 threads per inch in BSW versus 13 tpi in the UNC. By the end of the 19th century, differences in standards between companies, was making trade difficult and strained. For instance, an iron and steel dealer recorded his displeasure in The Times: "Architects and engineers specify such unnecessarily diverse types of sectional material or given work that anything like economical and continuous manufacture becomes impossible.
In this country no two professional men are agreed upon the size and weight of a girder to employ for given work." The Engineering Standards Committee was established in London in 1901 as the world's first national standards body. It subsequently extended its standardization work and became the British Engineering Standards Association in 1918, adopting the name British Standards Institution in 1931 after receiving its Royal Charter in 1929; the national standards were adopted universally throughout the country, enabled the markets to act more rationally and efficiently, with an increased level of cooperation. After the First World War, similar national bodies were established in other countries; the Deutsches Institut für Normung was set up in Germany in 1917, followed by its counterparts, the American National Standard Institute and the French Commissi
A tornado is a rotating column of air, in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. The windstorm is referred to as a twister, whirlwind or cyclone, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology to name a weather system with a low-pressure area in the center around which winds blow counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern. Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, they are visible in the form of a condensation funnel originating from the base of a cumulonimbus cloud, with a cloud of rotating debris and dust beneath it. Most tornadoes have wind speeds less than 110 miles per hour, are about 250 feet across, travel a few miles before dissipating; the most extreme tornadoes can attain wind speeds of more than 300 miles per hour, are more than two miles in diameter, stay on the ground for dozens of miles. Various types of tornadoes include the multiple vortex tornado and waterspout. Waterspouts are characterized by a spiraling funnel-shaped wind current, connecting to a large cumulus or cumulonimbus cloud.
They are classified as non-supercellular tornadoes that develop over bodies of water, but there is disagreement over whether to classify them as true tornadoes. These spiraling columns of air develop in tropical areas close to the equator and are less common at high latitudes. Other tornado-like phenomena that exist in nature include the gustnado, dust devil, fire whirl, steam devil. Tornadoes occur most in North America in central and southeastern regions of the United States colloquially known as tornado alley, as well as in Southern Africa and southeast Europe and southeastern Australia, New Zealand and adjacent eastern India, southeastern South America. Tornadoes can be detected before or as they occur through the use of Pulse-Doppler radar by recognizing patterns in velocity and reflectivity data, such as hook echoes or debris balls, as well as through the efforts of storm spotters. There are several scales for rating the strength of tornadoes; the Fujita scale rates tornadoes by damage caused and has been replaced in some countries by the updated Enhanced Fujita Scale.
An F0 or EF0 tornado, the weakest category, damages trees, but not substantial structures. An F5 or EF5 tornado, the strongest category, rips buildings off their foundations and can deform large skyscrapers; the similar TORRO scale ranges from a T0 for weak tornadoes to T11 for the most powerful known tornadoes. Doppler radar data and ground swirl patterns may be analyzed to determine intensity and assign a rating; the word tornado comes from the Spanish word tornado. Tornadoes opposite phenomena are the derechoes. A tornado is commonly referred to as a "twister", is sometimes referred to by the old-fashioned colloquial term cyclone; the term "cyclone" is used as a synonym for "tornado" in the often-aired 1939 film The Wizard of Oz. The term "twister" is used in that film, along with being the title of the 1996 tornado-related film Twister. A tornado is "a violently rotating column of air, in contact with the ground, either pendant from a cumuliform cloud or underneath a cumuliform cloud, visible as a funnel cloud".
For a vortex to be classified as a tornado, it must be in contact with both the ground and the cloud base. Scientists have not yet created a complete definition of the word. Tornado refers to the vortex of wind, not the condensation cloud. A tornado is not visible; this results in the formation of a visible funnel condensation funnel. There is some disagreement over the definition of a condensation funnel. According to the Glossary of Meteorology, a funnel cloud is any rotating cloud pendant from a cumulus or cumulonimbus, thus most tornadoes are included under this definition. Among many meteorologists, the'funnel cloud' term is defined as a rotating cloud, not associated with strong winds at the surface, condensation funnel is a broad term for any rotating cloud below a cumuliform cloud. Tornadoes begin as funnel clouds with no associated strong winds at the surface, not all funnel clouds evolve into tornadoes. Most tornadoes produce strong winds at the surface while the visible funnel is still above the ground, so it is difficult to discern the difference between a funnel cloud and a tornado from a distance.
A single storm will produce more than one tornado, either or in succession. Multiple tornadoes produced by the same storm cell are referred to as a "tornado family". Several tornadoes are sometimes spawned from the same large-scale storm system. If there is no break in activity, this is considered a tornado outbreak. A period of several successive days with tornado outbreaks in the same general area is a tornado outbreak sequence called an extended tornado outbreak. Most tornadoes take on the appearance of a narrow funnel, a few hundred yards across, with a small cloud of debris near the ground. Tornadoes may
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency; the period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example: if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second. Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio signals, radio waves, light. For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time. In physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics and radio, frequency is denoted by a Latin letter f or by the Greek letter ν or ν; the relation between the frequency and the period T of a repeating event or oscillation is given by f = 1 T.
The SI derived unit of frequency is the hertz, named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz. One hertz means. If a TV has a refresh rate of 1 hertz the TV's screen will change its picture once a second. A previous name for this unit was cycles per second; the SI unit for period is the second. A traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute, abbreviated r/min or rpm. 60 rpm equals one hertz. As a matter of convenience and slower waves, such as ocean surface waves, tend to be described by wave period rather than frequency. Short and fast waves, like audio and radio, are described by their frequency instead of period; these used conversions are listed below: Angular frequency denoted by the Greek letter ω, is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement, θ, or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform, or as the rate of change of the argument to the sine function: y = sin = sin = sin d θ d t = ω = 2 π f Angular frequency is measured in radians per second but, for discrete-time signals, can be expressed as radians per sampling interval, a dimensionless quantity.
Angular frequency is larger than regular frequency by a factor of 2π. Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the time axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axes. E.g.: y = sin = sin d θ d x = k Wavenumber, k, is the spatial frequency analogue of angular temporal frequency and is measured in radians per meter. In the case of more than one spatial dimension, wavenumber is a vector quantity. For periodic waves in nondispersive media, frequency has an inverse relationship to the wavelength, λ. In dispersive media, the frequency f of a sinusoidal wave is equal to the phase velocity v of the wave divided by the wavelength λ of the wave: f = v λ. In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum v = c, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, this expression becomes: f = c λ; when waves from a monochrome source travel from one medium to another, their frequency remains the same—only their wavelength and speed change. Measurement of frequency can done in the following ways, Calculating the frequency of a repeating event is accomplished by counting the number of times that event occurs within a specific time period dividing the count by the length of the time period.
For example, if 71 events occur within 15 seconds the frequency is: f = 71 15 s ≈ 4.73 Hz If the number of counts is not large, it is more accurate to measure the time interval for a predetermined number of occurrences, rather than the number of occurrences within a specified time. The latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero and one count, so on average half a count; this is called gating error and causes an average error in the calculated frequency of Δ f = 1 2 T
Military Auxiliary Radio System
The Military Auxiliary Radio System is a United States Department of Defense sponsored program, established as a separately managed and operated program by the United States Army, the United States Air Force. The United States Navy-Marine program has been closed; the program is a civilian auxiliary consisting of licensed amateur radio operators who are interested in assisting the military with communications on a local and international basis as an adjunct to normal communications. The MARS programs include active duty and National Guard units. MARS has a long history of providing worldwide auxiliary emergency communications during times of need; the combined two-service MARS programs, volunteer force of over 3,000 dedicated and skilled amateur radio operators provide the backbone of the MARS program. The main benefit of MARS membership is enjoying the amateur radio hobby through an ever-expanding horizon of MARS service to the nation. MARS members work by the slogans "Proudly Serving Those Who Serve" and "Proud and Ready."
The organization that led to the Military Auxiliary Radio System was called the Auxiliary Amateur Radio System. AARS was created in November 1925 by a few dedicated pioneers in the United States Army Signal Corps led by Captain Thomas C. Rives, his original intent was to enlist the talents of volunteer amateur radio operators who could train soldiers in the then-new technology of radio, as well as pursuing radio research and development to improve radio equipment within the Army. This support would be useful during the mobilization of forces by providing a pool of trained radio operators, their efforts were successful, the present-day MARS program is the direct descendant of the work of those early pioneers. Between 1925 and 1941, the AARS continued to operate and functioned more or less as an extracurricular activity for members of the Army Signal Corps, with its scope limited by budget cuts during the Great Depression; the AARS organization continued to operate until the United States entry into World War II on 7 December 1941, at which time radio amateurs were denied the use of the airwaves, the amateur service and the Army Amateur Radio System were deactivated.
Following WWII, the US Army recognized the importance of reactivating the AARS to train vitally needed communications personnel at a low direct cost to the government, in 1946 the AARS was reactivated. The AARS functioned as such until the creation of the Military Affiliate Radio System in November 1948 with the establishment of separate Army and Air Force MARS programs, reflecting the creation of the Air Force as a separate service; the program's name was changed to the Military Affiliate Radio System on 2 September 1952, in recognition of the organization's changing nature with the growing number of civilian volunteer members. The Navy-Marine Corps MARS program was established on 17 August 1962, began operations on 1 January 1963; this followed the Cuban Missile Crisis and President Kennedy's concern for viable and extended communications capabilities. During the Korean War, Vietnam War, Cold War and Gulf War, MARS was most known for its handling of "Marsgram" written messages and providing "phone patches" to allow overseas servicemen to contact their families at home.
The program's name was changed again to the current Military Auxiliary Radio System on 23 December 2009. MARS continues to be active today, its primary mission is to provide contingency communications to the Department of Defense and Military Services. MARS is available to provide communications for Defense Support to Civil Authorities such as FEMA and the Department of Homeland Security. Under DSCA, MARS may available to assist state and local emergency response agencies. On a day-to-day basis MARS members are available to handle messages to and from service men and women: active duty, guard, or retired and certain employees of the federal government who are stationed outside the US. Military Auxiliary Radio System provides Department of Defense sponsored emergency communications on a local and international basis. MARS provides auxiliary communications for military entities only. One major mission that MARS has had for many years is to handle morale and official record and voice communications traffic for Armed Forces and authorized U.
S. Government civilian personnel stationed throughout the world. MARS establishes programs to create civilian interest, recruit qualified volunteers, furnish training in military communications and procedures; every year, MARS conducts an appropriate military and amateur radio cross-band exercise as an integral part of the annual Armed Forces Day. They provide a reserve of personnel trained in military radio communications and procedures as well as to initiate efforts to improve radio-operating techniques. MARS members test state-of-the-art technology through testing. MARS celebrates Armed Forces Day annually with a traditional military to amateur crossband communications test and a message-receiving test; these tests give amateur radio operators and shortwave listeners an opportunity to demonstrate their individual technical skills and receive recognition from the Secretary of Defense or the appropriate military radio station for their proven expertise. A QSL card is provided to those making contact with one of the military stations.
Special commemorative certificates are awarded to anyone who receives and copies the digital Armed Forces Day message from the Secretary of Defense. Participating military stations tr
Maritime mobile amateur radio
Most countries' amateur radio licences allow licensed operators to install and use radio transmission equipment while at sea. Such operation is known as maritime mobile amateur radio. In most cases the operator's call sign needs to be extended by adding the suffix "/MM" when transmitting at sea; the following notes are made with regard to the UK "Full" amateur radio licence terms and limitations, so may vary from other amateur licences. Maritime mobile operation is defined as operating a transmitter, located on any vessel at sea; this means any manned structure afloat outside of the high-water mark. Operating on vessels on inland waterways is defined as mobile working, so requires /M to be added to the callsign, not /MM as for maritime mobile operation. There is a requirement that the amateur radio equipment must only be installed with the written permission of the vessel's master; this does not affect those who intend to install a transceiver on their own boat, but is relevant to anyone who intends to make transmissions from a ferry or other passenger ship.
In such cases, the master of the ship has the right to demand radio silence from the amateur operator. There is no requirement to keep a log of calls, but a written record of information about frequencies, times and their callsigns is in fact very valuable, it is not a requirement that the station transmits its location, but of course this is advisable, easy to do with on-board GPS location. UK amateurs have a system of regional secondary locators that they must use within UK territorial waters. In international waters, this is not necessary; when in the territorial waters of other countries, CEPT rules apply and these can get complex. The normal procedure is to prepend the national locator of the host country to the normal callsign, separated with another slash. So, amateur station A0AA, operating from a vessel within the territorial tidal waters of a country identified by the prefix B would identify itself as B/A0AA/MM when transmitting. In international waters, amateur licensees must only use frequency bands allocated internationally in each of the three ITU Regions.
In any country's territorial waters, they should abide by the frequency allocations and bandplans applicable to the host country. Many long-standing and sophisticated radio nets are operated by shore-based amateur volunteers for seafaring operators. There are some special considerations when installing and using amateur radio transmitters and receivers afloat; these include power supply, RF earthing, antenna design and EMC with other electronic equipment aboard. For MF and HF use, the most common antenna design is to add two RF insulators into the backstay of the mast and feed it from the transceiver using a sintered bronze earthing plate, bolted to the outside of the hull, well under the waterline, as an earth. On metal hulled boats the earthing plate can be dispensed with, the whole hull used as a ground. In this case, the thickness of any paint layer is negligible at RF. On a yacht with twin backstays, if insulators are placed in both of them and they are fed from the masthead, they may be usable as an "inverted vee" avoiding the need to feed the antenna against ground.
Either format will require the use of an ATU to achieve resonance for the HF frequency in use, as the physical length of the antenna will invariably be incorrect at the frequency of choice. A few twin-masted sailing vessels have the space to erect a "Tee" antenna or an inverted "L" between masts; these antenna configurations are more common on merchant ships. For VHF and UHF operation, one option is to mount a small yagi antenna to a pole 1–2 m long and haul this to the masthead using a flag halyard. If the halyard is knotted to the middle and bottom of the pole, it is easy enough to make the antenna project above the clutter at the masthead into clear air; the problem is in rotating it - it needs to be lowered and re-raised to alter the direction of its beam. For the safety of masthead fittings and lights it is better if these yagis are light in weight and made of, for example, plastic tubes supporting internal wire conductors. Operating in this way is best reserved for when in harbour or at anchor, to avoid interfering with the operation of the boat.
Repeated loss of signal due to rolling and pitching would make it impractical for useful communication at sea anyway. For FM operation on the 2 m band, the masthead vertical whip, installed for marine VHF operation will provide good omni-directional, vertically polarised signals; the frequency of operation around 145 MHz is close enough to the antenna's design frequency of 156 MHz that most amateur transceivers will not need an ATU and will not suffer unduly from a poor SWR. For a single-ended HF antenna, a good electrical earth connection is essential, it is necessary from the points of view of safety and EMC considerations on any radio transmitter installation on a boat or ship. As mentioned above, metal-hulled vessels have a natural advantage in that at HF and lower frequencies, the hull can be considered to be in contact with the water, as the insulating properties of the paint layer against the water is a capacitance that presents little electrical impedance to the RF currents. For fibreglass and wooden hulls and HF transmission, the usual solution is to attach a sintered bronze plate to the outside of the hull for RF earthing.
The construction of a sintered bronze plate is porous to water so that although the plate may be only a square foot or two and an inch thick, the actual surface area of metal in electrical contact with
Civil Air Patrol
The Civil Air Patrol is a congressionally chartered, federally supported non-profit corporation that serves as the official civilian auxiliary of the United States Air Force. CAP is a volunteer organization with an aviation-minded membership that includes people from all backgrounds and occupations, it performs three congressionally assigned key missions: emergency services, which includes search and rescue and disaster relief operations. In addition, CAP has been tasked with homeland security and courier service missions. CAP performs non-auxiliary missions for various governmental and private agencies, such as local law enforcement and the American Red Cross; the program is established as an organization by Title 10 of the United States Code and its purposes defined by Title 36. Membership in the organization consists of cadets ranging from 12 to just under 21 years of age, senior members 18 years of age and up; these two groups each have the opportunity to participate in a wide variety of pursuits.
All members wear uniforms while performing their duties. Nationwide, CAP is a major operator of single-engine general aviation aircraft, used in the execution of its various missions, including orientation flights for cadets and the provision of significant emergency services capabilities; because of these extensive flying opportunities, many CAP members become licensed pilots. The hierarchical and military auxiliary organization is headed by the National Headquarters followed by eight regional commands and 52 wings; each wing supervises the individual groups and squadrons that comprise the basic operational unit of the organization. The Civil Air Patrol was conceived in the late 1930s by aviation advocate Gill Robb Wilson, who foresaw general aviation's potential to supplement America's military operations. With the help of New York Mayor Fiorello H. LaGuardia, in his capacity as then-Director of the Office of Civilian Defense, CAP was created with Administrative Order 9, signed by LaGuardia on 1 December 1941 and published 8 December 1941.
The Civil Air Patrol had 90 days to prove themselves to Congress. Major General John F. Curry was appointed as the first national commander. Texas oilman David Harold Byrd was a co-founder of CAP. During World War II, CAP was seen as a way to use America's civilian aviation resources to aid the war effort instead of grounding them; the organization assumed many missions including anti-submarine patrol and warfare, border patrols, courier services. During World War II, CAP's coastal patrol flew 24 million miles and sighted 173 enemy U-boats, dropping a total of 82 bombs and depth charges throughout the conflict. Two submarines were destroyed by CAP aircraft, but research found there was no basis for this claim. By the end of the war, 68 CAP members had lost their lives in the line of duty. After the end of World War II, CAP became the civilian auxiliary of the United States Air Force, its incorporating charter declared that it would never again be involved in direct combat activities, but would be of a benevolent nature.
The "supervisory" USAF organization overseeing CAP has changed several times. This has included the former Continental Air Command in 1959, the former Headquarters Command, USAF in 1968, to the Air University in 1976. Following Air University's reassignment as a subordinate command to the Air Education and Training Command in 1993, USAF oversight of CAP has flowed from AETC at the 4-star level, to AU at the 3-star level, to AU's Jeanne M. Holm Center for Officer Accessions and Citizen Development at the 1-star level, to a subordinate unit of 1st Air Force at the 3-star level with Civil Air Patrol-U. S. Air Force as a stand-alone unit lead at the Colonel level. Since its incorporation charter, CAP has maintained its relationship with the USAF, has continued its three congressionally mandated missions. On 14 June 2011, Civil Air Patrol was awarded the Roving Ambassador of Peace by the World Peace Prize Awarding Council for its positive impact in American communities, its lifesaving efforts, for "preserving liberty for all".
During the 113th United States Congress, both the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives voted to pass a bill that would award the Congressional Gold Medal to the World War II members of the Civil Air Patrol. The medal would be presented "in recognition of their military service and exemplary record during World War II." Civil Air Patrol has five congressionally mandated missions: To provide an organization to encourage and aid citizens of the United States in contributing their efforts and resources in developing aviation and in maintaining air supremacy. To provide aviation education and training to its senior and cadet members. To encourage and foster civil aviation in local communities. To provide an organization of private citizens with adequate facilities to assist in meeting local and national emergencies. To assist the Department of the Air Force in fulfilling its non-combat programs and missions; the organization condenses these mandates into three core missions, which Civil Air Patrol was chartered with by Congress in 1946: aerospace education, cadet programs and emergency services.
Civil Air P
A radiogram is a formal written message transmitted by radio. Known as a radio telegram or radio telegraphic message, radiograms use a standardized message format and radiotelephone and/or radiotelegraph transmission procedures; these procedures provide a means of transmitting the content of the messages without including the names of the various headers and message sections, so as to minimize the time needed to transmit messages over limited and/or congested radio channels. Various formats have been used by maritime radio services, military organizations, Amateur Radio organizations. Radiograms are employed for conducting Record communications, which provides a message transmission and delivery audit trail. Sometimes these records are kept for proprietary purposes internal to the organization sending them, but are sometimes defined as public records. For example, maritime Mayday/SOS messages transmitted by radio are defined by international agreements as public records; the concept of the standard message format originated in the wired telegraph services.
Each telegraph company had its own format, but soon after radio telegraph services began, some elements of the message exchange format were codified in international conventions, these were often duplicated in domestic radio communications regulations and in military procedure documentation. Military organizations independently developed their own procedures, in addition to differing from the international procedures, they sometimes differed between different branches of the military within the same country. For example, the publication "Communication Instructions, 1929", from the U. S. Navy Department, includes: One procedure for messages transmitted "in naval form over nonnaval systems" One procedure for exchanging messages with commercial radio stations One procedure for messages transmitted within the Navy One format for exchanging messages between the Army and Navy, called the "Joint Army and Navy Radiotelegraph Procedure", with the format shown on page 70. Notable characteristics of radiograms include headers that include information such as the from and to addresses and time filed, precedence, so that the radio operators can determine which messages need to be delivered first during times of congestion.
International Telegraph Conference International Telegraph Conference International Radiotelegraph Convention International Radiotelegraph Conference was redrafted to include general principles common to telegraph and radio services. The message format for communications transmitted to sea-going vessels is defined in Rec. ITU-R M.1171, § 28: radiotelegram begins: from.... However, the relationship of the IATA Type B message to other radio telegram message formats is visible in a typical message: QD AAABBCC. XXXYYZZ 111301 ASM UTC 27SEP03899E001/TSTF DL Y NEW BA667/13APR J 319 C1M25VVA4C26 LHR1340 BCN1610 LHRQQQ 99/1 QQQBCN 98/A QQQQQQ 906/PAYDIV B LHRQQQ 999/1 QQQBCN 998/A SI Military organizations have used radiograms for transmitting messages. One notable example is the notification of the air raid on Pearl Harbor that brought the United States into World War II; the standard military radiogram format is known as the 16-line message format, for the manner in which a paper message form is transcribed through voice, Morse code, or TTY transmission formats.
Each format line contains pre-defined content. When sent as an ACP-126 message over teletype, a 16-line format radiogram would appear similar to this: RFHT DE RFG NR 114 R 151412Z MAR FM CG FIFTH CORPS TO CG THIRD INFDIV WD GRNC BT UNCLAS PLAINDRESS SINGLE ADDRESS MESSAGES WILL BE TRANSMITTED OVER TELETYPEWRITER CIRCUITS AS INDICATED IN THIS EXAMPLE BT C WA OVER TELETYPEWRITER NNNN Some of the format lines in the above example have been omitted for efficiency; the translation of this abbreviate format follows: This radiotelegraph message format and transmission procedures have been documented in numerous military standards, including the World War II-era U. S. Army Manuals TM 11-454, FM 24-5, FM 24-6, TM 1-460, FM 24-18, FM-24-19, FM 101-5-2, TM 11-380, FM 11-490-7, AR 105-75, Navy Department Communication Instructions 1929, their modern decedents in the Allied Communications Procedures, including ACP 124, ACP 125, ACP 126, ACP 127, AR 25-6, U. S. Navy Signalman traini