Netpbm is an open-source package of graphics programs and a programming library. It is used in the Unix world, where one can find it included in all major open-source operating system distributions, but works on Microsoft Windows, macOS, other operating systems. Several graphics formats are defined by the Netpbm project; the portable pixmap format, the portable graymap format and the portable bitmap format are image file formats designed to be exchanged between platforms. They are sometimes referred to collectively as the portable anymap format, not to be confused with the related portable arbitrary map format; the PBM format was invented by Jef Poskanzer in the 1980s as a format that allowed monochrome bitmaps to be transmitted within an email message as plain ASCII text, allowing it to survive any changes in text formatting. Poskanzer developed the first library of tools to handle the PBM format, released in 1988, it contained tools to convert between PBM and other graphics formats. By the end of 1988, Poskanzer had developed the PGM and PPM formats along with their associated tools and added them to Pbmplus.

The final release of Pbmplus was December 10, 1991. In 1993, the Netpbm library was developed to replace the unmaintained Pbmplus, it was a repackaging of Pbmplus with additions and fixes submitted by people all over the world. Each file starts with a two-byte magic number that identifies the type of file it is and its encoding; the magic number is a capital P followed by a single-digit number. A value of P7 refers to the PAM file format, covered as well by the netpbm library; the ASCII formats allow for human easy transfer to other platforms. In the binary formats, PBM uses 1 bit per pixel, PGM uses 8 or 16 bits per pixel, PPM uses 24 bits per pixel: 8 for red, 8 for green, 8 for blue. Conventionally PGM stores values in linear color space, but depending on application, it use sRGB or simplified gamma representation; the file data doesn't store information which color space it is using, must be cared of by the user or other software. 16-bit PGM always is stored as linear, as gamma correction is as advantageous as in 8-bit formats.

8-bit PPM format stores colors in nonlinear format, conventionally CIE Rec. 709 for red and blue, adjusted by the CIE Rec. 709 gamma transfer function. However it is common to store color using sRGB color space, or sometimes using linear color space. There is no metadata in the file to indicate. A simple example of the PBM format is as follows: P1 # This is an example bitmap of the letter "J" 6 10 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 The string P1 identifies the file format; the number sign introduces a comment. The next two numbers give the height. Follows the matrix with the pixel values, it is not required that pixels are nicely lined up, the format ignores whitespaces and linefeeds in the data section, although it's recommended that no line is longer than 76 characters. The following displays the same image: P1 # This is an example bitmap of the letter "J" 6 10 000010000010000010000010000010000010100010011100000000000000 Here is the resulting image: Here it is again magnified 20 times: Note that a 0 signifies a white pixel, a 1 signifies a black pixel.

This is in contrast to the other formats. The P4 binary format of the same image represents each pixel with a single bit, packing 8 pixels per byte, with the first pixel as the most significant bit. Extra bits are added at the end of each row to fill a whole byte; the PGM and PPM formats have an additional parameter for the maximum value after the X and Y dimensions and before the actual pixel data. Black is 0 and max value is white. There is a newline character at the end of each line. P2 # Shows the word "FEEP" 24 7 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 3 0 0 7 7 7 7 0 0 11 11 11 11 0 0 15 15 15 15 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 11 0 0 0 0 0 15 0 0 15 0 0 3 3 3 0 0 0 7 7 7 0 0 0 11 11 11 0 0 0 15 15 15 15 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 11 0 0 0 0 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 7 7 7 7 0 0 11 11 11 11 0 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 This is an example of a color RGB image stored in PPM format. There is a newline character at the end of each line. P3 3 2 255 # The part above is the header # "P3" means this is a RGB color image in ASCII # "3 2" is the width and height of the image in pixels # "255" is the maximum value for each color # The part below is image data: RGB triplets 255 0 0 # red 0 255 0 # green 0 0 255 # blue 255 255 0 # yellow 255 255 255 # white 0 0 0 # black The P6 binary format of the same image represents each color component of each pixel with one byte in the order red, green blue.

The file is smaller. The header remains in ASCII and the arguments are still separated by a whitespace; the binary image information comes after the header. The PPM format is not compressed, thus requires more space and bandwidth than a compressed format would. For example, the above 192×128 PNG (Port

Young Concert Artists

Young Concert Artists is a New York City-based non-profit organization dedicated to discovering and promoting the careers of talented young classical musicians from all over the world. The competition, founded in 1961, allows artists from all over the world to compete as individuals or in a chamber group, such as a string quartet; the number of winners varies from year to year, as there is no specified limit to the number of participants who can win. Winners of the competition receive a cash prize and are provided the opportunity to perform in concert at Carnegie Hall in New York City and the Kennedy Center in Washington D. C. Winners are provided with an artistic manager who promotes the artist through booking concert engagements both in the United States and abroad, providing publicity materials and career development. Many artists in the program's history have made their debut recordings through the help of the Young Concert Artists program. Notable past winners include violinists Pinchas Zukerman, Ani Kavafian, Ida Kavafian, Chee-Yun.

Conductor James Levine was awarded the Lotus Award from Young Concert Artists. Young Concert Artists refers to its winners as alumni: Official website

The Joey Bishop Show (TV series)

The Joey Bishop Show is an American sitcom starring entertainer Joey Bishop that aired on NBC from September 1961, to January 1964. After NBC canceled the series due to low ratings, it was picked up by CBS where it aired for its fourth and final season. Executive produced by Danny Thomas, The Joey Bishop Show is a spin-off of Thomas' series The Danny Thomas Show; the series was conceived as a vehicle for entertainer Joey Bishop by Danny Thomas and Louis F. Edelman in 1960. At the time, Thomas was starring in his own series, Make Room for Daddy, airing on CBS. Thomas' series was a top-20 hit and served as a launching pad for The Joey Bishop Show; the series' pilot episode, entitled "Everything Happens to Me", aired on March 27, 1961, during the eighth season of Danny Thomas. In the pilot, an incompetent Hollywood "public relations man" named Joey Mason forgets to make proper accommodations for an exhausted Danny Williams after he arrives in Los Angeles to play a show. Joey is forced to put Danny up in the home he shares with his colorful parents, Mr. and Mrs. Mason and two unmarried sisters and aspiring actress Stella.

By the time the series was picked up by NBC, Bishop's character's name was changed to Joey Barnes and the character of Joey's father was dropped. Two additional characters were added; the series' first incarnation features Joey, a well-intending but hapless and trouble-prone young man, who works for the Hollywood public relations firm, Willoughby and Jones. The firm is headed by J. P. Willoughby, Joey's demanding boss. Willoughby's secretary, Barbara Simpson has an unrequited crush on a oblivious Joey. Joey lives with and supports his widowed mother, Mrs. Barnes and younger siblings, aspiring actress Stella medical student Larry. Joey supports his older sister Betty and her proudly unemployed husband Frank whom Joey tries to encourage to get and keep a job. Storylines during the first season revolve around Joey's misadventures concerning his job and problems with his colorful family; as the series was a spin-off of The Danny Thomas Show, Danny Thomas and Marjorie Lord appeared as their Danny Thomas characters in the first season's fourth episode entitled "This Is Your Life".

Sid Melton, who appeared as Uncle Charley Halper on Danny Thomas appeared. Upon its September 1961 premiere, the series struggled in the ratings. In an effort to improve viewership, NBC decided to "readjust" the series. Midway through the first season, several characters, including Joey's older sister Betty, brother-in-law Frank, Joey’s potential love interest Barbara Simpson and Joey’s boss Mr. Willoboughy, were dropped. Several crew members were dismissed. In episode 17, "Home Sweet Home", Bill Bixby joined the cast as Charles "Charlie" Raymond, Mr. Willoughby's nephew who takes over as president of PR firm and becomes Joey’s new boss; the changes helped to improve the ratings and NBC renewed it for a second season. The final two episodes of the first season: "A Show of His Own" and "The Image" deal with Joey getting his own network show. After the first season, Bishop decided to change the format of the series. In addition to the format changing, The Joey Bishop Show began filming in front of a live audience and featured an different supporting cast.

In the second incarnation, Joey Barnes is the host of a New York City talk/variety television show. Abby Dalton joined the cast as Joey's new wife Ellie and the two live at the Carlton Arms, a posh Manhattan apartment building. Towards the end of season two, Ellie discovers, their son, Joey Barnes, Jr. was born in the season-two finale "The Baby Cometh". Joining the cast was Guy Marks, who portrayed Freddie, Joey's manager. Marks left the series after 19 episodes and Corbett Monica joined the cast as Larry Corbett, Joey's head writer; the supporting cast includes Mary Treen as Hilda, the Barnes' maid and baby nurse, with whom Joey trades insults. Joe Besser portrayed Mr. Jillson, the building's goofy and henpecked super who lives in fear of his wife, never seen but heard. Storylines for the remainder of the series' run focus on Joey's home life, but feature storylines involving Joey's job as a television host; as such, various celebrities who were guests on Joey Barnes' talk show appeared throughout the series' run.

Although the second incarnation of the series was unrelated to the first incarnation, the series featured Danny Thomas in two season-three episodes: "Danny Gives Joey Advice" and "Andy Williams Visits Joey". Rusty Hamer, who appeared on Danny Thomas as Rusty Williams appeared as his character in three season-four episodes: "Rusty Arrives", "Rusty's Education", "Joey Entertains Rusty's Fraternity"; the Joey Bishop Show featured many celebrity guest stars. Among the celebrity guest stars are: Actors who appeared in guest starring roles include: One Season 3 episode of The Joey Bishop Show is now considered lost; the episode, known only as #85, was filmed on November 15, 1963 and guest starred comedian and impressionist Vaughn Meader. Meader rose to fame in the early 1960s for his comedic impersonation of then-President John F. Kennedy featured on the popular comedy album The First Family; the episode centered around Meader performing his Kennedy im