Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products. Put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit, it does not mean it is a company, a corporation, partnership, or have any such formal organization, but it can range from a street peddler to General Motors."Having a business name does not separate the business entity from the owner, which means that the owner of the business is responsible and liable for debts incurred by the business. If the business acquires debts, the creditors can go after the owner's personal possessions. A business structure does not allow for corporate tax rates; the proprietor is taxed on all income from the business. The term is often used colloquially to refer to a company. A company, on the other hand, is a separate legal entity and provides for limited liability, as well as corporate tax rates. A company structure is more complicated and expensive to set up, but offers more protection and benefits for the owner.
Forms of business ownership vary by jurisdiction, but several common entities exist: Sole proprietorship: A sole proprietorship known as a sole trader, is owned by one person and operates for their benefit. The owner may hire employees. A sole proprietor has unlimited liability for all obligations incurred by the business, whether from operating costs or judgments against the business. All assets of the business belong to a sole proprietor, for example, a computer infrastructure, any inventory, manufacturing equipment, or retail fixtures, as well as any real property owned by the sole proprietor. Partnership: A partnership is a business owned by two or more people. In most forms of partnerships, each partner has unlimited liability for the debts incurred by the business; the three most prevalent types of for-profit partnerships are general partnerships, limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships. Corporation: The owners of a corporation have limited liability and the business has a separate legal personality from its owners.
Corporations can be either government-owned or owned, they can organize either for profit or as nonprofit organizations. A owned, for-profit corporation is owned by its shareholders, who elect a board of directors to direct the corporation and hire its managerial staff. A owned, for-profit corporation can be either held by a small group of individuals, or publicly held, with publicly traded shares listed on a stock exchange. Cooperative: Often referred to as a "co-op", a cooperative is a limited-liability business that can organize as for-profit or not-for-profit. A cooperative differs from a corporation in that it has members, not shareholders, they share decision-making authority. Cooperatives are classified as either consumer cooperatives or worker cooperatives. Cooperatives are fundamental to the ideology of economic democracy. Limited liability companies, limited liability partnerships, other specific types of business organization protect their owners or shareholders from business failure by doing business under a separate legal entity with certain legal protections.
In contrast, unincorporated businesses or persons working on their own are not as protected. Franchises: A franchise is a system in which entrepreneurs purchase the rights to open and run a business from a larger corporation. Franchising in the United States is widespread and is a major economic powerhouse. One out of twelve retail businesses in the United States are franchised and 8 million people are employed in a franchised business. A company limited by guarantee: Commonly used where companies are formed for non-commercial purposes, such as clubs or charities; the members guarantee the payment of certain amounts if the company goes into insolvent liquidation, but otherwise, they have no economic rights in relation to the company. This type of company is common in England. A company limited by guarantee may be without having share capital. A company limited by shares: The most common form of the company used for business ventures. A limited company is a "company in which the liability of each shareholder is limited to the amount individually invested" with corporations being "the most common example of a limited company."
This type of company is common in many English-speaking countries. A company limited by shares may be a publicly traded company or a held company A company limited by guarantee with a share capital: A hybrid entity used where the company is formed for non-commercial purposes, but the activities of the company are funded by investors who expect a return; this type of company may no longer be formed in the UK, although provisions still exist in law for them to exist. A limited liability company: "A company—statutorily authorized in certain states—that is characterized by limited liability, management by members or managers, limitations on ownership transfer", i.e. L. L. C. LLC structure has been called "hybrid" in that it "combines the characteristics of a corporation and of a partnership or sole proprietorship". Like a corporation, it has limited liability for members of the company, like a partnership, it has "flow-through taxation to the members" and must be "dissolved upon the death or bankruptcy of a member".
An unlimited company with or without a share capital: A hybrid entity, a company where the liability of members or shareholders for the debts of the company are not limited. In this case, the doctrine of a veil of incorporation does not apply. Less common types of companies are: Companies formed by letters patent: Most corpor
Metro Vancouver Regional District
Metro Vancouver is a political body and corporate entity designated by provincial legislation as one of the regional districts in British Columbia, Canada. The official legal name is the Metro Vancouver Regional District, the organization was known as the Greater Vancouver Regional District from 1968 to 2017. Further, it was known as the Regional District of Fraser–Burrard for nearly one year upon incorporating in 1967; the MVRD is under the direction of 23 local authorities. The regional district's most populous city is Vancouver, Metro Vancouver's administrative offices are located in the City of Burnaby; the MVRD's boundaries match those of the Vancouver census metropolitan area as identified by Statistics Canada. The Greater Vancouver Water District and the Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage District were established in 1924 and 1956 respectively; the Government of British Columbia incorporated a regional district for this western portion of the Lower Mainland named the Regional District of Fraser-Burrard on June 29, 1967.
Just under a year the regional district was renamed as the Greater Vancouver Regional District on June 13, 1968. In 2007, the GVRD applied to change its official legal name a second time to "Metro Vancouver", deemed more recognizable at the time. British Columbia's Minister of Community Services denied the application due to the absence of the term "regional district" within the proposed new name, though it was suggested that the GVRD could brand itself under the unofficial name of Metro Vancouver. After nine years, with growing public recognition of Metro Vancouver, the overall success of the brand, confusion between the brand and the official legal name of the regional district, the GVRD motioned in 2016 to change its name to the Metro Vancouver Regional District; the regional district was therefore formally renamed a second time by the Government of British Columbia on January 30, 2017 to the Metro Vancouver Regional District. The Metro Vancouver Regional District is located east of the Strait of Georgia and north of the State of Washington and is bisected by the Fraser River.
The boundaries of the MVRD match those of the Vancouver CMA. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Metro Vancouver Regional District recorded a population of 2,463,431 living in 960,894 of its 1,027,613 total private dwellings, a change of 6.5% from its revised 2011 population of 2,313,328. With a land area of 2,882.68 km2, it had a population density of 854.6/km2 in 2016, making it the regional district in British Columbia with the greatest population and population density in British Columbia. This regional district comprises 23 local authorities as members: 21 municipalities, one electoral area and one treaty First Nation. Electoral Area A comprises all unincorporated land within the regional district boundaries, which totals about 818 square kilometres. Most of the area is in the northernmost part of the district, including residential areas and isolated dwellings on Howe Sound between Lions Bay and Horseshoe Bay, on Indian Arm to the north of Deep Cove and Belcarra/Anmore and on the west side of Pitt Lake to the north of Port Coquitlam.
Other areas included are Barnston Island on the Fraser River, Passage Island between Bowen Island and West Vancouver, the urban communities of the University of British Columbia and the University Endowment Lands, in which 98% of the population of Electoral Area A lives. There are seventeen Indian reserves within the geographical area that are not subject to governance by local authorities or the regional district; the cities of Abbotsford and Chilliwack and the district of Mission, located to the east, although linked to Vancouver in promotions and tourism, are part of a separate regional district, the Fraser Valley Regional District. Metro Vancouver technically comprises four separate corporate entities: the Metro Vancouver Regional District, the Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage District, the Greater Vancouver Water District and the Metro Vancouver Housing Corporation; each of these is governed by a board of directors. The board of the MVRD has 40 directors coming from the 23 local authorities.
The number of directors coming from each local authority is determined by population, the number of votes allocated to each director further helps proportionally represent the population distribution of the region. Each board director is an elected official of one of the local authorities, with the exception of the representative for Electoral Area A, which has no elected council; as of 2017, the organization had about 1,500 employees. The current organizational structure shows ten departments reporting to the Chief Administrative Officer: Human Resources & Corporate Services; the principal function of Metro Vancouver is to administer resources and services which are common across the metropolitan area. The Metro Vancouver Board has defined its strategic priorities for 2015 through 2018 in its Board Strategic Plan; the organization categorizes its work into eight action areas, as described in the following subsections. However, 84% of the organization's budget is spent in three of those areas - the three utilities.
Metro Vancouver's commitments and its members' commitments to each action area are outlined in eight board-approved management plans as referenced bel
Dollar Tree Stores, Inc. known as Only $1.00, is an American chain of discount variety stores that sells items for $1 or less. Headquartered in Chesapeake, Virginia, it is a Fortune 500 company and operates 14,835 stores throughout the 48 contiguous U. S. states and Canada. Its stores are supported by a nationwide logistics network of eleven distribution centers; the company operates one-dollar stores under the names of Dollar Bills. The company operates a multi-price-point variety chain under Family Dollar. Dollar Tree competes in low-end retail markets; each Dollar Tree stocks a variety of products including national and private-label brands. Departments found in a Dollar Tree store include health and beauty and snacks, seasonal décor, glassware, household cleaning supplies, toys, gift bags and wrap, craft supplies, teaching supplies, electronics, pet supplies, books. Most Dollar Tree stores sell frozen foods and dairy items such as milk, pizza, ice cream, frozen dinners, pre-made baked goods.
In August 2012, the company began accepting manufacturer's coupons at all of its store locations. In 1953, K. R. Perry opened a Ben Franklin variety store in Norfolk, which became known as K&K 5&10. In 1970, K. R. Perry, Doug Perry, Macon Brock started K&K Toys in Norfolk, Virginia; this mall concept grew to over 130 stores on the East Coast. In 1986, Doug Perry, Macon Brock, Ray Compton started another chain store called Only $1.00 with five stores, one in Georgia, one in Tennessee, three in Virginia. The expansion of Dollar Stores was continued alongside K&K Toys stores in enclosed malls. In 1991, the corporation made a decision to focus on the expansion of dollar stores after selling K&K stores to KB Toys, a Melville Corporation. In 1993, the name Only $1.00 was changed to Dollar Tree Stores to address what could be a multi-price-point strategy in the future, part equity interest was sold to SKM partners, a private equity firm. On March 6, 1995, Dollar Tree, Inc. went public on the NASDAQ exchange at $15 a share, with a market cap calculated at $225 million.
In 1996, Dollar Tree acquired Inc. a Chicago-based chain of 136 stores. In 1997, the company opened its first distribution center and its new store support center, both located in Chesapeake, Virginia. In 1998, Dollar Tree acquired 98-Cent Clearance Centers in California. In 1999, Dollar Tree acquired Only $One stores based in New York state; this same year, the company opened its second Distribution Center in Mississippi. In 2000, Dollar Tree acquired Dollar Express, a Philadelphia-based company, built a new distribution center in Stockton, California. In 2001, the company opened two additional distribution centers, in Savannah and Briar Creek, Pennsylvania. In 2003, Dollar Tree acquired Salt Lake City, Utah-based Greenbacks, Inc. and opened a new distribution center in Marietta, Oklahoma. In 2004, Dollar Tree opened its first store in North Dakota which marked its operation of stores in all 48 contiguous states; the company opened new distribution centers in Joliet and Ridgefield, Washington.
In 2006, Dollar Tree celebrated its 20th year of retailing at a $1.00 price point, opened its 3,000th store, acquired 138 DEAL$ stores owned by SUPERVALU INC. In 2007, Dollar Tree expanded its Briar Creek Distribution Center, crossed the $4 billion sales threshold, had a market capitalization of $3.29 billion. In 2008, Dollar Tree earned a place in the Fortune 500. By the close of 2009, the company opened a store in Washington, D. C. and purchased a new distribution center in California. In 2009, Dollar Tree redesigned its website with a new e-commerce platform. DollarTree.com sells Dollar Tree merchandise in larger quantities to individuals, small businesses, organizations. The company advertises in-store events, seasonal promotions, featured products through the site and users can locate a retail store, research information about Dollar Tree, view product recalls. Dollar Tree recently added customer ratings and reviews and customer stories to the site. In 2010, the corporation opened its 4,000th chain store and acquired 86 Canadian Dollar Giant stores which are based in Vancouver, British Columbia.
The stores are operated in British Columbia, Ontario and Saskatchewan. These are the first retail locations outside of the United States operated by Dollar Tree. In 2011, Dollar Tree achieved total sales of $6.63 billion, opened 278 new stores, completed a 400,000 square-foot expansion of its distribution center in Savannah, Georgia. In 2012, Dollar Tree opened another 345 new stores and exceeded $7 billion in sales, with an end-of-the-year market cap at $9.13 billion. On July 28, 2014, Dollar Tree announced it was offering $9.2 billion for the purchase of competitor chain store Family Dollar. On August 18, 2014, Dollar General lodged a competing bid of $9.7 billion for Family Dollar. The bid was rejected on August 20, 2014, by the Family Dollar board, which said it would proceed with the deal with Dollar Tree. In January 2015, Dollar Tree announced plans to divest 300 stores in order to appease US regulators scrutinizing its proposed takeover of Family Dollar stores. In June 2015, the firm agreed to sell 330 stores to private equity company Sycamore Partners as part of the approval process for its $8.5 billion takeover of Family Dollar.
The company ranked 134th on the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the United States corporations by revenue. In March 2019, as part of its reposition plan, Dollar Tree announced it will close up to 390 stores along with renovating 1,000 other locations. Dollar Tree is classified a
Best Buy Co. Inc. is an American multinational consumer electronics retailer headquartered in Richfield, Minnesota. It was founded by Richard M. Schulze and James Wheeler in 1966 as an audio specialty store called Sound of Music. In 1983, it was rebranded under its current name with more emphasis placed on consumer electronics. Internationally, Best Buy operates in Canada and Mexico, was operational in China until February 2011 and in Europe until 2012, its subsidiaries include Geek Squad, Magnolia Audio Video, Pacific Sales. Best Buy operates the Best Buy Mobile and Insignia brands in North America, plus Five Star in China. Best Buy sells cellular phones from Verizon Wireless, AT&T Mobility, Sprint Corporation in the United States. In Canada, carriers include Bell Mobility, Rogers Wireless, Telus Mobility, their fighter brands, competing smaller carriers, such as SaskTel. Best Buy was named "Company of the Year" by Forbes magazine in 2004, "Specialty Retailer of the Decade" by Discount Store News in 2001, ranked in the Top 10 of "America's Most Generous Corporations" by Forbes in 2005, made Fortune magazine's list of "Most Admired Companies" in 2006. and "The Most Sustainable Company in the United States" by Barron's in 2019.
Hubert Joly serves as Best Buy's chairman and CEO. According to Yahoo! Finance, Best Buy is the largest specialty retailer in the United States consumer electronics retail industry; the company ranked No. 72 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. On August 28, 1966, Richard M. Schulze and a business partner opened Sound of Music, an electronics store specializing in high fidelity stereos in St. Paul, Minnesota. Schulze financed the opening of his first store with his personal savings and a second mortgage he took out on his family's home. In 1967, Sound of Music acquired Bergo Company. Sound of Music made about $58,000 in profits in its first year. In 1969, Sound of Music had three stores and Schulze bought out his business partner. Sound of Music operated nine stores throughout Minnesota by 1978. In 1981, the Roseville, Sound of Music location, at the time the largest and most profitable Sound of Music store, was hit by a tornado; the store's roof was sheared off and showroom destroyed.
In response, Schulze decided to have a "Tornado Sale" of damaged and excess stock in the damaged store's parking lot. He poured the remainder of his marketing budget into advertising the sale, promising "best buys" on everything. Sound of Music made more money during the four-day sale. In 1983, with seven stores and $10 million in annual sales, Sound of Music was renamed Best Buy Company, Inc; the company expanded its product offerings to include home appliances and VCRs, in an attempt to expand beyond its then-core customer base of 15-to-18-year-old males. That year Best Buy opened its first superstore in Burnsville, Minnesota; the Burnsville location featured a high-volume, low price business model, borrowed from Schulze's successful Tornado Sale in 1981. In its first year, the Burnsville store out-performed all other Best. Best Buy debuted on the New York Stock Exchange in 1987. In 1989, the company introduced a new store concept dubbed "Concept II". Concept II replaced dimly lit industrial-style stores with brighter and more fashionably fixtured stores.
Stores began placing all stock on the sales floor rather than in a stock room, had fewer salespersons and provided more self-help product information for its customers. Best Buy did away with commissioned salespeople; the commission-free sales environment "created a more relaxed shopping environment free of the high-pressure sales tactics used in other stores," but was unpopular with salespersons and suppliers. Some suppliers, such as Maytag and Sony, were upset that salespeople would no longer be pushing their products and stopped selling their wares in Best Buy stores; the suppliers returned after Best Buy's sales and revenue grew following the roll-out of Concept II. In 1992, the company achieved $1 billion in annual revenues. In 1995, Best Buy debuted "Concept III" stores; the Concept III stores included expanded product offerings, interactive touchscreen kiosks that displayed product information for both customers and employees, demonstration areas for products such as surround sound stereo systems and videogames.
Best Buy launched its "Concept IV" stores with its expansion into New England in 1998. Concept IV stores included an open layout with products organized by category, cash registers located throughout the store, smaller stores than Concept III stores; the stores had large areas for demonstrating home theater systems and computer software. In 1999, Best Buy was added to Standard & Poor's S&P 500. In 2000, Best Buy formed Redline Entertainment, an independent music label and action-sports video distributor; the company acquired Magnolia Hi-Fi, Inc. an audio-video retailer located in California and Oregon, in December 2000. In January 2001, Best Buy acquired Musicland Stores Corporation, a Minnetonka, Minnesota-based retailer that sold home entertainment products under the Sam Goody, Suncoast Motion Picture Company, Media Play and OnCue brands. Best Buy purchased the company for $425 million in cash and the assumption of $271 million of Musicland debt; that year, Best Buy acquired the British Columbia, Canada-based electronics-chain Future Shop Ltd. marking its entrance to the international marketplace.
Under the deal, Future Shop was purchased for $37
A&W Food Services of Canada, Inc. is a Canadian fast food restaurant chain. The chain was part of the U. S.-based A&W Restaurants chain, but was sold to Unilever in 1972, bought by its management in 1995. It no longer has any corporate connection to A&W operations outside of Canada; the Canadian operation is owned and operated by the held A&W Food Services of Canada Inc. based in North Vancouver, British Columbia. In December 2013, A&W was Canada's second-largest quick service restaurant burger chain with 850 outlets after McDonald's 1,400 outlets; the first Canadian A&W restaurant opened in Winnipeg, Manitoba in 1956. The Canadian restaurants were part of the American chain until 1972. In 1975, facing competition from the growing Canadian operations of McDonald's, the company launched what was to have been a temporary advertising campaign starring an orange-clad mascot, The Great Root Bear; the bear and the tuba jingle. The mascot was so successful that he was adopted as the mascot by the American A&W chain as well.
The famous tuba jingle was played by famed Vancouver jazz and session trombonist Sharman King. King did the ads for the "Book Warehouse" chain of discount book stores, which he owned. In the early 1980s, the drive-in style of restaurant was phased out, it was replaced with a modern, pastel-coloured fast food outlet which included marginally healthier options. While the chain continued to open some standalone restaurants, A&W aggressively pursued shopping mall locations, as a result A&Ws are still found in Canadian malls of various sizes. In 1995, the chain was bought from Unilever by senior management. During 1997 and 1998, Drew Carey served as a spokesperson for the chain, appearing in TV ads alongside the Great Root Bear. By the end of the 1990s, marketing and products began to take on a more retro approach. Former menu items, such as the Burger Family, were reintroduced, marketing became more targeted toward the baby boomer generation; the Great Root Bear and the "ba-dum ba-dum" theme were retired from most advertising.
A new restaurant design was introduced, featuring a bright orange and yellow exterior, reminiscent of the 1950s, while the interior is decorated with memorabilia associated with the same period. Existing restaurants were renovated to match the new style. Meanwhile, with malls in decline, A&W began to focus on opening new standalone restaurants in smaller markets where McDonald's was the only major hamburger chain; the last drive-in style restaurant closed in Langley, British Columbia. In 2001, Allen Lulu appeared in an A&W commercial for the first time, he continues to appear in TV ads at present. On February 15, 2002, the A&W Revenue Royalties Income Fund was listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange; the initial public offering was 8.34 million units at $10 each. The fund licenses them to A&W Food Services of Canada Inc.. Revenue is generated by charging a three percent royalty on gross sales of each restaurant. Television advertisements are filmed at locations in the Fraser Valley. In June 2006, A&W celebrated 50 years in Canada.
Some Quebec locations had been Dunkin' Donuts locations until Dunkin' Donuts closed most locations in Quebec. Two new restaurant concepts were introduced in the fall of 2009; the new standalone restaurant design is ultra modern but with some architectural markings reminiscent of the design in the earlier buildings erect from A&W back in time. There is a new separate format for urban locations, where some of the baby-boomer aspects are scaled back in favour of a more modern look. On November 21, 2013, the chain opened its 800th location in downtown Montreal; the company's advertising shifted to a focus on animal welfare, such as chicken and beef raised without antibiotics. In February 2018, Susan Senecal became the company's chief executive officer. In June 2018, A&W announced that they were replacing plastic straws in their locations with paper ones, becoming the first fast food chain in North America to make the switch. Apart from the namesake brand of root beer, the A&W menu is focused on "The Burger Family", a lineup of hamburgers introduced by the U.
S. A&W chain in the early 1960s discontinued in the 1980s in favour of a more standard menu reintroduced in Canada and expanded upon beginning in the late 1990s; the original Burger Family lineup consists of the Baby, Mama and Papa burgers. They are still sold today along with other burgers named after other family members: Baby Burger: small beef patty, unseeded hamburger bun Mama Burger: regular beef patty, onion slice, ketchup, Teen Sauce, sesame seed bun Teen Burger: regular beef patty, onion slice, ketchup, bacon, Teen Sauce, tomato, cheese slice, sesame seed bun Papa Burger: two regular beef patties, onion slice, ketchup, Teen Sauce, sesame seed bun Grandpa Burger: three regular beef patties, onion slice, ketchup, Teen Sauce, sesame seed bun Uncle Burger: large beef patty, red onion slice, ketchup, Teen Sauce, sesame seed bun Buddy Burger: one or two small beef patties, ketchup, Teen Sauce, grilled onions, unseeded hamburger bun.
Avigilon, a Motorola Solutions company, designs and manufactures advanced AI, video analytics, network video management software and hardware, surveillance cameras, access control solutions. Avigilon solutions are made in North America in manufacturing facilities located in Richmond and Plano, USA, they are installed in over 120 countries worldwide with the help of 1,500 resellers and are used in many locations globally including schools, retail environments, critical infrastructure, transportation stations and more. Avigilon Corporation was founded in 2004 by Alexander Fernandes in Vancouver, British Columbia. Avigilon publicly announced the first high-definition surveillance system built from the ground up in 2006 and began selling its products in December 2007; the system included an 11 MP camera and high-definition network video recording software. Since Avigilon has expanded its offerings to include a broad range of high-definition cameras, from 1 MP to 30 MP in resolution, a variety of camera formats, including dome and fixed.
The company has become well-known for its advanced video analytics, including Avigilon Appearance Search™ and Unusual Motion Detection technologies, solutions that are designed to integrate legacy equipment into new high-definition video surveillance systems, including its analog encoders and the Avigilon Artificial Intelligence Appliance. The company released Avigilon Blue™, its first cloud platform for security and surveillance, in 2018. Avigilon went public on November 2011 on the Toronto Stock Exchange, it was announced in February 2018 that Motorola Solutions has agreed to acquire Avigilon in a deal worth C$1.2 billion. The acquisition was completed in March 2018. Official website
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot. Encryption does not itself prevent interference, but denies the intelligible content to a would-be interceptor. In an encryption scheme, the intended information or message, referred to as plaintext, is encrypted using an encryption algorithm – a cipher – generating ciphertext that can be read only if decrypted. For technical reasons, an encryption scheme uses a pseudo-random encryption key generated by an algorithm, it is in principle possible to decrypt the message without possessing the key, for a well-designed encryption scheme, considerable computational resources and skills are required. An authorized recipient can decrypt the message with the key provided by the originator to recipients but not to unauthorized users. In symmetric-key schemes, the encryption and decryption keys are the same. Communicating parties must have the same key.
An example of a symmetric key scheme would be the one used by the German Enigma Machine that sent information from a central location to troops in various other locations in secret. When the Allies captured one of these machines and figured out how it worked, they were able to decipher the information encoded within the messages as soon as they could discover the encryption key for a given day's transmissions. In public-key encryption schemes, the encryption key is published for anyone to use and encrypt messages. However, only the receiving party has access to the decryption key. Public-key encryption was first described in a secret document in 1973. Although published subsequently, the work of Diffie and Hellman, was published in a journal with a large readership, the value of the methodology was explicitly described and the method became known as the Diffie Hellman key exchange. A publicly available public key encryption application called Pretty Good Privacy was written in 1991 by Phil Zimmermann, distributed free of charge with source code.
Encryption has long been used by governments to facilitate secret communication. It is now used in protecting information within many kinds of civilian systems. For example, the Computer Security Institute reported that in 2007, 71% of companies surveyed utilized encryption for some of their data in transit, 53% utilized encryption for some of their data in storage. Encryption can be used to protect data "at rest", such as information stored on computers and storage devices. In recent years, there have been numerous reports of confidential data, such as customers' personal records, being exposed through loss or theft of laptops or backup drives. Digital rights management systems, which prevent unauthorized use or reproduction of copyrighted material and protect software against reverse engineering, is another somewhat different example of using encryption on data at rest. In response to encryption of data at rest, cyber-adversaries have developed new types of attacks; these more recent threats to encryption of data at rest include cryptographic attacks, stolen ciphertext attacks, attacks on encryption keys, insider attacks, data corruption or integrity attacks, data destruction attacks, ransomware attacks.
Data fragmentation and active defense data protection technologies attempt to counter some of these attacks, by distributing, moving, or mutating ciphertext so it is more difficult to identify, corrupt, or destroy. Encryption is used to protect data in transit, for example data being transferred via networks, mobile telephones, wireless microphones, wireless intercom systems, Bluetooth devices and bank automatic teller machines. There have been numerous reports of data in transit being intercepted in recent years. Data should be encrypted when transmitted across networks in order to protect against eavesdropping of network traffic by unauthorized users. Encryption, by itself, can protect the confidentiality of messages, but other techniques are still needed to protect the integrity and authenticity of a message. Standards for cryptographic software and hardware to perform encryption are available, but using encryption to ensure security may be a challenging problem. A single error in system design or execution can allow successful attacks.
Sometimes an adversary can obtain unencrypted information without directly undoing the encryption. See, e.g. traffic analysis, TEMPEST, or Trojan horse. Digital signature and encryption must be applied to the ciphertext when it is created to avoid tampering. Encrypting at the time of creation is only secure if the encryption device itself has not been tampered with. Conventional methods for deleting data permanently from a storage device involve overwriting its whole content with zeros, ones or other patterns – a process which can take a significant amount of time, depending on the capacity and the type of the medium. Cryptography offers a way of making the erasure instantaneous; this method is called crypto-shredding. An example implementation of this method can be found on iOS devices, where the cryptographic key is kept in a dedicated'Effaceable Storage'; because the