Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
An open-air museum is a museum that exhibits collections of buildings and artifacts out-of-doors. It is frequently known as a museum of buildings or a folk museum; the concept of an open-air museum originated in Scandinavia in the late 19th century and spread widely. A comprehensive history of the open-air museum as an idea and institution can be found in Swedish museologist Sten Rentzhog's 2007 book Open Air Museums: The History and Future of a Visionary Idea. Living-history museums, including living-farm museums and living museums, are open-air museums where costumed interpreters portray period life in an earlier era; the interpreters act as if they are living in a different time and place and perform everyday household tasks and occupations. The goal is to demonstrate older pursuits to modern audiences. Household tasks might include cooking on an open hearth, churning butter, spinning wool and weaving, farming without modern equipment. Many living museums feature traditional craftsmen at work, such as a blacksmith, silversmith, tanner, cooper, miller, cabinet-maker, printer and general storekeeper.
Open air is “the unconfined atmosphere…outside buildings…” In the loosest sense, an open-air museum is any institution that includes one or more buildings in its collections, including farm museums, historic house museums, archaeological open-air museums. Mostly,'open-air museum is applied to a museum that specializes in the collection and re-erection of multiple old buildings at large outdoor sites in settings of recreated landscapes of the past, include living history, they may, therefore, be described as building museums. European open-air museums tended to be sited in regions where wooden architecture prevailed, as wooden structures may be translocated without substantial loss of authenticity. Common to all open-air museums, including the earliest ones of the 19th century, is the teaching of the history of everyday living by people from all segments of society; the idea of the open-air museum dates to the 1790s. The first proponent of the idea was the Swiss thinker Charles de Bonstetten, was based on a visit to an exhibit of peasant costumes in the park of Frederiksborg Castle in Denmark.
He believed that traditional peasant houses should be preserved against modernity, but failed to attract support for the idea. The first major steps towards the creation of open-air museums was taken in Norway in 1867, when a private citizen transferred some historic farm buildings to a site near Oslo for public viewing. This, in turn, inspired King Oscar II in 1881 to establish his own collection nearby inherited by the Norwegian Folk Museum; the similar Nordic Museum was founded in Stockholm, soon afterwards. In 1891, the first major open-air museum was founded at Skansen, in Stockholm, as a part of the Nordic Museum; the Skansen museum included farm buildings from across Scandinavia, folk costumes, live animals, folk music, demonstrations of folk crafts. The success of Skansen ensured. Most open-air museums concentrate on rural culture. However, since the opening of the first town museum, The Old Town in Aarhus, Denmark, in 1914, town culture has become a scope of open-air museums. In many cases, new town quarters are being constructed in existing rural culture museums.
The North American open-air museum, more called a living-history museum, had a different later origin than the European, the visitor experience is different. The first was Henry Ford's Greenfield Village in Dearborn, where Ford intended his collection to be “a pocket edition of America”. Colonial Williamsburg, had a greater influence on museum development in North America, it influenced such projects through the continent as Mystic Seaport, Plimoth Plantation, Fortress Louisbourg. The approach to interpretation tends to differentiate the North American from the European model. In Europe, the tendency is to focus on the buildings. In North America, many open-air museums include interpreters who dress in period costume and conduct period crafts and everyday work; the living museum is, viewed as an attempt to recreate to the fullest extent conditions of a culture, natural environment, or historical period. The objective is immersion, using exhibits so that visitors can experience the specific culture, environment or historical period using the physical senses.
Performance and historiographic practices at American living museums have been critiqued in the past several years by scholars in anthropology and theater for creating false senses of authenticity and accuracy, for neglecting to bear witness to some of the darker aspects of the American past. Before such critiques were published, sites such as Williamsburg and others had begun to add more interpretation of difficult history. Sculpture garden Historical reenactment Human zoo List of Renaissance fairs List of tourist attractions providing reenactment Hurt, R. Douglas. "Agricultural Museums: A New Frontier for the Social Sciences". The History Teacher. 11: 367–75. JSTOR 491627. Association for Living History and Agricultural Museums Revista Digital Nueva Museologia Latin American Theory Main open-air museums in Britain European Open-air Museums An extensive list of Open-air museums in Europe. America's Outdoor History Museums Photos from Museum of Folk Architecture and LifeMuseum websitesOpen Air Museum Bokrijk Leading open-air museum of Belgium, Flanders.
Přerov nad Labem open-air museum – photo gallery Valachian Ethnographic Museum in Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, Czech Rep
Wire of Death
The Wire of Death was a lethal electric fence created by the German military to control the Dutch–Belgian frontier during the occupation of Belgium during the First World War. The name'Wire of Death' is an English rendition of one of its popular Dutch names; as the war continued and more and more victims fell to the electric fence it became known as De Draad meaning "The Wire". To the German authorities it was known as the Grenzhochspannungshindernis. Parallels have been made between the'Death Wire' and the Iron Curtain; as Germany invaded neutral Belgium, Belgians began to cross the border to the Netherlands en masse. In 1914 one million Belgian refugees were in the Netherlands, but throughout the war, refugees kept coming and tried to cross the border. Many wanted to escape German occupation, others wanted to join their relatives who had fled, some wanted to take part in the war and chose this detour to join the forces on the allied front. Construction began in the spring of 1915 and consisted of over 200 km of 2,000-volt wire with a height ranging from 1.5 to about 3 m spanning the length of the Dutch-Belgian border from Aix-la-Chapelle to the River Scheldt.
Within 100–500 m of the wire, anyone, not able to explain their presence was summarily executed. The number of victims is estimated to range between 3,000 people. Local newspapers in the Southern Netherlands carried daily reports about people who were'lightninged to death'. However, many succeeded in overcoming the fence by employing dangerous or creative methods, ranging from the use of large ladders and tunnels to pole vaulting and binding porcelain plates onto shoes in an attempt to insulate oneself; the wire separated families and friends as the Dutch–Belgian border where Dutch and Flemings, despite living in different states intermarried or otherwise socialized with each other. Funeral processions used to walk to the fence and halt there, to give relatives and friends on the other side the opportunity to pray and say farewell; the Dutch government on several occasions protested the wire and its existence caused public outrage in the Netherlands. The great number of fatalities not only resulted in a sharp increase in Anti-German sentiment but made smuggling goods in the border area much more dangerous and therefore more lucrative for local criminals.
The fence did not follow the border and did not cross rivers. The Germans allowed locals to pass through for church services, on market days and during harvest. In October 1918 the Germans opened the border to allow refugees from France and Belgium through rather than clog up German lines of communication in Belgium. At the end of the war, the Kaiser crossed the border from Belgium into the neutral Netherlands to take refuge there. After the signing of the armistice in November 1918, the power plants around the wire were shut down and locals on both sides of the border soon destroyed the much-hated fence. Today all are some warning signs. Janssen, Herman, ed.. Hoogspanning aan de Belgisch-Nederlandse Grens: de Eerste Wereldoorlog aan de rijksgrens met Baarle. Baarle-Hertog: Heemkundekring Amalia van Solms. ISBN 978-90-74945-00-4. Abbenhuis, Maartje M.. The Art of Staying Neutral: the Netherlands in the First World War, 1914-1918. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Pp. 164–9. ISBN 9789053568187. Abbenhuis, Maartje.
"Where war met peace. The borders of the neutral Netherlands with Belgium and Germany in the First World War, 1914 - 1918". Journal of Borderlands Studies. 22. Van Waesberghe, Steven. Smokkel in het Land van Waas tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog. Universiteit Gent. Retrieved 1 November 2015. Dutch Public Television documentary
The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland. It is the seat of government of the Netherlands. With a metropolitan population of more than 1 million, it is the third-largest city in the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam; the Rotterdam–The Hague metropolitan area, with a population of 2.7 million, is the 13th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country. Located in the west of the Netherlands, The Hague is in the centre of the Haaglanden conurbation and lies at the southwest corner of the larger Randstad conurbation; the Hague is the seat of the Cabinet, the States General, the Supreme Court, the Council of State of the Netherlands, but the city is not the constitutional capital of the Netherlands, Amsterdam. King Willem-Alexander lives in Huis ten Bosch and works at the Noordeinde Palace in The Hague, together with Queen Máxima; the Hague is home to the world headquarters of Royal Dutch Shell and other Dutch companies.
Most foreign embassies in the Netherlands and 200 international governmental organisations are located in the city, including the International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Court, which makes The Hague one of the major cities hosting a United Nations institution along with New York City, Vienna and Nairobi. Because of this, The Hague is known as the home of international law and arbitration; the Hague was first mentioned as Die Haghe in 1242. In the 15th century, the name des Graven hage came into use "The Count's Wood", with connotations like "The Count's Hedge, Private Enclosure or Hunting Grounds". "'s Gravenhage" was used for the city from the 17th century onward. Today, this name is only used in some official documents like marriage certificates; the city itself uses "Den Haag" in all its communications. Little is known about the origin of The Hague. There are no contemporary documents describing it, sources are of dubious reliability. What is certain is that The Hague was founded by the last counts of the House of Holland.
Floris IV owned two residences in the area, but purchased a third court situated by the present-day Hofvijver in 1229 owned by a woman called Meilendis. Floris IV intended to rebuild the court into a large castle, but he died in a tournament in 1234, before anything was built, his son and successor William II lived in the court, after he was elected King of the Romans in 1248, he promptly returned to The Hague, had builders turn the court into a "royal palace", which would be called the Binnenhof. He died in 1256 before this palace was completed but parts of it were finished during the reign of his son Floris V, of which the Ridderzaal, still intact, is the most prominent, it is still used for political events, such as the annual speech from the throne by the Dutch monarch. From the 13th century onward, the counts of Holland used The Hague as their administrative center and residence when in Holland; the village that originated around the Binnenhof was first mentioned as Die Haghe in a charter dating from 1242.
It became the primary residence of the Counts of Holland in 1358, thus became the seat of many government institutions. This status allowed the village to grow. In its early years, the village was located in the ambacht, or rural district, of Monster, governed by the Lord of Monster. Seeking to exercise more direct control over the village, the Count split the village off and created a separate ambacht called Haagambacht, governed directly by the Counts of Holland; the territory of Haagambacht was expanded during the reign of Floris V. When the House of Burgundy inherited the counties of Holland and Zeeland in 1432, they appointed a stadtholder to rule in their stead with the States of Holland and West Friesland as an advisory council. Although their seat was located in The Hague, the city became subordinate to more important centres of government such as Brussels and Mechelen, from where the sovereigns ruled over the centralised Burgundian Netherlands. At the beginning of the Eighty Years' War, the absence of city walls proved disastrous, as it allowed Spanish troops to occupy the town.
In 1575, the States of Holland, temporarily based in Delft considered demolishing the city but this proposal was abandoned, after mediation by William the Silent. In 1588, The Hague became the permanent seat of the States of Holland as well as the States General of the Dutch Republic. In order for the administration to maintain control over city matters, The Hague never received official city status, although it did have many of the privileges granted only to cities. In modern administrative law, "city rights" have no place anymore. Only in 1806, when the Kingdom of Holland was a puppet state of the First French Empire, was the settlement granted city rights by Louis Bonaparte. After the Napoleonic Wars, modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands were combined in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands to form a buffer against France; as a compromise and Amsterdam alternated as capital every two years, with the government remaining in The Hague. After the separation of Belgium in 1830, Amsterdam remained the capital of the Netherlands, while the government was situated in The Hague.
When the government started to play a more prominent role in Dutch society after 1850, The Hague expanded. Many streets were built for the large number of civil se
Gelderland is a province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country. With a land area of nearly 5,000 km2, it is the largest province of the Netherlands and shares borders with six other provinces and Germany; the capital is Arnhem. Other major regional centres in Gelderland are Ede, Zutphen, Tiel, Wageningen and Winterswijk. Gelderland had a population of just over two million in 2018; the province dates from states of the Holy Roman Empire and takes its name from the nearby German city of Geldern. According to the Wichard saga, the city was named by the Lords of Pont who fought and killed a dragon in 878 AD, they named the town they founded after the death rattle of the dragon: "Gelre!"The County of Guelders arose out of the Frankish pagus Hamaland in the 11th century around castles near Roermond and Geldern. The counts of Gelre acquired the Betuwe and Veluwe regions and, through marriage, the County of Zutphen, thus the counts of Guelders laid the foundation for a territorial power that, through control of the Rhine, Meuse and IJssel rivers, was to play an important role in the Middle Ages.
The geographical position of their territory dictated the external policy of the counts during the following centuries. Further enlarged by the acquisition of the imperial city of Nijmegen in the 13th century, the countship was raised to a duchy in 1339 by the Holy Roman Emperor, Louis IV. After 1379, the duchy was ruled by the counts of Egmond and Cleves; the duchy resisted Burgundian domination, but William, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg was forced to cede it to Charles V in 1543, after which it formed part of the Burgundian-Habsburg hereditary lands. The duchy revolted with the rest of the Netherlands against Philip II of Spain and joined the Union of Utrecht. After the deposition of Philip II, its sovereignty was vested in the States of Gelderland, the princes of Orange were stadtholders. In 1672, the province was temporarily occupied by Louis XIV and, in 1713, the southeastern part including the ducal capital of Geldern fell to Prussia. Part of the Batavian Republic, of Louis Bonaparte’s Kingdom of Holland, of the French Empire, Gelderland became a province of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815.
During the Second World War, it saw heavy fighting between Allied Paratroopers, British XXX Corps and the German II SS Panzer Corps, at the Battle of Arnhem. Gelderland can be divided into four geographical regions: the Veluwe in the north, the Rivierenland including the Betuwe in the southwest, the Achterhoek or Graafschap in the east and the city-region of Arnhem and Nijmegen in the centre-south. In 2015, the 54 municipalities in Gelderland were divided into four COROPs: These municipalities were merged with neighbouring ones: Angerlo was merged into Zevenaar Dinxperlo was merged into Aalten Gorssel was merged into Lochem Hoevelaken was merged into Nijkerk Lichtenvoorde was merged into Groenlo Warnsveld was merged into Zutphen Wehl was merged into Doetinchem Millingen aan de Rijn and Ubbergen were merged into Groesbeek These municipalities were merged and given a new name: Borculo, Eibergen and Ruurlo have become Berkelland Hengelo, Hummelo en Keppel, Steenderen and Zelhem have become Bronckhorst Bergh and Didam has become Montferland Gendringen and Wisch have become Oude IJsselstreek In the 2001 movie A Knight's Tale, the protagonist, William Thatcher pretends to be a knight known as "Ulrich von Lichtenstein from Gelderland".
Amsterdam is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 854,047 within the city proper, 1,357,675 in the urban area and 2,410,960 in the metropolitan area; the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country but is not its capital, Haarlem. The Amsterdam metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, which has a population of 8.1 million. Amsterdam's name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the city's origin around a dam in the river Amstel. Originating as a small fishing village in the late 12th century, Amsterdam became one of the most important ports in the world during the Dutch Golden Age, as a result of its innovative developments in trade. During that time, the city was the leading centre for trade. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, many new neighbourhoods and suburbs were planned and built.
The 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Since the annexation of the municipality of Sloten in 1921 by the municipality of Amsterdam, the oldest historic part of the city lies in Sloten, dating to the 9th century; as the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered an alpha- world city by the Globalization and World Cities study group. The city is the cultural capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, including Philips, AkzoNobel, TomTom and ING. Many of the world's largest companies are based in Amsterdam or established their European headquarters in the city, such as leading technology companies Uber and Tesla. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment and infrastructure by Mercer; the city was ranked 4th place globally as top tech hub in the Savills Tech Cities 2019 report, 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009.
The Port of Amsterdam to this day remains the second in the country, the fifth largest seaport in Europe. Famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, philosopher Baruch Spinoza; the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city centre. Amsterdam's main attractions include its historic canals, the Rijksmuseum, the Van Gogh Museum, the Stedelijk Museum, Hermitage Amsterdam, the Anne Frank House, the Scheepvaartmuseum, the Amsterdam Museum, the Heineken Experience, the Royal Palace of Amsterdam, Natura Artis Magistra, Hortus Botanicus Amsterdam, NEMO, the red-light district and many cannabis coffee shops, they draw more than 5 million international visitors annually. The city is well known for its nightlife and festival activity, it is one of the world's most multicultural cities, with at least 177 nationalities represented. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river and a dam across it, giving its name to the village: "Aemstelredamme".
The earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated 27 October 1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V. This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges and dams; the certificate describes the inhabitants. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam. Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century; this does not mean that there was a settlement since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat, for use as fuel. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306. From the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished from trade with the Hanseatic League. In 1345, an alleged Eucharistic miracle in the Kalverstraat rendered the city an important place of pilgrimage until the adoption of the Protestant faith.
The Miracle devotion was kept alive. In the 19th century after the jubilee of 1845, the devotion was revitalized and became an important national point of reference for Dutch Catholics; the Stille Omgang—a silent walk or procession in civil attire—is the expression of the pilgrimage within the Protestant Netherlands since the late 19th century. In the heyday of the Silent Walk, up to 90,000 pilgrims came to Amsterdam. In the 21st century this has reduced to about 5000. In the 16th century, the Dutch rebelled against Philip II of his successors; the main reasons for the uprising were the imposition of new taxes, the tenth penny, the religious persecution of Protestants by the newly introduced Inquisition. The revolt escalated into the Eighty Years' War, which led to Dutch independence. Pushed by Dutch Revolt leader William the Silent, the Dutch Republic became known for its relative religious tolerance. Jews from the Iberian Peninsula, Huguenots from France, prosperous merchants and printers from Flanders, economic and religious refugees