The Mozilla Organization rewrote the entire browser's source code based on the Gecko rendering engine. The Gecko engine would be used to power the Mozilla Foundation's Firefox browser. Under AOL, Netscape's browser development continued until December 2007 when AOL announced that the company would stop supporting the Netscape browser as of early 2008; as of 2011, AOL has continued to use the Netscape brand to market a discount Internet service provider. AOL renamed the Netscape Communications Corporation to New Aurora Corporation, transferred the Netscape brand to themselves. AOL sold the former Netscape company, now known as New Aurora Corporation, to Microsoft, who in turn sold them again to Facebook; the former Netscape company is a non-operating subsidiary of Facebook, still known as New Aurora Corporation. The Netscape brand remained with AOL. Netscape Communications is now part of America Online. AOL envisioned the Netscape Web site as a Web portal, providing a source of revenue through advertising and e-commerce.
After the antitrust ruling found that Microsoft had held and abused monopolistic power, Microsoft settled with AOL for $750 million. As part of the settlement, AOL gained the rights to distribute Internet Explorer. Entrepreneur Jason Calcanis leveraged the Netscape brand to create Propeller, a social bookmarking and news site similar to Digg.com. Netscape was the first company to attempt to capitalize on the nascent World Wide Web, it was founded under the name Mosaic Communications Corporation on April 4, 1994, the brainchild of Jim Clark who had recruited Marc Andreessen as co-founder and Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers as investors. The first meeting between Clark and Andreessen was never about a software or service like Netscape, but more about a product, similar to Nintendo. Clark recruited other early team members from NCSA Mosaic. Jim Barksdale came on board as CEO in January 1995. Jim Clark and Marc Andreessen created a 20-page concept pitch for an online gaming network to Nintendo for the Nintendo 64 console, but a deal was never reached.
Marc Andreessen explains, "If they had shipped a year earlier, we would have done that instead of Netscape."The company's first product was the web browser, called Mosaic Netscape 0.9, released on October 13, 1994. Within four months of its release, it had taken three-quarters of the browser market, it became the main browser for Internet users in such a short time due to its superiority over other competition, like Mosaic. This browser was subsequently renamed Netscape Navigator, the company took the "Netscape" name on November 14, 1994, to avoid trademark ownership problems with NCSA, where the initial Netscape employees had created the NCSA Mosaic web browser; the Mosaic Netscape web browser did not use any NCSA Mosaic code. The internal codename for the company's browser was Mozilla, which stood for "Mosaic killer", as the company's goal was to displace NCSA Mosaic as the world's number one web browser. A cartoon Godzilla-like lizard mascot was drawn by artist-employee Dave Titus, which went well with the theme of crushing the competition.
The Mozilla mascot featured prominently on Netscape's website in the company's early years. However, the need to project a more "professional" image led to this being removed. On August 9, 1995, Netscape made an successful IPO; the stock was set to be offered at US$14 per share, but a last-minute decision doubled the initial offering to US$28 per share. The stock's value soared to US$75 during the first day of trading, nearly a record for first-day gain; the stock closed at US$58.25. While it was somewhat unusual for a company to go public prior to becoming profitable, Netscape's revenues had, in fact, doubled every quarter in 1995; the success of this IPO subsequently inspired the use of the term "Netscape moment" to describe a high-visibility IPO that signals the dawn of a new industry. During this period, Netscape pursued a publicity strategy packaging Andreessen as the company's "rock star." The events of this period landed Andreessen, barefoot, on the cover of Time magazine. The IPO helped kickstart widespread investment in internet companies that created the dot-com bubble.
Netscape advertised that "the web is for everyone" and stated one of its goals was to "level the pl
Internet Relay Chat
Internet Relay Chat is an application layer protocol that facilitates communication in the form of text. The chat process works on a client/server networking model. IRC clients are computer programs that users can install on their system or web based applications running either locally in the browser or on 3rd party server; these clients communicate with chat servers to transfer messages to other clients. IRC is designed for group communication in discussion forums, called channels, but allows one-on-one communication via private messages as well as chat and data transfer, including file sharing. Client software is available for every major operating system; as of April 2011, the top 100 IRC networks served more than half a million users at a time, with hundreds of thousands of channels operating on a total of 1,500 servers out of 3,200 servers worldwide. IRC usage has been declining since 2003, losing 60% of its users and half of its channels. IRC was created by Jarkko Oikarinen in August 1988 to replace a program called MUT on a BBS called OuluBox at the University of Oulu in Finland, where he was working at the Department of Information Processing Science.
Jarkko intended to extend the BBS software he administered, to allow news in the Usenet style, real time discussions and similar BBS features. The first part he implemented was the chat part, which he did with borrowed parts written by his friends Jyrki Kuoppala and Jukka Pihl; the first IRC network was running on a single server named tolsun.oulu.fi. Oikarinen found inspiration in a chat system known as Bitnet Relay, which operated on the BITNET. Jyrki Kuoppala pushed Jarkko to ask Oulu University to free the IRC code so that it could be run outside of Oulu, after they got it released, Jyrki Kuoppala installed another server; this was the first "irc network". Jarkko got some friends at the Helsinki University and Tampere University to start running IRC servers when his number of users increased and other universities soon followed. At this time Jarkko realized that the rest of the BBS features wouldn't fit in his program. Jarkko got in touch with people at the University of Oregon State University.
They wanted to connect to the Finnish network. They had obtained the program from one of Jarkko's friends, Vijay Subramaniam—the first non-Finnish person to use IRC. IRC grew larger and got used on the entire Finnish national network—Funet—and connected to Nordunet, the Scandinavian branch of the Internet. In November 1988, IRC had spread across the Internet and in the middle of 1989, there were some 40 servers worldwide. In August 1990, the first major disagreement took place in the IRC world; the "A-net" included a server named eris.berkeley.edu. It required no passwords and had no limit on the number of connects; as Greg "wumpus" Lindahl explains: "it had a wildcard server line, so people were hooking up servers and nick-colliding everyone". The "Eris Free Network", EFnet, made the eris machine the first to be Q-lined from IRC. In wumpus' words again: "Eris refused to remove that line, it wasn't much of a fight. A-net was formed with the eris servers, EFnet was formed with the non-eris servers.
History showed most users went with EFnet. Once ANet disbanded, the name EFnet became meaningless, once again it was the one and only IRC network, it is around that time that IRC was used to report on the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt throughout a media blackout. It was used in a similar fashion during the Gulf War. Chat logs of these and other events are kept in the ibiblio archive. Another fork effort, the first that made a big and lasting difference, was initiated by'Wildthang' in the U. S. October 1992, it was meant to be just a test network to develop bots on but it grew to a network "for friends and their friends". In Europe and Canada a separate new network was being worked on and in December the French servers connected to the Canadian ones, by the end of the month, the French and Canadian network was connected to the US one, forming the network that came to be called "The Undernet"; the "undernetters" wanted to take ircd further in an attempt to make it less bandwidth consumptive and to try to sort out the channel chaos that EFnet started to suffer from.
For the latter purpose, the Undernet implemented timestamps, new routing and offered the CService—a program that allowed users to register channels and attempted to protect them from troublemakers. The first server list presented, from February 15, 1993, includes servers from USA, France and Japan. On August 15, the new user count record was set to 57 users. In May 1993, RFC 1459 was published and details a simple protocol for client/server operation, one-to-one and one-to-many conversations, it is notable that a significant number of extensions like CTCP, colors and formats are not included in the protocol specifications, nor is character encoding, which led various implementations of servers and clients to diverge. In fact, software implementation varied from one network to the other, each network implementing their own policies and standards in their own code bases. During the summer of 1994, the Undernet was itself forked; the new network was called DALnet, formed for better user service and more user and channel protections.
One of the more significant changes in DALnet was use of lo
An email client, email reader or more formally mail user agent is a computer program used to access and manage a user's email. A web application which provides message management and reception functions may act as an email client, "email client" may refer to a piece of computer hardware or software whose primary or most visible role is to work as an email client. Like most client programs, an email client is only active; the most common arrangement is for an email user to make an arrangement with a remote Mail Transfer Agent server for the receipt and storage of the client's emails. The MTA, using a suitable mail delivery agent, adds email messages to a client's storage as they arrive; the remote mail storage is referred to as the user's mailbox. The default setting on many Unix systems is for the mail server to store formatted messages in mbox, within the user's HOME directory. Of course, users of the system can log-in and run a mail client on the same computer that hosts their mailboxes. Emails are stored in the user's mailbox on the remote server until the user's email client requests them to be downloaded to the user's computer, or can otherwise access the user's mailbox on the remote server.
The email client can be set up to connect to multiple mailboxes at the same time and to request the download of emails either automatically, such as at pre-set intervals, or the request can be manually initiated by the user. A user's mailbox can be accessed in two dedicated ways; the Post Office Protocol allows the user to download messages one at a time and only deletes them from the server after they have been saved on local storage. It is possible to leave messages on the server to permit another client to access them. However, there is no provision for flagging a specific message as seen, answered, or forwarded, thus POP is not convenient for users who access the same mail from different machines. Alternatively, the Internet Message Access Protocol allows users to keep messages on the server, flagging them as appropriate. IMAP provides folders and sub-folders, which can be shared among different users with different access rights; the Sent and Trash folders are created by default. IMAP features an idle extension for real time updates, providing faster notification than polling, where long lasting connections are feasible.
See the remote messages section below. In addition, the mailbox storage can be accessed directly by programs running on the server or via shared disks. Direct access is less portable as it depends on the mailbox format. Email clients contain user interfaces to display and edit text; some applications permit the use of a program-external editor. The email clients will perform formatting according to RFC 5322 for headers and body, MIME for non-textual content and attachments. Headers include the destination fields, To, Cc, Bcc, the originator fields From, the message's author, Sender in case there are more authors, Reply-To in case responses should be addressed to a different mailbox. To better assist the user with destination fields, many clients maintain one or more address books and/or are able to connect to an LDAP directory server. For originator fields, clients may support different identities. Client settings require the user's real name and email address for each user's identity, a list of LDAP servers.
When a user wishes to create and send an email, the email client will handle the task. The email client is set up automatically to connect to the user's mail server, either an MSA or an MTA, two variations of the SMTP protocol; the email client which uses the SMTP protocol creates an authentication extension, which the mail server uses to authenticate the sender. This method eases nomadic computing; the older method was for the mail server to recognize the client's IP address, e.g. because the client is on the same machine and uses internal address 127.0.0.1, or because the client's IP address is controlled by the same Internet service provider that provides both Internet access and mail services. Client settings require the name or IP address of the preferred outgoing mail server, the port number, the user name and password for the authentication, if any. There is a non-standard port 465 for SSL encrypted SMTP sessions, that many clients and servers support for backward compatibility. With no encryption, much like for postcards, email activity is plainly visible by any occasional eavesdropper.
Email encryption enables privacy to be safeguarded by encrypting the mail sessions, the body of the message, or both. Without it, anyone with network access and the right tools can monitor email and obtain login passwords. Examples of concern include the government censorship and surveillance and fellow wireless network users such as at an Internet cafe. All relevant email protocols have an option to encrypt the whole session, to prevent a user's name and password from being sniffed, they are suggested for nomadic users and whenever the Internet access provider is not trusted. When sending mail, users can only control encryption at the first hop from a client to its configured outgoing mail server. At any further hop, messages may be transmitted with or without encryption, depending on the general configuration of the transmitting server and the capabilities of the receiving one. Encrypted mail sessions deliver messages in their original format, i.e. plain text or encrypted body, o
Instant messaging technology is a type of online chat that offers real-time text transmission over the Internet. A LAN messenger operates in a similar way over a local area network. Short messages are transmitted between two parties, when each user chooses to complete a thought and select "send"; some IM applications can use push technology to provide real-time text, which transmits messages character by character, as they are composed. More advanced instant messaging can add file transfer, clickable hyperlinks, Voice over IP, or video chat. Non-IM types of chat include multicast transmission referred to as "chat rooms", where participants might be anonymous or might be known to each other. Instant messaging systems tend to facilitate connections between specified known users. Depending on the IM protocol, the technical architecture can be client-server. By 2010, instant messaging over the Web was in sharp decline, in favor of messaging features on social networks; the most popular IM platforms, such as AIM, closed in 2017, Windows Live Messenger was merged into Skype.
Today, most instant messaging takes place on messaging apps which by 2014 had more users than social networks. Instant messaging is a set of communication technologies used for text-based communication between two or more participants over the Internet or other types of networks. IM–chat happens in real-time. Of importance is that online chat and instant messaging differ from other technologies such as email due to the perceived quasi-synchrony of the communications by the users; some systems permit messages to be sent to users not then'logged on', thus removing some differences between IM and email. IM allows effective and efficient communication, allowing immediate receipt of acknowledgment or reply; however IM is not supported by transaction control. In many cases, instant messaging includes added features which can make it more popular. For example, users may see each other via webcams, or talk directly for free over the Internet using a microphone and headphones or loudspeakers. Many applications allow file transfers, although they are limited in the permissible file-size.
It is possible to save a text conversation for reference. Instant messages are logged in a local message history, making it similar to the persistent nature of emails. Though the term dates from the 1990s, instant messaging predates the Internet, first appearing on multi-user operating systems like Compatible Time-Sharing System and Multiplexed Information and Computing Service in the mid-1960s; some of these systems were used as notification systems for services like printing, but were used to facilitate communication with other users logged into the same machine. As networks developed, the protocols spread with the networks; some of these used a peer-to-peer protocol. The Zephyr Notification Service was invented at MIT's Project Athena in the 1980s to allow service providers to locate and send messages to users. Parallel to instant messaging were early online chat facilities, the earliest of, Talkomatic on the PLATO system, which allowed 5 people to chat on a 512x512 plasma display. During the bulletin board system phenomenon that peaked during the 1980s, some systems incorporated chat features which were similar to instant messaging.
The first such general-availability commercial online chat service was the CompuServe CB Simulator in 1980, created by CompuServe executive Alexander "Sandy" Trevor in Columbus, Ohio. Early instant messaging programs were real-time text, where characters appeared as they were typed; this includes the Unix "talk" command line program, popular in the 1980s and early 1990s. Some BBS chat programs used a similar interface. Modern implementations of real-time text exist in instant messengers, such as AOL's Real-Time IM as an optional feature. In the latter half of the 1980s and into the early 1990s, the Quantum Link online service for Commodore 64 computers offered user-to-user messages between concurrently connected customers, which they called "On-Line Messages", "FlashMail." (Quantum Link became America Online and made AOL Instant Messenger. While the Quantum Link client software ran on a Commodore 64, using only the Commodore's PETSCII text-graphics, the screen was visually divided into sections and OLMs would appear as a yellow bar saying "Message From:" and the name of the sender along with the message across the top of whatever the user was doing, presented a list of options for responding.
As such, it could be considered a type of graphical user interface, albeit much more primitive than the Unix and Macintosh based GUI IM software. OLMs were what Q-Link called "Plus Services" meaning they charged an extra per-minute fee on top of the monthly Q-Link access costs. Modern, Internet-wide, GUI-based messaging clients as they are known today, began to take off in the mid-1990s with PowWow, ICQ, AOL Instant Messenger. Similar functionalit
An address book or a name and address book is a book or a database used for storing entries called contacts. Each contact entry consists of a few standard fields. Most such systems store the details in alphabetical order of people's names, although in paper-based address books entries can end up out of order as the owner inserts details of more individuals or as people move. Many address books use small ring binders that allow adding and shuffling of pages to make room. A related term that has entered the popular lexicon is little black book; such books are used as dating guides, listing people who the owner has dated in the past or hopes to in the future, details of their various relationships. More explicit variations are guides for sexual partners, it is unclear how prevalent this is in practice or when it originated, though such books have been mentioned in many pieces of popular culture. For example, the 1953 film version of Kiss Me, Kate features a musical scene in which Howard Keel's character laments the loss of the social life he enjoyed before marriage, naming numerous female romantic encounters while perusing a miniature black book.
More a 2004 Guinness Brewmasters advertising campaign featured the "little black book" as an invention of one of their brewmasters. Address books can appear as software designed for this purpose, such as the "Address Book" application included with Apple Inc.'s Mac OS X. Simple address books have been incorporated into e-mail software for many years, though more advanced versions have emerged in the 1990s and beyond. A personal information manager integrates an address book, task list, sometimes other features. Entries can be imported and exported from the software in order to transfer them between programs or computers; the common file formats for these operations are: LDIF Tab delimited Comma-separated vCard Individual entries are transferred as vCards, which are comparable to physical business cards. And some software applications like Lotus Notes and Open Contacts can handle a vCard file containing multiple vCard records. An online address book enables users to create their own web page, indexed by search engines like Google and Yahoo.
This in turn enables users to be found by other people via a search of their name and contacted via their web page containing their personal information. Ability to find people registered with online address books via search engine searches varies according to the commonness of the name and the amount of results for the name. Users of such systems can synchronize their contact details with other users that they know to ensure that their contact information is kept up to date. Many people have many different address books: their email accounts, their mobile phone, the "friends lists" on their social networking services. A network address book allows them to organize and manage their address books through one interface and share their contacts across their different address books and social networks
Dial-up Internet access
Dial-up Internet access is a form of Internet access that uses the facilities of the public switched telephone network to establish a connection to an Internet service provider by dialing a telephone number on a conventional telephone line. The user's computer or router uses an attached modem to encode and decode information into and from audio frequency signals, respectively. In 1979, Tom Truscott and Steve Bellovin, graduates of Duke University, created an early predecessor to dial-up Internet access called the USENET; the USENET was a UNIX based system that used a dial-up connection to transfer data through telephone modems. Dial-up Internet has been around since the 1980s via public providers such as NSFNET-linked universities and was first offered commercially in July 1992 by Sprint. Despite losing ground to broadband since the mid-2000s, dial-up is still used where other forms are not available or where the cost is too high, such as in some rural or remote areas. Dial-up connections to the Internet require no infrastructure other than the telephone network and the modems and servers needed to make and answer the calls.
Where telephone access is available, dial-up is the only choice available for rural or remote areas, where broadband installations are not prevalent due to low population density and high infrastructure cost. Dial-up access may be an alternative for users on limited budgets, as it is offered free by some ISPs, though broadband is available at lower prices in many countries due to market competition. Dial-up requires time to establish a telephone connection and perform configuration for protocol synchronization before data transfers can take place. In locales with telephone connection charges, each connection incurs an incremental cost. If calls are time-metered, the duration of the connection incurs costs. Dial-up access is a transient connection, because either the user, ISP or phone company terminates the connection. Internet service providers will set a limit on connection durations to allow sharing of resources, will disconnect the user—requiring reconnection and the costs and delays associated with it.
Technically inclined users find a way to disable the auto-disconnect program such that they can remain connected for more days than one. A 2008 Pew Research Center study stated that only 10% of US adults still used dial-up Internet access; the study found. Users cited lack of infrastructure as a reason less than stating that they would never upgrade to broadband; that number had fallen to 6% by 2010, to 3% by 2013. The CRTC estimated that there were 336,000 Canadian dial-up users in 2010. Broadband Internet access via cable, digital subscriber line, satellite and FTTx has replaced dial-up access in many parts of the world. Broadband connections offer speeds of 700 kbit/s or higher for two-thirds more than the price of dial-up on average. In addition broadband connections are always on, thus avoiding the need to connect and disconnect at the start and end of each session. Broadband does not require exclusive use of a phone line and so one can access the Internet and at the same time make and receive voice phone calls without having a second phone line.
However, many rural areas still remain without high speed Internet despite the eagerness of potential customers. This can be attributed to population, location, or sometimes ISPs' lack of interest due to little chance of profitability and high costs to build the required infrastructure; some dial-up ISPs have responded to the increased competition by lowering their rates and making dial-up an attractive option for those who want email access or basic web browsing. Dial-up Internet access has undergone a precipitous fall in usage, approaches extinction as modern users turn towards broadband. In contrast to the year 2000 when about 34% of the U. S. population used dial-up, this dropped to 3% in 2013. One contributing factor to the extinction of dial-up is the bandwidth requirements of newer computer programs, like antivirus software, which automatically download sizable updates in the background when a connection to the internet is first made; these background downloads can take several minutes or longer and, until all updates are completed, they can impact the amount of bandwidth available to other applications like web browsers.
Since an "always on" broadband is the norm expected by most newer applications being developed, this automatic upload trend in the background is expected to continue to eat away at dial-up's available bandwidth to the detriment of dial-up users' applications. Many newer websites now assume broadband speeds as the norm and when confronted with slower dial-up speeds may drop these slower connections to free up communication resources. On websites that are designed to be more dial-up friendly, use of a reverse proxy prevents dial-ups from being dropped as but can introduce long wait periods for dial-up users caused by the buffering used by a reverse proxy to bridge the different data rates. Modern dial-up modems have a maximum theoretical transfer speed of 56 kbit/s, although in most cases, 40–50 kbit/s is the norm. Factors such as phone line noise as well as the quality of the modem itself play a large part in determining connection speeds; some connections may be as low as 20 kbit/s in noisy environments, such as in a hotel room where the phone line is shared with many extensions, or in a rural area, many miles from the phone exchange.
Other factors such as long loops, loading coils, pair gain, electric fences, digital loop carriers can slow con
A brand is an overall experience of a customer that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer. Brands are used in business and advertising. Name brands are sometimes distinguished from generic or store brands; the practice of branding is thought to have begun with the ancient Egyptians, who were known to have engaged in livestock branding as early as 2,700 BCE. Branding was used to differentiate one person’s cattle from another's by means of a distinctive symbol burned into the animal’s skin with a hot branding iron. If a person stole any of the cattle, anyone else who saw the symbol could deduce the actual owner. However, the term has been extended to mean a strategic personality for a product or company, so that ‘brand’ now suggests the values and promises that a consumer may perceive and buy into. Over time, the practice of branding objects extended to a broader range of packaging and goods offered for sale including oil, wine and fish sauce. Branding in terms of painting a cow with symbols or colors at flea markets was considered to be one of the oldest forms of the practice.
Branding is a set of marketing and communication methods that help to distinguish a company or products from competitors, aiming to create a lasting impression in the minds of customers. The key components that form a brand's toolbox include a brand’s identity, brand communication, brand awareness, brand loyalty, various branding strategies. Many companies believe that there is little to differentiate between several types of products in the 21st century, therefore branding is one of a few remaining forms of product differentiation. Brand equity is the measurable totality of a brand's worth and is validated by assessing the effectiveness of these branding components; as markets become dynamic and fluctuating, brand equity is a marketing technique to increase customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, with side effects like reduced price sensitivity. A brand is, in essence, a promise to its customers of what they can expect from products and may include emotional as well as functional benefits.
When a customer is familiar with a brand, or favours it incomparably to its competitors, this is when a corporation has reached a high level of brand equity. Special accounting standards have been devised to assess brand equity. In accounting, a brand defined as an intangible asset, is the most valuable asset on a corporation’s balance sheet. Brand owners manage their brands to create shareholder value, brand valuation is an important management technique that ascribes a monetary value to a brand, allows marketing investment to be managed to maximize shareholder value. Although only acquired brands appear on a company's balance sheet, the notion of putting a value on a brand forces marketing leaders to be focused on long term stewardship of the brand and managing for value; the word ‘brand’ is used as a metonym referring to the company, identified with a brand. Marque or make are used to denote a brand of motor vehicle, which may be distinguished from a car model. A concept brand is a brand, associated with an abstract concept, like breast cancer awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business.
A commodity brand is a brand associated with a commodity. The word, derives from its original and current meaning as a firebrand, a burning piece of wood; that word comes from the Old High German and Old English byrnan and brinnan via Middle English as birnan and brond. Torches were used to indelibly mark items such as furniture and pottery, to permanently burn identifying marks into the skin of slaves and livestock; the firebrands were replaced with branding irons. The marks themselves took on the term and came to be associated with craftsmen's products. Through that association, the term acquired its current meaning. Branding and labelling have an ancient history. Branding began with the practice of branding livestock in order to deter theft. Images of the branding of cattle occur in ancient Egyptian tombs dating to around 2,700 BCE. Over time, purchasers realised that the brand provided information about origin as well as about ownership, could serve as a guide to quality. Branding was adapted by farmers and traders for use on other types of goods such as pottery and ceramics.
Forms of branding or proto-branding emerged spontaneously and independently throughout Africa and Europe at different times, depending on local conditions. Seals, which acted as quasi-brands, have been found on early Chinese products of the Qin Dynasty. Identity marks, such as stamps on ceramics, were used in ancient Egypt. Diana Twede has argued that the "consumer packaging functions of protection and communication have been necessary whenever packages were the object of transactions", she has shown that amphorae used in Mediterranean trade between 1,500 and 500 BCE exhibited a wide variety of shapes and markings, which consumers used to glean information about the type of goods and the quality. Systematic use of stamped labels dates from around the fourth century BCE. In a pre-literate society, the shape of the amphora and its pictorial markings conveyed information about the contents, region of o