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Net present value

In finance, the net present value or net present worth applies to a series of cash flows occurring at different times. The present value of a cash flow depends on the interval of time between the cash flow, it depends on the discount rate. NPV accounts for the time value of money, it provides a method for evaluating and comparing capital projects or financial products with cash flows spread over time, as in loans, payouts from insurance contracts plus many other applications. Time value of money dictates. For example, a lender may offer 99 cents for the promise of receiving $1.00 a month from now, but the promise to receive that same dollar 20 years in the future would be worth much less today to that same person if the payback in both cases was certain. This decrease in the current value of future cash flows is based on a chosen rate of return. If for example there exists a time series of identical cash flows, the cash flow in the present is the most valuable, with each future cash flow becoming less valuable than the previous cash flow.

A cash flow today is more valuable than an identical cash flow in the future because a present flow can be invested and begin earning returns, while a future flow cannot. NPV is determined by calculating the benefits for each period of an investment; the period is one year, but could be measured in quarter-years, half-years or months. After the cash flow for each period is calculated, the present value of each one is achieved by discounting its future value at a periodic rate of return. NPV is the sum of all the discounted future cash flows; because of its simplicity, NPV is a useful tool to determine whether a project or investment will result in a net profit or a loss. A positive NPV results in profit; the NPV measures the excess or shortfall of cash flows, in present value terms, above the cost of funds. In a theoretical situation of unlimited capital budgeting a company should pursue every investment with a positive NPV. However, in practical terms a company's capital constraints limit investments to projects with the highest NPV whose cost cash flows, or initial cash investment, do not exceed the company's capital.

NPV is a central tool in discounted cash flow analysis and is a standard method for using the time value of money to appraise long-term projects. It is used throughout economics and accounting. In the case when all future cash flows are positive, or incoming the only outflow of cash is the purchase price, the NPV is the PV of future cash flows minus the purchase price. NPV can be described as the "difference amount" between the sums of discounted cash inflows and cash outflows, it compares the present value of money today to the present value of money in the future, taking inflation and returns into account. The NPV of a sequence of cash flows takes as input the cash flows and a discount rate or discount curve and outputs a present value, the current fair price; the converse process in discounted cash flow analysis takes a sequence of cash flows and a price as input and as output the discount rate, or internal rate of return which would yield the given price as NPV. This rate, called the yield, is used in bond trading.

Many computer-based spreadsheet programs have built-in formulae for PV and NPV. Each cash inflow/outflow is discounted back to its present value. All are summed. Therefore, NPV is the sum of all terms, R t t where t is the time of the cash flow i is the discount rate, i.e. the return that could be earned per unit of time on an investment with similar risk R t is the net cash flow i.e. cash inflow – cash outflow, at time t. For educational purposes, R 0 is placed to the left of the sum to emphasize its role as the investment; the result of this formula is multiplied with the Annual Net cash in-flows and reduced by Initial Cash outlay the present value but in cases where the cash flows are not equal in amount the previous formula will be used to determine the present value of each cash flow separately. Any cash flow within 12 months will not be discounted for NPV purpose the usual initial investments during the first year R0 are summed up a negative cash flow. Given the pairs where N is the total number of periods, the net present value N P V is given by: N P V = ∑ t = 0 N R t t For constant cash flow R, the net present value N P V is a finite geometric series and is given by: N P V ( i

Rizwanur Rahman

Rizwanur Rahman was a 30-year-old computer graphics trainer who driven into committing suicide according to the Central Bureau of Investigation. Rizwanur Rahman, a middle-class man, met the 23-year-old Priyanka Todi, daughter of Ashok Todi, owner of Lux Cozi, at the graphics training school where he taught, they began an affair, kept secret from their families. It is believed that on 18 August 2007, the two secretly married according to the Special Marriage Act to which a few close friends and colleagues of Rizwanur were witnesses; the two families were not informed about the marriage and no witnesses were declared in the case on. After the ceremony, Priyanka went back to the Todi family, Rizwanur continued his work at the multi-media centre. In late August, Rizwanur Rahman confessed to having secretly married. On 31 August, he brought Priyanka home to his family's small apartment in a working class Muslim neighbourhood, he and Priyanka sent a letter to the police asking for protection from her father.

Priyanka would say: "My mind was a blank... I was just signing. I once told him we shouldn’t mention my father, but he said Pappu and Rukbanur had insisted that we frame the letters like that and they knew best."It is alleged that Priyanka's father, Ashok Todi, the Todi family were displeased that Priyanka had married into a lower income family, Rahman, being a Muslim, exacerbated their displeasure. It has been alleged that Rahman was told to "remove himself" from Priyanka's life and was threatened by various fronts for this inter-religious marriage. On 31 August and Rahman notified the authorities that they were staying together at Rahman's house, it has been alleged that due to an understanding with the Todi family, top level police officers of the state summoned the couple several times to State Police Headquarters at Lalbazar and threatened Rahman of dire consequences if he did not separate from his wife. Rahman refused to yield; this is an unsubstantiated allegation levelled against the police force, not against Priyanka's parents, there is nothing in official records to indicate that any such thing happened.

What is on record is a meeting held at the police station on 8 September, eight days after Rahman's marriage was certified. On this occasion, the police summoned Rahman and urged him to allow his wife to visit her parents for a week or so, they told him that he was liable to be arrested on various charges, including abduction and illegal confinement, if his wife remained confined inside his tiny, rundown house. Rizwan was always present when Priyanka spoke to her parents, because of his presence, the conversations were stilted and stifled, with no mutual understanding in sight. Priyanka was speaking only in brief sentences, yes-no answers and low voice to her parents, it was suspected. The police therefore felt that Priyanka should return to her parental house for a week or so, during which time she could speak to her parents and explain what had happened, convince them that she was happy. Rahman continued for a long time to resist the arguments of the police, he agreed to let Priyanka visit her parents, but only after he had obtained a signed document stating that she would return to him after a week.

One of Priyanka's uncles, present at the police headquarters, signed an agreement on plain paper in front of a police witness that Priyanka would be sent back to Rahman's house after 7 days, on 15 September. After all this was done, on the same day, Priyanka returned to the house of her parents. At her father's house, Priyanka Todi spoke to Rahman for the last time on 11 September. On 15 September, Rahman tried calling Priyanka but was refused permission to speak to her by her parents. On 18 September, a witness to their marriage was threatened with arrest by the police for "forcing Priyanka into marriage". On 19 September, still not sent back, Rahman filed a case with an NGO, documenting police harassment. According to his diary and conversations with close friends, he was planning further legal moves to get his wife back. In a letter written by Rahman to an NGO before his death, he stated that he was ready to convert to Hinduism in exchange for a peaceful married life. Rahman died in the afternoon of 21 September, about 2 weeks after his wife was forcefully separated from him.

His body was found lying beside a railway line, with hands folded over his chest and a deep wound on the back of his head. After his death, Priyanka met a state Women's Commission delegation and told them that: "There was no police pressure on me" and that "no police officer ill-treated me". A CBI probe has judged that he had committed suicide and they plan to charge Mr Todi with abetment of suicide. Before the post-mortem results were released, the Police Commissioner, Prasun Mukherjee, brushed aside the death of Rahman as a "simple case of suicide", he added that cases of eloping by adults, were unacceptable morally. So the police had always intervened in such cases in the past, would continue to do so in the future, he made the infamous statement, "If the police does not interfere in these matters, who will do it? PWD (Publ

List of Washington Redskins rushing leaders

The List of Washington Redskins football rushing leaders includes lists of Washington Redskins rushing single–season and career records for yardage and touchdowns by Washington quarterbacks and running backs. The Redskins compete in the East Division of the National Football Conference; the franchise was founded as the Boston Braves, named after the local baseball franchise. The team changed their name to the Redskins in 1933 and moved to Washington, D. C. in 1937. The Redskins have played over one thousand games. In those games, the club won five professional American football championships including two NFL Championships and three Super Bowls; the franchise captured six NFL conference championships. The Redskins won the 1937 and 1942 Championship games, as well as Super Bowl XVII, XXII and XXVI, they played in and lost the 1936, 1940, 1943 and 1945 Championship games, as well as Super Bowl VII and XVIII. They have made twenty-two postseason appearances, have an overall postseason record of 23 wins and 17 losses.

Only four teams have appeared in more Super Bowls than the Redskins: the Dallas Cowboys, Pittsburgh Steelers, Denver Broncos, New England Patriots.

Elimination Chamber (2013)

Elimination Chamber was a professional wrestling pay-per-view event produced by WWE. It took place on February 2013, at the New Orleans Arena in New Orleans, Louisiana; the pay-per-view was the fourth annual Elimination Chamber event. Eight matches, including one on the Pre-Show, were contested at the event. In the Elimination Chamber match main event to decide the #1 contender for the World Heavyweight Championship, Jack Swagger defeated Chris Jericho, Randy Orton, Daniel Bryan and Mark Henry, including Kaitlyn retaining the WWE Divas' Championship against Tamina Snuka and The Rock retaining the WWE Championship against CM Punk; the event received 213,000 pay-per-view buys, up from 178,000 buys the previous year's event received. Elimination Chamber is a gimmick pay-per-view, produced every February by WWE since 2010; the concept of the show is that one or two main event matches are contested inside the Elimination Chamber, either with championships or future opportunities at championships at stake.

2013 was the fourth event under the Elimination Chamber chronology. Since 2011, the show has been promoted as "No Escape" in Germany as it was feared that the name "Elimination Chamber" may remind people of the gas chambers used during the Holocaust; the professional wrestling matches at Elimination Chamber featured professional wrestlers performing as characters in scripted events pre-determined by the hosting promotion, WWE. Storylines between the characters played out on WWE's primary television programs and SmackDown. CM Punk began to feud with The Rock after Punk defeated Ryback in a Tables and Chairs match for the WWE Championship with the interference of The Shield. Rock defeated Punk for the title at the Royal Rumble, after The Rock requested a restart of the match when Mr. McMahon was about strip the title from Punk when the lights went out and Rock was laid out on the announce table; the following night, Punk invoked his rematch clause for the title, on the February 11 episode of Raw, his manager Paul Heyman negotiated whereby if Rock loses by countout or disqualification, Punk would be awarded the title.

Big Show would begin to feud with Alberto Del Rio after humiliating Del Rio's personal ring announcer, Ricardo Rodriguez, sarcastically picking him to fight Show for the World Heavyweight Championship during "Champion's Choice Night" on the New Year's Eve 2012 episode of Raw, leading to a disqualification win for Big Show after Del Rio interfered. On the January 11, 2013, episode of SmackDown, Del Rio defeated Show in a Last Man Standing match for the championship. Three days on Raw, Show announced that he would invoke his rematch clause at the pay-per-view; the week after, he made the match a Last Man Standing Match. Del Rio retained the title after Royal Rumble when Rodriguez duct taped Show's legs to the bottom rope, preventing him from standing up. After continuing attacks against each other, both agreed to another title match at Elimination Chamber. After John Cena announced that he will face the WWE Champion at WrestleMania 29, SmackDown general manager Booker T made an Elimination Chamber match to determine the number one contender for the World Heavyweight Championship with only six entrants allowed to participate by winning qualifying matches issued by Booker T and Teddy Long.

Randy Orton defeated Wade Barrett to qualify and Daniel Bryan defeated Rey Mysterio to qualify also. Kane and Jack Swagger defeated Dolph Ziggler and Zack Ryder to earn qualification. With Mark Henry and Chris Jericho making recent returns to the WWE, both demanded a spot in the Chamber. Both defeated men who had qualified for the Elimination Chamber match; the Elimination Chamber Pre-Show saw Brodus Clay defeat Team Rhodes Scholars. Clay and Tensai won with a Double Splash; the first match that aired on the pay-per-view was the World Heavyweight Championship match, between The Big Show and the defending World Heavyweight Champion Alberto Del Rio. For the finish, Del Rio enzuigiri kicked Ricardo Rodriguez's bucket that Show was holding into his head which led to his signature cross arm breaker for the submission victory; the second match featured United States Champion Antonio Cesaro defending his title against The Miz, who came into the match with an injured shoulder via an attack by Cesaro on Raw.

Cesaro won by disqualification after he knocked The Miz's leg, causing him to fall knee-first into his groin therefore forcing the referee to call for a low blow. Afterwards, a frustrated Miz intentionally gave Cesaro a low blow; the third match was the Elimination Chamber match, which involved Mark Henry, Daniel Bryan, Randy Orton, Chris Jericho, Jack Swagger. Jericho and Bryan started the match, while the other four competitors were locked inside'pods'. One pod at a time opened during the match at intervals of four minutes, releasing a wrestler into the match. Swagger was the first wrestler released, followed by Kane and Henry. Before Henry entered the match, all of the five were down. Henry used the World's Strongest Slam to pin Bryan and eliminate him after 16-and-a-half minutes. Kane was eliminated by Henry in the same way. Swagger and Orton teamed up to eliminate Henry, after a Big Boot by Swagger, Codebreaker by Jericho and an RKO by Orton to pin Henry after 23 minutes. After Henry was eliminated, he reentered the chamber and executed the World's Strongest Slam on the three.

Jericho was the next man to be eliminated, after an RKO from Orton. After the pin, Swagger rolled Orton up to win and become the Number 1 contender for the World Heavyweight Championship at Wre

Night Must Fall (1964 film)

Night Must Fall is a remake of the 1937 film of the same name, in turn based on the 1935 play by Emlyn Williams. It was directed by Karel Reisz from a script by Clive Exton and starred Albert Finney, Mona Washbourne, Susan Hampshire, but was not as successful as the original film; the film was entered into the 14th Berlin International Film Festival. In the woods of a Welsh suburb, a man commits an axe murder and disposes of his female victim's body and the axe in a lake; the man to shown to be a hotel bellboy named Danny, is summoned to the home of Mrs. Bramson, a wealthy widow, whose maid, Dora, is pregnant by him. Having charmed Mrs. Bramson, he is soon living in her house and pretends to be her son, while redecorating a room and assuming butler duties, he woos Olivia, Mrs. Bramson's daughter. Alone in his room, he favors a hatbox. Meanwhile, the police uncover the headless body and the axe in the lake, bordering the property, they question. Dora rejects both of them, he begins to play odd games with Mrs. Bramson, Olivia flees the house out of fear.

Frustrated because Mrs. Bramson grows weary of a game of chase, Danny hacks her to death. Olivia returns, sees the carnage, summons the police, she informs him that the police are soon to arrive. He huddles in the bathroom, withdrawn in his madness. Night Must Fall at the TCM Movie Database Night Must Fall on IMDb Night Must Fall at AllMovie

Char Fasson Upazila

Charfashion is an Upazila of Bhola District in the Division of Barisal, Bangladesh. Charfasson is located at 22.1847°N 90.7625°E / 22.1847. It has 63,740 households and a total area of 1106.31 km². According to the 1991 Bangladesh census, Charfasson had a population of 342038. Males constituted 51.49% of the population, females 48.51%. The population aged 18 or over was 148319. Charfasson had an average literacy rate of 25.5%, compared to the national average of 32.4%. Jakob Watch Tower Char Kukri Mukri Taruya Sea beach Charfasson Eid Gah Charfession BM. Town-Hall Maya Bridge Fassion Square Charfassion Binodon Park Betuya launch ghat Ministry khamar Bari Char Kajur Gachiya dakshin aicha thana Charfassion Bass Terminal Charfasson has 19 Unions/Wards, 71 Mauzas/Mahallas, 75 villages. There are eight colleges in the upazila, they include Charfasson Degree College, Dular Hat Adarsha Degree College, Fatema Matin Mohila College, founded in 1993, Rasulpur Degree College. According to Banglapedia, Char Fasson Tafnal Barret Secondary School, founded 1932, is a notable secondary school.

The madrasa education system includes two kamil madrasas. According to Banglapedia, Char Fasson Kara Matiya Kamil Madrasa, founded in 1945, is a notable kamil madrasa. Upazilas of Bangladesh Districts of Bangladesh Divisions of Bangladesh