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Network File System

Network File System is a distributed file system protocol developed by Sun Microsystems in 1984, allowing a user on a client computer to access files over a computer network much like local storage is accessed. NFS, like many other protocols, builds on the Open Network Computing Remote Procedure Call system; the NFS is an open standard defined in a Request for Comments, allowing anyone to implement the protocol. Sun used version 1 only for in-house experimental purposes; when the development team added substantial changes to NFS version 1 and released it outside of Sun, they decided to release the new version as v2, so that version interoperation and RPC version fallback could be tested. Version 2 of the protocol operated only over User Datagram Protocol, its designers meant to keep the server side stateless, with locking implemented outside of the core protocol. People involved in the creation of NFS version 2 include Russel Sandberg, Bob Lyon, Bill Joy, Steve Kleiman, others; the Virtual File System interface allows a modular implementation, reflected in a simple protocol.

By February 1986, implementations were demonstrated for operating systems such as System V release 2, DOS, VAX/VMS using Eunice. NFSv2 only allows the first 2 GB of a file to be read due to 32-bit limitations. Version 3 added: support for 64-bit file offsets, to handle files larger than 2 Gigabytes; the first NFS Version 3 proposal within Sun Microsystems was created not long after the release of NFS Version 2. The principal motivation was an attempt to mitigate the performance issue of the synchronous write operation in NFS Version 2. By July 1992, implementation practice had solved many shortcomings of NFS Version 2, leaving only lack of large file support a pressing issue; this became an acute pain point for Digital Equipment Corporation with the introduction of a 64-bit version of Ultrix to support their newly released 64-bit RISC processor, the Alpha 21064. At the time of introduction of Version 3, vendor support for TCP as a transport-layer protocol began increasing. While several vendors had added support for NFS Version 2 with TCP as a transport, Sun Microsystems added support for TCP as a transport for NFS at the same time it added support for Version 3.

Using TCP as a transport made using NFS over a WAN more feasible, allowed the use of larger read and write transfer sizes beyond the 8 KB limit imposed by User Datagram Protocol. Version 4, influenced by Andrew File System and Server Message Block, includes performance improvements, mandates strong security, introduces a stateful protocol. Version 4 became the first version developed with the Internet Engineering Task Force after Sun Microsystems handed over the development of the NFS protocols. NFS version 4.1 aims to provide protocol support to take advantage of clustered server deployments including the ability to provide scalable parallel access to files distributed among multiple servers. Version 4.1 includes Session trunking mechanism and available in some enterprise solutions as VMware ESXi. NFS version 4.2 was published in November 2016 with new features including: server-side clone and copy, application I/O advise, sparse files, space reservation, application data block, labeled NFS with sec_label that accommodates any MAC security system, two new operations for pNFS.

One big advantage of NFSv4 over its predecessors is that only one UDP or TCP port, 2049, is used to run the service, which simplifies using the protocol across firewalls. WebNFS, an extension to Version 2 and Version 3, allows NFS to integrate more into Web-browsers and to enable operation through firewalls. In 2007 Sun Microsystems open-sourced their client-side WebNFS implementation. Various side-band protocols have become associated with NFS. Note: the byte-range advisory Network Lock Manager protocol the remote quota-reporting protocol, which allows NFS users to view their data-storage quotas on NFS servers NFS over RDMA, an adaptation of NFS that uses remote direct memory access as a transport NFS-Ganesha, an NFS server, running in user-space and supporting various file systems like GPFS/Spectrum Scale, CephFS via respective FSAL modules; the CephFS FSAL supported using libcephfsTrusted NFS NFS is used with Unix operating systems, Apple's macOS, Unix-like operating systems. It is available to operating systems such as Acorn RISC OS, AmigaOS, the classic Mac OS, OpenVMS, MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows, Novell NetWare, IBM AS/400.

Alternative remote file access protocols include the Server Message Block, Apple Filing Protocol, NetWare Core Protocol, OS/400 File Server file system. SMB and NetWare Core Protocol occur more than NFS on systems running Microsoft Windows. Haiku in 2012 added NFSv4 support as part of a Google Summer of Code project. Assuming a Unix-style scenario in which

Nicktoons (American TV channel)

Nicktoons is an American pay television channel, owned by ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks. Geared towards children aged 6-12, the channel broadcasts original animated series from sister network Nickelodeon, known as Nicktoons, along with other original animated series, some feature films, foreign animated programs from Nickelodeon's international networks 24 hours a day; as of September 2018 56.9 million American households received Nicktoons. Nicktoons was launched on May 1, 2002, as Nicktoons TV, part of the digital cable-exclusive MTV Digital Suite, in order to entice cable operators to pick up the network and give them a marketing advantage over satellite services. However, by early 2004, Nickelodeon management changed course and offered it to digital satellite services DirecTV and Dish Network; the network was marketed as commercial-free, with comedic promos involving Nickelodeon Animation Studios, two-minute cartoon shorts from foreign markets, former program promotions, used on Nickelodeon taking up commercial time.

By June 6, 2005, as the network's distribution increased, the network began to carry regular advertising. On September 28, 2009, the network's logo changed as part of Nickelodeon's universal rebranding effort that saw Nickelodeon's first logo change in 25 years, name changes for sister networks: The N to TeenNick and Noggin to Nick Jr. An HD feed was launched on August 13, 2013, is available on several providers. Like Viacom's other HD channels, any programming produced; as the network has blended in more Nickelodeon programming into its schedule, the Nicktoons website was sunsetted, recommending viewers go to instead before being redirected to the domain. Despite the channel's name, Nicktoons is not limited to airing Nicktoons, Nickelodeon's branding for its original animated television series; the channel has engaged in channel drift throughout its existence adding action-oriented programming, never seen on Nickelodeon, live-action programs in recent years. Like sister network TeenNick, it is used as a'burn off' channel for failed or low-rated series ordered for and airing on the main Nickelodeon network, along with outside series popular in overseas markets where Viacom is required to purchase worldwide rights for, but are not expected to rate well in the United States.

On September 3, 2014, a two-hour Wednesday prime time programming block named NickSports was launched on the channel, tying into the Kids' Choice Sports Awards inaugurated that year. The block presented licensed programming focusing on sports, including the Rob Dyrdek-starring Wild Grinders and NFL Rush Zone: Guardians of the Core, along with sports-related feature films such as Bend It Like Beckham, Cool Runnings, Space Jam. Sometime in 2015, the block was moved to a Friday prime time slot; the block ended in September 2018. United States - launched in May 1, 2002 UK and Ireland - launched in July 22, 2002 Netherlands - launched in 2007 Germany - launched in March 2010 Latin America - launched in February 4, 2013 France - launched in January 1, 2003 Africa - launched in September 30, 2014 Scandinavia - launched in 2017 Arabia - launched in February 15, 2017 Turkey - launched in 20 February 2017 Russia - launched in 2018 Poland - launched in 15 February 2018 Central and Eastern Europe - launched in February 15, 2018 Nick HD+ is the Indian Pay tv channel which airs many Nickelodeon Animated Series from Nickelodeon Animation Studio.

It airs all the Nicktoons programming and similar to Nicktoons channel. More than 40 of the Nickelodeon animated series were available on Voot streaming service; the Nicktoons brand extends to other media, such as video games featuring Nicktoons characters. From 2006 until 2009, Nicktoons Network used a robot mascot in bumpers and advertisements for the channel; the mascot, named "ACOW," which stands for Animation Capital of the World was a complex robot character with a large singular eye, animated using "photo-puppetry." ACOW was prominently featured on the website and was used as part of the "Nicktoons Network: Animation Capital of the World" logo. Several similar-looking eyeball-based characters were seen in promos for the network. 2016 Decider's Oral History of "Nicktoons" interviews with cast and crew

Church News

The Church News is a weekly tabloid-sized supplement to the Deseret News and the MormonTimes, a Salt Lake City, Utah newspaper owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. It is the only publication by the LDS Church, devoted to news coverage of the LDS Church; the Church News is the official newspaper of the LDS Church, publishing the church's "Authorized News." This is not to be confused with the "Mormon Times" branded coverage within the religion section of the Deseret News, which contains unofficial social and cultural LDS news coverage, though both are now distributed together to Church News subscribers. As with the Ensign, the LDS Church encourages its members to subscribe to the Church News, which gives its content an air of official endorsement; the Church News does not carry advertisements in its pages, although it did in its first three issues and during 1959–60. Despite higher prices than in other Deseret News sections, Church News ad space didn't make enough money, it was felt that it detracted from the religious paper's dignity.

Instead, the section is financially supported by the rest of the Deseret News operations, high volume subscriptions. A mainstay of the Church News is its continuing features; these include "This Week in Church History," "Message of Inspiration," "Living By the Scriptures," "A Thought From the Scriptures," and "Viewpoints." It regularly carries announcements, such as upcoming events in "Calendar of Events," 70th wedding anniversaries in "Milestones of Togetherness," birthdays over 100 in "Centenarians," and deaths of prominent church members in "Obituaries." Announcements are posted of all new stake and temple presidents when they occur. The Church News publishes semiannual issues on the LDS Church's general conferences, but only prints brief reports of the sermons and announcements, unlike the Ensign and Conference Report, other church publications which circulate and print full transcripts; the Church News' purpose has been stated to "build testimonies and uplift its readers." In doing this it focuses on motivational stories in a graphics-heavy format.

The paper isn't intended to cover controversial issues, but emphasizes success stories and reinforces the church message. Though it experimented with some "hard news" in the early 1970s, the paper has always stayed with its successful, uplifting formula and remained reverential toward church leaders; some have nicknamed the paper "Mormon Pravda," because of its dedication to promoting faith, which others see as producing soft "human interest" stories. Since the paper and the church are both based in Salt Lake City, much Church News coverage over the years has been Utah-centric, earning it the nickname "This Week in Utah" by some Australian readers, its global focus has expanded as the paper attempts to showcase the church's international activities. Since the Deseret News was founded in 1850, it reported news of the LDS Church in its regular issues. Minutes of ward meetings were covered and sermons were carried on the front page. In the 1890s, efforts to emphasize secular news pushed church coverage to dedicated sections on inside pages.

As early as the mid-1850s and 1860s consideration was given to creating a separate church newspaper. In 1931, a new Saturday tabloid called the Church Section was released, which reported leaders' sermons, church events, notices about new bishoprics and stake presidencies, it was retitled as the Weekly Church Edition in 1942, Church News in 1943, though the name remained in flux for the next few years. It was in 1943 that circulation as an independent publication from the Deseret News began. In 1945, when Liahona The Elders' Journal ended publication, it recommended that its subscribers began taking the Church News. Starting in 1981, the Church News was retitled LDS Church News: News of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, but today it is referred to as Church News or LDS Church News. In 1943, the paper became available through a special Saturday-only Deseret News subscription, which allowed the paper to surpass the regular Deseret News circulation by 12,000. In 1948, the Church News was distributed as a separate publication by mail, to areas Deseret News circulation didn't cover, a practice that still continues.

This allowed Church News circulation to increase to 250,000 in 1981, compared to the Deseret News at about 70,000. The paper was distributed in an LDS serviceman's edition from 1944–48 and by telegram from 1952–53 For much of its history the Church News was available throughout the United States without a subscription to the Deseret News, except for residents of Utah who were required to subscribe to the Deseret News in order to receive the Church News. In 2014 the subscription model changed, allowing Utahns to subscribe to the less expensive weekly Deseret News National Edition and receive the Church News as an insert. Starting in 1948, large photos were used for each issue's cover. More graphics and colors were used and regular features were added, such as editorials, "Gems of Thought," "The Missionary's Diary," "I Want to Know," and short historical or scriptural vignettes; the editorials became one of the most noticeable features of the Church News. Longtime Deseret News editor and LDS Church apostle Mark E. Petersen wrote for the Church News since its 1931 beginning, in 1943 started his own weekly editorial.

In 1948, these moved to the back page, where they remained until Petersen died in 1984 and they were replaced by staff-written "Viewpoints." Because of his church authority and the paper's rel

2013 World Championships in Athletics – Women's 400 metres hurdles

The women's 400 metres hurdles at the 2013 World Championships in Athletics was held at the Luzhniki Stadium on 12–15 August. Running on home soil, reigning Olympic Champion Natalya Antyukh might have been expected to be the favorite. Instead she made a quick exit; the Olympic silver medalist from that close Olympic final is the returning champion Lashinda Demus, but having a bye, she has raced sparingly. She ran her season best to qualify in that same semi; the distant bronze medalist Zuzana Hejnová in 2012 was the 2013 world leader. She won the first semi half a second faster than the other qualifiers. Perri Shakes-Drayton won the second semi passing a fading Demus. In the final, Hejnová in lane 3 backed off, it was Demus took off in lane 4 and was the leader down the back stretch, with training partner Dalilah Muhammad on the same pace. Both are trained by Demus' mom. Shakes-Drayton between them tried to keep up with the two Americans. Hejnová was gaining on Demus and Muhammad through the turn.

Demus, who still holds the American high school record in the 300 hurdles did that distance well, but Hejnová, who set the world best in that race just two weeks earlier, passed her over the 8th hurdle at 290 meters. Demus' arm carry noticeably dropped, she had played her best card and Hejnová had trumped it. Hejnová continued ahead to victory with Demus fighting to stay with her. Muhammad caught Demus with 10 meters to go for silver. Demus a step back for bronze. Shakes-Drayton disappeared back through the field, nobody else was in contention with the three clear winners. Hejnová's 52.83 makes her the number 12 performer of all time. Prior to the competition, the records were as follows: All times are local times Qualification: First 3 in each heat and the next 4 fastest advanced to the semifinals. Qualification: First 3 in each heat and the next 2 fastest advanced to the final; the final was started at 20:45. 400 metres hurdles results at IAAF website

Olivia in Concert

Olivia in Concert is a 1983 home video release of a concert by singer Olivia Newton-John. The concert was taped at Weber State University in Ogden, Utah on October 12 and 13, 1982, during Olivia's Physical Tour, it premiered as a television special on HBO on January 23, 1983. The video charted at No. 15 on Billboard Top Videodisks and was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America for shipment of 50,000 units in the United States. "Deeper Than the Night" "Let Me Be There" "Please Mr. Please" "If You Love Me, Let Me Know" "Jolene" "Sam" "Xanadu" "Magic" "Suddenly" "A Little More Love" "Silvery Rain" "Falling" "Heart Attack" "Make a Move on Me" "Hopelessly Devoted to You" "You're the One That I Want" "Physical" "I Honestly Love You"

TMG (language)

TMG is a recursive descent compiler-compiler created by Robert M. McClure and presented in 1965. TMG ran on systems like early Unix, it was used to build EPL, an early version of PL/I. Douglas McIlroy ported TMG to an early version of Unix. According to Ken Thompson, McIlroy wrote TMG on a piece of paper and "decided to give his piece of paper his piece of paper," compiling assembly language that he entered and assembled on Thompson's Unix system running on PDP-7. Thompson used TMG in 1970 as a tool to offer Fortran, but due to memory limitations of PDP-7 ended up creating the B programming language, much influenced by BCPL. Recursive descent algorithm of TMG was studied formally by Jeffrey Ullman. Formal description of the algorithms was named TMG recognition scheme. Top-down parsing language Yacc "TMG – Compiler writing language". HOPL: Online Historical Encyclopaedia of Programming Languages. Archived from the original on September 21, 2007