Höxter is a town in eastern North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany on the left bank of the river Weser, 52 km north of Kassel in the centre of the Weser Uplands. The main town's population is around 15,000, with outlying centres, about 30,000, it is the seat of the Höxter district. As part of North Rhine-Westphalia's municipal reforms, the collective municipality of Höxter came into being on 1 January 1970, formed out of the eleven communities of the former Amt of Höxter-Land, the main town, the community of Bruchhausen from the former Amt of Beverungen; the communities in question voluntarily merged to pool their resources and bring about a unified administration. These constituent communities are: Albaxen Bosseborn Bödexen Brenkhausen Bruchhausen Fürstenau Godelheim Lüchtringen Lütmarsen Ottbergen Ovenhausen Stahle Höxter in the time of Charlemagne was a villa regia, was the scene of a battle between his forces and the Saxons. Under the protection of the Abbey of Corvey it increased in prosperity, became the chief town of the principality of Corvey.
It asserted its independence and joined the Hanseatic League. Höxter was located on the important long distance trade-route known as Hellweg. Rivalry with Corvey Abbey and the nearby town known as Corvey increased and in 1265, the burghers of Höxter allied themselves with the Bishop of Paderborn, their troops damaged the abbey. The town never over the following decades reverted to a small village; this event marked the beginning of the long period of decline of the abbey. Höxter suffered during the Thirty Years' War. In 1634, Imperial troops laid siege to the town in. After the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 it was united with Brunswick. In 2005, an explosion within a house in the historic town centre damaged the town hall and many other significant buildings and resulted in three deaths. Work is expected to continue for many years. Albaxen had its first documentary mention, under the name Albachtessen, on the occasion of the neighbouring Corvey Abbey's founding in 822, by 900 it was known by its current name.
The Albaxen parish church was first mentioned in the 9th century. The Tonenburg, a mediaeval building complex near Albaxen – not a castle as the name suggests – was built in 1350 by Corvey Abbey. In 854, Lüchtringen was first mentioned under the name Lutringi in Corvey Abbey's annals and beginning in 1230 it belonged to the fourth archdeaconate of Höxter-Corvey of the Bishopric of Paderborn. Before it became Prussian in 1813, Lüchtringen belonged to the Principality of Orange-Nassau in Fulda from 1803. In 1970, Lüchtringen became a constituent community of Höxter. Lüchtringen is North Rhine-Westphalia's easternmost community; the town's main manufactured products are linen, cotton and gutta-percha latex, there is a considerable shipping trade. Höxter has long been an important garrison town and the presence of the military continues to play a large role in the local economy. Regular culinary events in Höxter are "Höxter Kulinarisch" and the "Fischer- und Flößertage". At these events and the advertising community get together and present culinary delights.
Höxter has a medieval town hall and historic houses with high gables and carved façades from the 15th and 16th centuries. Many of the buildings in this area were damaged or destroyed by the great explosion in 2005; the most notable of the churches is the Protestant church of Saint Kilian, with a pulpit dating from 1595 and a font dating from 1631. The Weser is crossed here by a stone bridge about 150 m in length, erected in 1833. On the Brunsberg abutting the town is an old watchtower, said to be the remains of a fortress built by Widukind's brother Bruno. Attractions in Höxter include: The extensively preserved mediaeval town structure is made up of half-timbered buildings, among which are found a few examples of the Weser Renaissance style. Notable among these are the Adam-und-Eva-Haus on Stummrige Straße and the old Dechanei on the marketplace, featuring over 60 carved rosettes, none of them identical. On Höxter's outskirts lies Schloss Corvey Corvey Abbey, on the bank of the Weser; the abbey church has a Carolingian crypt as well as an imposing westwork.
Furthermore, the poet Hoffmann von Fallersleben, who wrote Das Lied der Deutschen, worked here as a librarian and is buried next to the church. As part of the Erlebniswelt Renaissance, there is a town walk with the theme "market", on which visitors may solve a murder case from 1617; the Obermühle Höxter is a former watermill. Today it houses the Mühlencafé; the Tonenburg There are many sport clubs in Höxter. The biggest club is the Höxter Handball and Athletics Club, which furthermore offers fitness courses, aquajogging, back gymnastics and judo. There is the Höxter-Weserbergland Football Arena. There, on two indoor courts on artificial turf, the year round, the newest generation of football can be played; the town council's 44 seats are apportioned as follows, in accordance with municipal elections held on 30 August 2009: CDU 17 seats SPD 14 seats Greens 3 seats FDP 4 seats DIE LINKE 1 seat UWG 5 seatsNote: UWG is a citizens' coalition. The mayor is Alexander Fischer, SPD (since 2009
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
Natko Nodilo was a Croatian politician, publicist, university professor, chancellor of the University of Zagreb. He studied theology in Zadar until 1856, when he dropped out of college and took a job as an auxiliary teacher at the Classical Gymnasium in Split, he received a degree in history and geography in Vienna in 1861. He turned to politics soon after returning to the Split gymnasium to work as an associate professor, becoming the editor of the new magazine Il Nazionale, in which he published articles on the principles of national and liberal politics, he was prosecuted in court because of his articles. After abandoning his job as editor, he worked as a teacher at the high school in Zadar and as a representative of the People's Party in the Parliament of Dalmatia, advocating the unification of Dalmatia with Croatia. In 1857 he was appointed as the first professor of general history at the University of Zagreb. After his term as chancellor for the 1890–91 academic year expired, he served as a vice chancellor the following academic year.
He served as a dean of the faculty for two terms. He retired in 1901. From 1905 to 1908, he published a series of essays, he studied the early medieval history of the Serbs and southeast Europe. He authored the first general history of the Middle Ages in the South Slavic area. A street in Zagreb was named in his honor in 1931. Ignjat Job Ivan Stojanović Milan Rešetar Lujo Adamović Lujo Vojnović Marko Murat Pero Kolendić Frano Kulišić Antun Fabris Luko Zore Nodilo's biography, at the University of Zagreb website
The Nete is a river in northern Belgium, right tributary of the Rupel. It flows through the Belgian province of Antwerp, it is formed at the confluence of the rivers Grote Nete and Kleine Nete. It joins the river Dijle in Rumst to form the river Rupel, it drains nearly 60% of Antwerp province. The Grote Nete river is about 85 km long and has its source near Hechtel in the Belgian province of Limburg, it flows in western direction along the towns Geel and Heist-op-den-Berg before joining the Kleine Nete in Lier. Its main tributaries are the Molse Nete near Geel, the Grote Laak near Westerlo, the Wimp near Herenthout; the Kleine Nete river is about 50 km long and has its source near Retie in the Belgian province of Antwerp. North of the Grote Nete flows in south-western direction along the towns Herentals and Nijlen before joining the Grote Nete in Lier. Tributaries, all coming from the North, include the Wamp near Kasterlee, the Aa} near Grobbendonk, the Molenbeek-Bollaak near Nijlen. During the French occupation of the Southern Netherlands there was a département named after the river Nete, see Deux-Nèthes.
On the valley of the Grote Nete lies the Scheps natural landscape, between Olmen and Scheps
The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between the United Kingdom, Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north, it is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres. The North Sea has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery; the sea is a popular destination for recreation and tourism in bordering countries and more has developed into a rich source of energy resources including fossil fuels and early efforts in wave power. The North Sea has featured prominently in geopolitical and military affairs in Northern Europe, it was important globally through the power northern Europeans projected worldwide during much of the Middle Ages and into the modern era. The North Sea was the centre of the Vikings' rise. Subsequently, the Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, the British each sought to dominate the North Sea and thus access to the world's markets and resources.
As Germany's only outlet to the ocean, the North Sea continued to be strategically important through both World Wars. The coast of the North Sea presents a diversity of geographical features. In the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and Scottish coastlines, whereas in the south, the coast consists of sandy beaches and wide mudflats. Due to the dense population, heavy industrialization, intense use of the sea and area surrounding it, there have been various environmental issues affecting the sea's ecosystems. Adverse environmental issues – including overfishing and agricultural runoff and dumping, among others – have led to a number of efforts to prevent degradation of the sea while still making use of its economic potential; the North Sea is bounded by the Orkney Islands and east coast of Great Britain to the west and the northern and central European mainland to the east and south, including Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean.
In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively. In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, connects with the Norwegian Sea, which lies in the north-eastern part of the Atlantic; the North Sea is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres and a volume of 54,000 cubic kilometres. Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland and the Frisian Islands; the North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea, including water from the Baltic Sea; the largest and most important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Elbe and the Rhine – Meuse watershed. Around 185 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers discharging into the North Sea encompassing some industrialized areas.
For the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres. The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to an area north of Bergen, it has a maximum depth of 725 metres. The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris, rises to a mere 15 to 30 m below the surface; this feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea. The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with uniform depth in fathoms; these great banks and others make the North Sea hazardous to navigate, alleviated by the implementation of satellite navigation systems. The Devil's Hole lies 200 miles east of Scotland; the feature is a series of asymmetrical trenches between 20 and 30 kilometres long and two kilometres wide and up to 230 metres deep. Other areas which are less deep are Fisher Bank and Noordhinder Bank; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the North Sea as follows: On the Southwest.
A line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point. On the Northwest. From Dunnet Head in Scotland to Tor Ness in the Island of Hoy, thence through this island to the Kame of Hoy on to Breck Ness on Mainland through this island to Costa Head and to Inga Ness in Westray through Westray, to Bow Head, across to Mull Head and on to Seal Skerry and thence to Horse Island. On the North. From the North point of the Mainland of the Shetland Islands, across to Graveland Ness in the Island of Yell, through Yell to Gloup Ness and across to Spoo Ness in Unst island, through Unst to Herma Ness, on to the SW point of the Rumblings and to Muckle Flugga all these being included in the North Sea area.
The Weser is a river in Northwestern Germany. Formed at Hannoversch Münden by the confluence of the rivers Fulda and Werra, it flows through Lower Saxony reaching the Hanseatic city of Bremen, before emptying 50 km further north at Bremerhaven into the North Sea. On the opposite bank is the town of Nordenham at the foot of the Butjadingen Peninsula; the Weser has an overall length of 452 km. Together with its Werra tributary, which originates in Thuringia, its length is 744 km. Linguistically, the names of both rivers and Werra, go back to the same source, the differentiation being caused by the old linguistic border between Upper and Lower German, which touched the region of Hannoversch Münden; the name Weser parallels the names of other rivers, such as the Wear in England and the Vistula in Poland, all of which are derived from the root *weis- "to flow", which gave Old English/Old Frisian wāse "mud, ooze", Old Norse veisa "slime, stagnant pool", Dutch waas "haze. The Weser River lies within German national territory, making it the longest such river.
The upper part of its course leads through a hilly region called the Weserbergland. It extends from the confluence of the Fulda and the Werra to the Porta Westfalica, where it runs through a gorge between two mountain chains, the Wiehengebirge in the west and the Weserbergland in the east. Between Minden and the North Sea, humans have canalised the river, permitting ships up to 1,200 tons to navigate it. Eight hydroelectric dams stand along its length, it is linked to the Dortmund-Ems Canal via the Coastal Canal, another canal links it at Bremerhaven to the Elbe River. A large reservoir on the Eder River, the main tributary of the Fulda, is used to regulate water levels on the Weser so as to ensure adequate depth for shipping throughout the year; the dam, built in 1914, was bombed and damaged by British aircraft in May 1943, causing massive destruction and about 70 deaths downstream, but was rebuilt within four months. As of 2013, the Edersee Reservoir, a major summer resort area, provides substantial hydroelectricity.
The Weser enters the North Sea in the southernmost part of the German Bight. In the North Sea, it splits into two arms representing the ancient riverbed at the end of the last ice age; these sea arms are called Neue Weser. They represent the major waterways for ships heading for the harbors of Bremerhaven and Bremen; the Alte Weser lighthouse marks the northernmost point of the Weser. This lighthouse replaced the historic and famous Roter Sand lighthouse in 1964; the largest tributary of the Weser is the Aller. The tributaries of the Weser and the Werra are: Modes of the list: Listed upstream, but sides seen with the flow Distances from the hydrographical limit towards the sea "II", "III"and "IV" mark distances of secondary/tertiary tributaries from the confluence with the Weser etc. After the names and basin sizes are given. Lengths with longer affluents are given behind the slash, lengths including an upper course with another name with "or" List: km 19, right: Geeste, 42.5 km, 338 km² km 33, right: Lune, 43 km, 383 km² km 35.9, right: Drepte, 37.6 km, 101 km² km 52.8, left: Hunte, 189 km, 2.785 km² II: km 125.7: Lake Dümmer km 67.6, right: Lesum, 9.9 or 131.5, 2,188 km² II: km 9.9, right Hamme, 48.5 km, 549 km² ↑ main stream: Wümme, 118 / 120, 1,585 km² km 72.5, left: Ochtum, 25.6 or 45 km, 917 km² II: km 25.6: left Hache, 33 km, 118 km² km 125.6, right: Aller, 260 km, 15,744 km² II: km 63.6, left: Leine, 278 km, 5,617 km², stronger than river Aller above III: km 112.7, right: Innerste, 99.7 km, 1,264 km² III: km 192.8, right: Rhume, 44 km, 1,193 km², stronger than river Leine above IV: km 15.6, right: Oder, 56 km, 385 km², headwater of the strongest waterway of Aller system II: km 97.3, right: Örtze, 62 / 70 km, 760 km² II: km 140.7, left: Oker, 218 km, 1822 km², stronger than river Aller above km 184.6, right: Steinhuder Meerbach ↑ km II: 29 lake Steinhuder Meer km 188.7, left: Große Aue, 84.5 km, 1,522 km² km 261.3, left: Werre, 71.9 km, 1485 km² II: km 12.7, left: Else, 34.6 km, 416 km², branch of the Hase, an affluent of Ems km 287.7, left: Exter, 26.1 km, 109 km² km 323.3, left: Emmer, 61.8 km, 535 km² km 387.5, left: Nethe, 50.4 km, 460 km² km 406.5, left: Diemel, 110.5 km, 1,762 km² km 451.5, left: Fulda, 220.4 km, 6.947 km²II: km 45.3, left: Eder, 176.1 km, 3,361 km², headwater of the strongest waterway of Weser system III: km 17.1, left: Schwalm, 97.1 km, 1.299 km² ↑ III: km 49.4–70.5: Edersee reservoir II: 120.1, right: Haune, 66.5 km, 500 km²↑ main stream above km 451.5: Werra, 299.6 km, 5.497 km² km 566.5, righht: Hörsel, 55.2 or 64.3, 784 km² km 9.8, right: Nesse, 54.5 km, 426 km² km 513.1, left: Ulster, 57.2 km, 421 km² km 604.4, right: Schleuse, 34.2 km, 283 km² Towns along the Weser, from the confluence of Werra and Fulda to the mouth, include: Hann.
Münden, Beverungen, Höxter, Bodenwerder, Hessisch Oldendorf, Vlotho, Bad Oeynhausen, Porta Westfalica, Petershagen, Achim, Brake, Bremerhaven. Dieter Berger: Geographische Namen in Deutschland. Duden-Verlag, Mannheim 1999. Hans Krahe: Sprache und Vorzeit. Quelle & Meyer, Heidelberg 1954. Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. Francke, Bern 1959. Karsten Meinke: Die Entwicklung der Weser im Nordwestdeutschen Flachland während des jüngeren Pleistozäns. Diss. Göttingen 1992. Mit Bodenprofi
North Rhine-Westphalia is a state of Germany. North Rhine-Westphalia is located in western Germany covering an area of 34,084 square kilometres. With a population of 17.9 million, it is the most populous state in Germany. It is the most densely populated German state apart from the city-states of Berlin and Hamburg, the fourth-largest by area. Düsseldorf is the state capital and Cologne is the largest city. North Rhine-Westphalia features four of Germany's 10 largest cities: Düsseldorf, Cologne and Essen, the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area, the largest in Germany and the third-largest on the European continent. North Rhine-Westphalia was established in 1946 after World War II from the Prussian provinces of Westphalia and the northern part of Rhine Province, the Free State of Lippe by the British military administration in Allied-occupied Germany. North Rhine-Westphalia became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949, the city of Bonn served as the federal capital until the reunification of Germany in 1990 and as the seat of government until 1999.
The first written account of the area was by its conqueror, Julius Caesar, the territories west of the Rhine were occupied by the Eburones and east of the Rhine he reported the Ubii and the Sugambri to their north. The Ubii and some other Germanic tribes such as the Cugerni were settled on the west side of the Rhine in the Roman province of Germania Inferior. Julius Caesar conquered the tribes on the left bank, Augustus established numerous fortified posts on the Rhine, but the Romans never succeeded in gaining a firm footing on the right bank, where the Sugambri neighboured several other tribes including the Tencteri and Usipetes. North of the Sigambri and the Rhine region were the Bructeri; as the power of the Roman empire declined, many of these tribes came to be seen collectively as Ripuarian Franks and they pushed forward along both banks of the Rhine, by the end of the fifth century had conquered all the lands, under Roman influence. By the eighth century, the Frankish dominion was established in western Germany and northern Gaul, but at the same time, to the north, Westphalia was being taken over by Saxons pushing south.
The Merovingian and Carolingian Franks built an empire which controlled first their Ripuarian kin, the Saxons. On the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun, the part of the province to the east of the river fell to East Francia, while that to the west remained with the kingdom of Lotharingia. By the time of Otto I, both banks of the Rhine had become part of the Holy Roman Empire, the Rhenish territory was divided between the duchies of Upper Lorraine on the Moselle and Lower Lorraine on the Meuse; the Ottonian dynasty had both Frankish ancestry. As the central power of the Holy Roman Emperor weakened, the Rhineland split into numerous small, separate vicissitudes and special chronicles; the old Lotharingian divisions became obsolete, although the name survives for example in Lorraine in France, throughout the Middle Ages and into modern times, the nobility of these areas sought to preserve the idea of a preeminent duke within Lotharingia, something claimed by the Dukes of Limburg, the Dukes of Brabant.
Such struggles as the War of the Limburg Succession therefore continued to create military and political links between what is now Rhineland-Westphalia and neighbouring Belgium and the Netherlands. In spite of its dismembered condition and the sufferings it underwent at the hands of its French neighbours in various periods of warfare, the Rhenish territory prospered and stood in the foremost rank of German culture and progress. Aachen was the place of coronation of the German emperors, the ecclesiastical principalities of the Rhine bulked in German history. Prussia first set foot on the Rhine in 1609 by the occupation of the Duchy of Cleves and about a century Upper Guelders and Moers became Prussian. At the peace of Basel in 1795, the whole of the left bank of the Rhine was resigned to France, in 1806, the Rhenish princes all joined the Confederation of the Rhine. After the Congress of Vienna, Prussia was awarded the entire Rhineland, which included the Grand Duchy of Berg, the ecclesiastic electorates of Trier and Cologne, the free cities of Aachen and Cologne, nearly a hundred small lordships and abbeys.
The Prussian Rhine province was formed in 1822 and Prussia had the tact to leave them in undisturbed possession of the liberal institutions to which they had become accustomed under the republican rule of the French. In 1920, the districts of Eupen and Malmedy were transferred to Belgium. Around AD 1, numerous incursions occurred through Westphalia and even some permanent Roman or Romanized settlements; the Battle of Teutoburg Forest took place near Osnabrück and some of the Germanic tribes who fought at this battle came from the area of Westphalia. Charlemagne is thought to have spent considerable time in nearby parts, his Saxon Wars partly took place in what is thought of as Westphalia today. Popular legends link his adversary Widukind to places near Detmold, Lemgo, Osnabrück, other places in Westphalia. Widukind was buried in Enger, a subject of a legend. Along with Eastphalia and Engern, Westphalia was a district of the Duchy of Saxony. In 1180, Westphalia was elevated to the rank of a duchy by Emperor Barbarossa.
The Duchy of Westphalia comprised only a small area