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Netherlands Music Institute

The Netherlands Music Institute is the central institution for the preservation of the musical heritage of the Netherlands. The NMI has existed as a foundation since 1996. In that same year the NMI was designated ‘sector institute for musical heritage’ by the Ministry of Education and Science, it receives a subsidy from the national government. Historical roots of the NMI are the music archives and music library of the Gemeentemuseum Den Haag in The Hague and the documentary collection of the Musica Neerlandica Foundation; the library collection contains at present 140.000 titles, with focus on the history of music in the Netherlands, European music before 1900, organology. Several major collections have been integrated into its holdings of sheet music. Besides numerous rare first editions the library contains a number of important manuscripts, including the Siena Lute Manuscript, Mozart's Galimathias Musicum K.32 and the so-called Frankenberg organ manuscript of Johann Gottfried Walther. The archives collection contains archives of Dutch composers, performing musicians and musical institutions.

Website of the Netherlands Music Institute

Teddy Bourne

Edward Owen "Teddy" Bourne is a British Olympic epee fencer. He was born in England, he became a solicitor in London, working as a commercial property lawyer at the law firm Clifford Chance, where he headed the department. He has been a Trustee of the RSPCA Central London Branch, the Peabody Trust, the Hampstead Garden Suburb Trust, he is a trustee of Compassion in World Farming. He won the Amateur Fencing Association epee championship title in 1966, 1972, 1974, 1976, 1977, 1978, he competed at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City at the age of 20, the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal

Mabeth Hurd Paige

Mabeth Hurd Paige was a Minnesota politician, a member of the Minnesota House of Representatives from 1923 to 1945. Mabeth Hurd was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, in 1869, educated there through high school. After graduation, she went to Nebraska to take care of her grandmother and attend the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, she attended the Massachusetts Art School in Boston and studied at the Académie Julian in Paris, France. When she returned to the United States in 1891, Hurd moved to Minneapolis and accepted a job teaching art in the Minneapolis public schools. In 1895 she married a professor of law at the University of Minnesota. James encouraged Mabeth to obtain a law degree, at the University. In 1914 Paige was asked to become president of the Women's Christian Association in Minneapolis that ran a boarding and rooming house for women, she was the founder of the Minneapolis chapter of the Urban League and was a board member for 25 years. She raised money for the Phyllis Wheatley Settlement House.

In 1922 Paige filed for the office of Representative of the 30th Legislative District of the State of Minnesota. In November she was elected as one Minnesota's first four woman legislators, alongside Hannah Kempfer, Sue Metzger Dickey Hough, Myrtle Cain, her district, which covered part of downtown Minneapolis to the North Side up to about Lowry Avenue, returned her to the House in every election year until she retired in 1945. As the chair of the public welfare and social legislation committee, she introduced bills that outlawed "loan sharks" charging high interest rates that she believed helped keep people in poverty, she passed bills that shortened the work week for girls and women who worked 10–13 hours each day seven days a week. She appropriated money to build a University of Minnesota mental hospital and to take care of orphans. Other legislation that Paige introduced outlawed "counterfeit correspondence schools" and protected the environment. In 1949, at the state centennial banquet commemorating Minnesota's admission as a state, the Minnesota Junior Chamber of Commerce named Mabeth Paige as one of eight women among the Hundred Living Great Minnesotans.

She noted women's political conditions wherever she traveled. "My observations abroad brought out the need of independent citizenship for women, not be interwoven with that of men by reason of marriage or other conditions." She died in 1961, at age 91, in Minneapolis, only a few months after she voted in the 1960 national elections. Aldrich, Darragh. 1950. Lady in Law: A Biography of Mabeth Hurd Paige. Chicago: Ralph Fletcher Seymour. Erwin, Caroline. 1965. "Mabeth Hurd Paige 1869–1961 Her Contributions as Humanitarian and Legislator: A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Department of History: Farleigh Dickinson University." Mabeth Hurd Paige at Minnesota Legislators Past & Present Mabeth Hurd Paige papers at the Hennepin County Library

Permeability (spatial and transport planning)

Permeability or connectivity describes the extent to which urban forms permit movement of people or vehicles in different directions. The terms are used interchangeably, although differentiated definitions exist. Permeability is considered a positive attribute of an urban design, as it permits ease of movement and avoids severing neighbourhoods. Urban forms which lack permeability, e.g. those severed by arterial roads, or with many long culs-de-sac, are considered to discourage movement on foot and encourage longer journeys by car. There is some empirical research evidence to support this view. Permeability is a central principle of New Urbanism, which favours urban designs based upon the ‘traditional’ street grid. New Urbanist thinking has influenced Government policy in the United Kingdom, where the Department for Transport Guidance Manual for Streets says: Street networks should in general be connected. Connected or ‘permeable’ networks encourage walking and cycling and make places easier to navigate through.

There are two principal reservations concerning permeability. The first relates to property crime. Although the issue is contested, there is some research evidence to suggest that permeability may be positively correlated with crimes such as burglary. New research has expanded the discussion on this disputed issue. A recent study did extensive spatial analysis and correlated several building, site plan and social factors with crime frequencies and identified nuances to the contrasting positions; the study looked at, among others, a) dwelling types, b) unit density c) movement on the street, d) culs–de-sac or grids and e) the permeability of a residential area. Among its conclusions are that a) flats are always safer than houses and the wealth of inhabitants matters, it re-established that simple, linear culs-de-sac with good numbers of dwellings that are joined to through streets tend to be safe. As for permeability, it suggests that residential areas should be permeable enough to allow movement in all directions but no more.

The over-provision of poorly used permeability is a crime hazard. The second reservation concerns the effects of permeability for private motor vehicles. Melia proposed the terms "unfiltered permeability" and "filtered permeability" to distinguish between the two approaches. Unfiltered permeability is the view supported by the New Urbanists that urban designs should follow "traditional" or mixed use streets, where pedestrians and motor vehicles follow the same routes; the principal advantage claimed for this approach is that it "leads to a more spread of motor traffic throughout the area and so avoids the need for distributor roads". There are a range of arguments advanced by the proponents of Shared space that where speeds are low, road users should be mixed rather than segregated. Filtered permeability is the concept, supported by organisations such as Sustrans, that networks for walking and cycling should be more permeable than the road network for motor vehicles. This, it is argued will encourage walking and cycling by giving them a more attractive environment free from traffic and a time and convenience advantage over car driving.

Evidence for this view comes from European cities such as Freiburg, its rail suburb Vauban, Groningen which have achieved high levels of walking and cycling by following similar principles, sometimes described as: "a coarse grain for cars and a fine grain for cyclists and pedestrians". Filtered permeability requires cyclists, pedestrians to be separated from private motor vehicles in some places, although it can be combined with shared space solutions, elsewhere in the same town or city; this is the case in Dutch towns such as Drachten. The principle of filtered permeability was endorsed for the first time in British Government guidance for the eco-towns programme in 2008 and that year by an alliance of 70 organisations concerned with public health and transport in their policy declaration: Take Action on Active Travel. A parallel debate has been occurring in North America, where researchers have proposed and applied the Fused Grid, an urban street network pattern which follows the principles of filtered permeability, to address perceived shortcomings of both the'traditional' grid and more recent suburban street layouts.

A study conducted in Washington State found that the fused grid was associated with higher levels of walking than the other two alternatives. A recent comparison of seven neighbourhood layouts found a 43 and 32 percent increase in walking with respect to a conventional suburban and the traditional grid in a Fused Grid layout, which has greater permeability for pedestrians than for cars due to its inclusion of pedestrian-only paths, it showed a 7 to 10 percent range of reduction in driving with respect to the remainder six neighbourhood layouts in the set. Stephen Marshall has sought to differentiate the concepts of "connectivity" and "permeability"; as defined by Marshall, "connectivity" refers to the number of connections to and from a particular place, whereas "permeability" refers to the capacity of those connections to carry people or vehicles. Traffic studies on the influence of street patterns on travel overlook this distinction and two metrics are instead used to characterize a street pattern for trip purposes: connectivity and intersection density, both of which

1740 in France

Events from the year 1740 in France Monarch – Louis XV The mystical tradition called Martinism was established as a masonic high-degree system around 1740 26 April − Jean-Jacques Paulet, mycologist 2 June − Marquis de Sade, revolutionary politician and writer 6 June − Louis-Sébastien Mercier and writer Catherine Éléonore Bénard, noble François Cointeraux, architect Claude André Deseine, sculptor Jean Baptiste François de La Villéon, vice-admiral. July − Jacques Barbel, French soldier in Canada. Jacques Cassard, naval officer Pierre Crozat, art collector. Jean Soanen, bishop Nicolas Prosper Bauyn d'Angervilliers, politician John Gagnier, orientalist

Rita Repulsa

Rita Repulsa is a fictional character from the television series Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, the principal nemesis and archenemy of the main superheroes in the show's first season. She is portrayed in the first season by Machiko Soga and by Carla Perez in the remaining seasons, while voiced by Barbara Goodson in the series. Soga reprised her role as Rita, now the Mystic Mother, while Susan Brady provided her voice in the TV series Power Rangers Mystic Force. In the films, she is portrayed by Julia Cortez in Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Movie, by Elizabeth Banks in the 2017 reboot film. Rita Repulsa is based on the Kyōryū Sentai Zyuranger villain Witch Bandora. Rita Repulsa is an evil humanoid alien witch bent on galactic domination. Being a powerful sorceress, Rita has conquered many worlds throughout the Universe. Rita amassed a large army of monsters and Putty Patrollers to serve her. During her reign of terror, she led a group of minions to conquer Earth, a planet populated by humans.

Imprisoned in a space dumpster by the sage named Zordon, Rita was cast into space where she would float for ten thousand years before arcing back to the moon in 1993. Once freed and her minions reclaimed their headquarters and started a second campaign on Earth to defeat Zordon and take the planet for Lord Zedd, she is the first major villain of the Power Rangers franchise. Most discernible by her two pointed hair cones, one may recognize her by her screeching voice, Madonna-like cone bra, obnoxious attitude, she is sarcastic and power hungry, her character would become humorous whenever the Power Rangers defeated her. As Rita married Lord Zedd on in the series, her humorous personality was increased. Rita was sometimes seen arguing with her younger brother, whose skeletal appearance was humorously revealed on her account, he knew. Rita wanted a nice little planet to take over and Rito offended her by giving her a fire-breathing dragon instead, she used the dragon to burn their parents house to prove her point.

Years after several defeats across the Universe, Rita was turned away from evil thanks to Zordon's Good energy wave. Rita adopted a new title, Mystic Mother, began to practice good magic. While confronted by evil, Mystic Mother proved stronger and was able to aid the Power Rangers Mystic Force in eradicating dark magic. Being a powerful witch, Rita possessed many magical abilities. By far the most common demonstration of her power was her use of her "wand" to make her monsters and minions grow to enormous sizes. Rita has used magical rituals to control humans to do her bidding and turn them evil, at least temporarily, she can trap people in other dimensions and, like most villains from the "Zordon era", can teleport at will, though only at short range. Rita was able to create her own Power Ranger, but she accomplished this by giving a Power Coin to an individual she had brainwashed to be evil, rather than facilitate a connection to the Morphing Grid herself. In the 2006 series Power Rangers Mystic Force she is the ruler of all good magic and can use that magic to defend herself if and when she needs to.

She is capable of facilitating a connection to the Universal Morphing Grid to create a full team of Power Rangers if necessary, hence the Mystic Force. As the Mystic Mother, Rita takes a behind-the-scenes role, ensuring the flow of good magic throughout the world rather than using it herself, unless she has no other choice; the character of Rita Repulsa was portrayed by multiple actresses. Since the character was created from footage of the Witch Bandora from the original Japanese series Zyuranger, she was portrayed by Machiko Soga and dubbed in English by Barbara Goodson. Goodson continued to voice the role until Power Rangers in Space in 1998. Carla Perez took over the visual portrayal from Soga when the character was reintroduced midway through Mighty Morphin's second season in 1994, portraying her from 1994 until Power Rangers in Space in 1998, Julia Cortez portrayed the character in the 1995 film Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Movie. In 2006, the character was reintroduced as Mystic Mother in Power Rangers Mystic Force, again portrayed by Soga, this time with Susan Brady providing her voice.

Elizabeth Banks portrayed a re-imagined Rita in the 2017 reboot film. In Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, Rita was born to Master Vile and an unknown woman and had a younger brother named Rito Revolto. At one point her parents got her a fire breathing dragon when she wanted a "cute little planet" instead. Rita used the dragon to burn down their house. At some point, Rita began working for Lord Zedd in his attempts at conquering the universe, she served as his regent. However and his army opposed her. Rita managed to corrupt the Dragon Coin. However, Zordon managed to seal Rita and her minions in a space dumpster, though Rita manages to trap Zordon in a time warp. At the beginning of season 1, Rita Repulsa had been imprisoned for over ten thousand years in the space dumpster. She, along with the other season 1 villains, were released by a pair of Earth astronauts, she exited the dumpster along with her minions Finster. Rita claimed she would conquer the first planet she saw after being freed, which unsurprisingly happened to be Earth.

Over the course of the show, Rita Repulsa battled the Power Rangers using everything from phobia spells, super Putty patrollers