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Netherlands New Guinea

Netherlands New Guinea refers to the Papua region of Indonesia while it was an overseas territory of the Kingdom of the Netherlands from 1949 to 1962. Until 1949 it was a part of the Dutch East Indies, it was known as Dutch New Guinea. It contained what are now Indonesia's two easternmost provinces and West Papua, which were administered as a single province prior to 2003 under the name Irian Jaya. During the Indonesian Revolution, the Dutch launched'police actions' to capture territory from the Indonesian Republic. However, the harsh methods of the Dutch had drawn international disapproval. With international opinion shifting towards support of the Indonesian Republic, the Dutch managed in 1949 to negotiate for the separation of Netherlands New Guinea from the broader Indonesian settlement, with the fate of the disputed territory to be decided by the close of 1950. However, the Dutch in coming years were able to argue at the UN that the indigenous population of Netherlands New Guinea represented a separate ethnic group from the people of Indonesia and thus should not be absorbed into the Indonesian state.

In contrast, the Indonesian Republic, as successor state to the Netherlands East Indies, claimed Netherlands New Guinea as part of its natural territorial bounds. The dispute over New Guinea was an important factor in the quick decline in bilateral relations between the Netherlands and Indonesia after Indonesian independence; the dispute escalated into low-level conflict in 1962 following Dutch moves in 1961 to establish a New Guinea Council. Following the Vlakke Hoek incident, Indonesia launched a campaign of infiltrations designed to place pressure on the Dutch. Facing diplomatic pressure from the United States, fading domestic support and continual Indonesian threats to invade the territory, the Netherlands decided to relinquish control of the disputed territory in August 1962, agreeing to the Bunker Proposal on condition that a plebiscite to determine the final fate of the territory be conducted at a date; the territory was administered by the UN temporarily before being transferred to Indonesia on 1 May 1963.

A plebiscite, the Act of Free Choice, was held in 1969 but the fairness of the election is disputed. Until after World War II the western part of the island of New Guinea was part of the Dutch colony of the Netherlands Indies; the Netherlands claimed sovereignty over New Guinea within the Netherlands Indies through its protection over Sultanate of Tidore, a sultanate on an island west of Halmahera in the Maluku Islands. In a 1660 treaty the Dutch East India Company recognised the Sultanate of Tidore's supremacy over the Papuan people, the inhabitants of New Guinea; this referred to some Papuan islands near the Maluku Islands, although Tidore never exercised actual control over New Guinea. In 1872 Tidore recognised Dutch sovereignty and granted permission to the Kingdom of the Netherlands to establish administration in its territories whenever the Netherlands Indies authorities would want to do so; this allowed the Netherlands to legitimise a claim to the New Guinea area. The Dutch established the 141st meridian as the eastern frontier of the territory.

In 1898 the Netherlands Indies government decided to establish administrative posts in Fakfak and Manokwari, followed by Merauke in 1902. The main reason for this was the expansion of German control in the east; the Dutch wanted to make sure the United Germany would not move the border to the west. This resulted in the partition of the island of New Guinea. In reality the most part of New Guinea remained outside colonial influence. Little was known about the interior; the indigenous inhabitants of New Guinea were Papuans. They were hunter-gatherers. Pre-World War II economic activity was limited. Only coastal and island dwellers traded to some extent with the Maluku Islands. A development company was founded in 1938 to change this situation, but it was not active. So, until World War II, New Guinea was a disregarded and unimportant territory within the Netherlands Indies; the group, most interested in New Guinea before the war were the Eurasians or Indo people. Before the war some 150,000 to 200,000 Eurasians were living in the Netherlands Indies.

They were of mixed European and Indonesian descent and identified with the Netherlands and the Dutch way of life. In the colonial society of the Netherlands Indies, they held a higher social status than indigenous Indonesians, they were employed as office workers. As the educational level of indigenous Indonesians was on the rise and more Indonesians got jobs held by Eurasians; these had no other means of making a living, because, as Europeans, they were forbidden to buy land on Java. This situation caused economic problems to the Eurasians. In 1923, the first plan to designate New Guinea as a settlement territory for Eurasians was devised. In 1926, a separate Vereniging tot Kolonisatie van Nieuw-Guinea was founded. In 1930, it was followed by the Stichting Immigratie Kolonisatie Nieuw-Guinea; these organisations regarded New Guinea as an untouched empty land that could serve as a homeland to the sidelined Eurasians. A kind of tropical Holland, where Eurasians could create an existence; these associations succeeded in sending settlers to New Guinea and lobbied for the establishment of a government agency to subsidise these initiatives.

However, most settlements ended in failu

Julio Cesar Matthews

Julio Cesar Matthews, was an undefeated world ranked southpaw professional cruiserweight boxer who promising career was derailed by troubles with the law. Matthews, of half Puerto Rican and half Irish descent, turned pro with a first round knockout of Lamont Burgess in Allentown, Pennsylvania on November 14, 1996. After decisioning Troy Burbank in Allentown on February 20, 1997, troubles with the law, as well as getting shot in a random car shooting, derailed the boxing career of Matthews career for over a decade. On March 15, 2008, at age 38, Matthews made a comeback, returning to the ring with a third round knockout of Kevin Hood in Allentown. After knocking out Josh Harris in the first round in March 2008, Chris Stallworth in the first round in September 2008, Matthews scored a third round knockout of William Bailey in December 2008. Matthews decisioned William Gill over six rounds at the Blue Horizon in Philadelphia on March 3, 2009, he followed with a six round decision win over Kamarah Pasley in May 2009, a six round decision over Harvey Jolly in Reading in December 2009.

On June 13, 2010, Matthews made his final ring appearance, knocking down future USBA cruiserweight champion Garrett Wilson in the first round and winning a six round decision in Philadelphia on a Don Elbaum fight card. His ring record had reached an astounding 10-0 with six knockouts at the age of 40, he was continuing to demonstrate higher level boxing skills. In a common law marriage for 16 years with four children, Matthews' career still had great promise; however in 2010 Matthews was returned to prison in Pennsylvania for parole violation, winding up in a situation similar to the late boxer Tony Ayala, Jr. ending his boxing career, while a candidate for release. Ayala was subsequently released. Matthews, a resident of Reading, was trained renowned sports and fitness trainer John Schaeffer, by martial artist'Sensei' Danny Rivera, better known as the championship trainer of Roman Martinez, Elio Rojas, Cesar Seda. Matthews, who came out of the boxing stable of Reading promoter Marshall Kauffman, was the longtime sparring partner of top cruiserweight contender Rob Calloway handled by Kauffman.

Matthews was a principal sparring partner for cruiserweight champion Steve Cunningham, former world heavyweight champion Hasim Rahman, former world light heavyweight champions Antonio Tarver and Chad Dawson, number one ranked heavyweight contenders Eddie Chambers and Bert Cooper. Despite his impressive record and resume of experience, Matthews had trouble finding a promoter due to his age, had trouble finding opponents due to his considerable ring skill; because of his name, Matthews is sometimes confused with the late boxer Julio Cesar Gonzalez. Matthews was a physical conditioning specialist and athletic trainer who worked with amateur youth prior to his arrest. Julio Cesar Matthews versus William Gill highlights 15rounds.com interview with Matthews before his last bout 15rounds.com interview with Matthews before his last bout MS Want TV highlight clip of June 13, 2010 fight card, includes Julio Cesar Matthews knockdown of Garrett Wilson Professional boxing record for Julio Cesar Matthews from BoxRec

Indradeep Sinha

Indradeep Sinha was a freedom fighter and veteran communist leader. He was born in Shakara village in present-day Siwan District of Bihar, India, in July 1914, he had an academic career and secured a gold medal in post-graduation in Economics from Patna University in 1938. He wrote about 25 books, he chose to serve the people by fighting for political freedom of the nation and social and economic justice to its people. With a master's degree in economics from Patna University and a gold medal, Sinha joined the Communist Party of India in 1940 and served the party as state secretary. A lecturer and journalist, Sinha was Secretary of the Bihar State Council of the Communist Party of India from 1962 to 1967 and had served as the General Secretary of the All India Kisan Sabha from 1973 until the late 1990s. Sinha was editor of the Hunkar and New Age weeklies. Indradeep Sinha started his legislative career with the membership of the Bihar Legislative Council, where he was a member from 1964 to 1974.

He served as the Minister of Revenues in the United Front Government of Bihar from 1967 to 1968. As Revenues Minister, he took several initiatives to ameliorate the condition of the poor and took steps for distribution of land to the landless in the State. Sinha represented the State of Bihar in the Rajya Sabha for two terms from April 1974 to April 1980 and again from July 1980 to July 1986. Crisis of capitalist path in India: The policy alternatives, Communist Party of India. On certain ideological positions of Communist Party of India and Communist Party of India. Real face of JP's total revolution, Communist Party of India; some features of current agrarian situation in All India Kisan Sabha. The changing agrarian scene: Problems and tasks, Peoples Publishing House; some questions concerning Communist Party of India. Sathi ke Kisanon ka Aitihasic Sangharsha, in Hindi, Patna

Gora Kumbhar

Sant Gora Kumbhar was a Hindu sant associated with the Bhakti movement and the Varkari sect of Maharashtra. He was a potter by devotee of Vithal. Gora Kumbhar and other saints wrote and sung hundreds of Abhangs; the central tenet of the Varkari sect was the daily chanting of Kirtan. This sect attached least importance to the position/status of person in society. Gora Kumbhar is traditionally believed to have lived in the village of Satyapuri, presently known as Goraba Ter in Osmanabad district of Maharashtra State, he is believed to have been a contemporary of Namdev. He is thought to have lived between ca. 1267 and ca. 1317 CE. A small temple is visited by devotees. Several motion pictures have been produced in India, about the life and bhakthi of Gora Kumbhar: K. S. Gopalakrishnan directed the Telugu movie entitled Chakradhari in 1948, it starred S. Varalakshmi. K. S. Gopalakrishnan directed the Tamil movie entitled Chakradhari in 1948, it starred Pushpavalli. 1974 Kannada film Bhakta Kumbara starring Rajkumar.

V. Madhusudhan Rao directed another Telugu movie entitled Chakradhari in 1977, it was a remake of 1974 Kannada film Bhakta Kumbara. A Kannada film was produced in 1960s and was named as Gora Kumbara 1967 Marathi film Gora Kumbhara, starred by Lalita Pawar and others. Dinesh Raval directed Gujarati film Bhagat Gora Kumbhar in 1978, starring Arvind Trivedi, Sarla Yevlekar, Kalpana Diwan, Shrikant Soni, Mahesh Joshi and others. Novetzke, Christian Lee. Religion and Public Memory: A Cultural History of Saint Namdev in India. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231512565

Peggy (given name)

Peggy is a female first name derived from Meggy, a diminutive version of the name Margaret. It is also a male nickname. Peggy Dunstan, New Zealand poet and writerPeggy Frew, Australian author Peggy Kornegger, American writer Peggy McIntosh, American writer and activist Peggy Noonan, American author and commentator Peggy Parish, American author Peggy Ashcroft, English actress Peggy Cass, American actress Peggy Cummins, Irish actress Peg Entwistle, English actress Peggy Knudsen, American actress Peggy Lipton, American actress Peggy McIntaggart, Canadian model Peggy Mount, English actress Peggy Ryan, American dancer and actress Peggy Shannon, American actress Peggy Wood, American actress Baby Peggy, American child actress Peggy Joyce, American actress JPEGMafia, abbreviated to Peggy, birth name Barrington DeVaughn Hendricks, American rapper and record producer Peggy Gordon, American musical theatre singer Peggy Lee, American jazz singer Peggy March, American pop singer Peggy Seeger, American folk singer Peggy Zina, Greek'laika' singer Peggy Gou, South Korean DJ and musician Peggy Assinck, Canadian ice sledge hockey player and neuroscientist Peggy Büchse, German long-distance swimmer Peggy Fleming, American figure skater Jim O'Neil, Canadian ice hockey player George Peggy Parratt, American football player Peggy Cabral, Dominican politician, diplomat and TV presenter Peggy Duff, British political activist Peg Luksik, Pennsylvania politician Peggy Nash, Canadian politician Peggy Ahwesh, American video artist Peggy Fairbairn-Dunlop, Samoan-New Zealand academic Peggy Hård, Swedish clerk Peggy Johnson, American female murder victim Margaret "Peggy" Shippen, American Loyalist spy for the British and second wife of Benedict Arnold Peggy Spicer, New Zealand painter Margarita "Peggy" Schuyler Van Rensselaer, sister in law of Alexander Hamilton Peggy Whitson, American astronaut Peggy Biggs, Mike & Molly Peggy Blackett, a character in Arthur Ransome's "Swallows and Amazons" books.

Peggy Bundy, in the American sitcom Married... with Children Peggy Carter, a Marvel Comics character Peg Gallagher, a character from the TV show Shameless Peggy Hill, in the American animated TV series King of the Hill Peggy Matsuyama, in Himitsu Sentai Gorenger Peggy Mitchell, in the British soap opera EastEnders Peggy Ollerenshaw, Hi-De-Hi Peggy Olson, in the American TV series Mad Men Peggy Patch, a rag doll puppet in the BBC children's TV series Playdays Peggy, a Hunter × Hunter character

System partition and boot partition

The system partition and the boot partition are computing terms for disk partitions of a hard disk drive or solid-state drive that must exist and be properly configured for a computer to operate. There are two different definitions for these terms: the common definition and the Microsoft definition. In context of every operating system, save those developed by Microsoft, the system partition and the boot partition are defined as follows: The boot partition is a primary partition that contains the boot loader, a piece of software responsible for booting the operating system. For example, in the standard Linux directory layout, boot files are mounted at /boot/. Despite Microsoft's radically different definition, System Information, a utility app included in Windows NT family of operating systems, refers to it as "boot device"; the system partition is the disk partition that contains the operating system folder, known as the system root. By default, in Linux, operating system files are mounted at /.

In Linux, a single partition can be both a boot and a system partition if both /boot/ and the root directory are in the same partition. Since Windows NT 3.1, Microsoft has defined the terms as follows: The system partition is a primary partition that contains the boot loader, a piece of software responsible for booting the operating system. This partition is marked active; the boot partition is the disk partition that contains the operating system folder, known as the system root or %systemroot% in Windows NT. A single partition may be both a boot partition. However, in case they are separate, the boot partition does not contain the boot loader and the system partition does not have the system root. Before Windows 7, the system and boot partitions were, by default, the same and were given the "C:" drive letter. Since Windows 7, Windows Setup creates, by default, a separate system partition, not given an identifier and therefore is hidden; the boot partition is still given "C:" as its identifier.

This configuration is suitable for running BitLocker, which requires a separate unencrypted system partition for booting. NTLDR Windows startup process Windows NT startup process Windows Vista startup process Windows To Go