In the broadcasting industry, a network affiliate or affiliated station is a local broadcaster, owned by a company other than the owner of the network, which carries some or all of the lineup of television programs or radio programs of a television or radio network. This distinguishes such a television or radio station from an owned-and-operated station, owned by the parent network. Notwithstanding this distinction, it is common in informal speech to refer to any station, O&O or otherwise, that carries a particular network's programming as an affiliate, or to refer to the status of carrying such programming in a given market as an "affiliation". Stations which carry a network's programming by method of affiliation maintain a contractual agreement, which may allow the network to dictate certain requirements that a station must agree to as part of the contract. Affiliation contracts last between three and five years, though contracts have run for as little as one year or as long as ten. While many television and radio stations maintain affiliations with the same network for decades, on occasion, there are certain factors that may lead a network to move its programming to another station at the end of one network's existing contract with a station.
One of the most notable and expansive affiliation changes occurred in the United States from September 1994 to September 1996, when television stations in 30 markets changed affiliations as a result of a May 1994 agreement by New World Communications to switch twelve of its stations to Fox, resulting in various other affiliation transactions including additional groupwide deals. In the United States, Federal Communications Commission regulations limit the number of network-owned stations as a percentage of total national market reach; as such, networks tend to have O&Os only in the largest media markets, rely on affiliates to carry their programming in other, smaller markets. However the largest markets may have network affiliates in lieu of O&Os. For instance, Scripps's WPIX serves as the New York City affiliate of The CW, which does not have an O&O in that market. On the other hand, several other television stations in the same market – WABC-TV, WCBS-TV, WNBC, WNJU, WNYW, WWOR-TV, WPXN-TV, WXTV-DT and WFUT-DT – are O&Os.
A similar rule exists in Japan, in which regulations governed by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications limit the number of network-owned commercial television stations as a percentage of total national market reach. As such, commercial networks tend to have O&Os only in the four largest media markets, rely on affiliates to carry their programming in other prefectures. However, there are two major exceptions to the regulations. NHK is a government-owned, non-commercial television network and, since it is not covered by the ownership cap and operates all of its stations. TV Tokyo Network is not covered by the ownership cap due to the network's low number of affiliates. In Brazil, government regulations limit the number of owned-and-operated stations that a television network can own based on the percentage of total national market reach; as a result, the five main national networks tend to have O&Os only in the metropolitan areas of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo and rely on affiliates to carry their programming outside of those two areas.
The metropolitan areas of Belo Horizonte, Brasília and Recife are examples of those who have both O&Os and affiliates. For instance, Rede Globo and RedeTV have O&O s in Recife. TV Cultura, Rede Brasil de Televisão, TV Gazeta only have one owned-and-operated station each. In Canada, the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission has more lenient rules regarding media ownership; as such, most television stations, regardless of market size, are now O&Os of their respective networks, with only a few true affiliates remaining. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation relied on a large number of owned affiliates to disseminate its radio and television programming. However, since the 1960s, most of the CBC Television affiliates have become network owned-and-operated stations or retransmitters. CBC Radio stations are now O&O. While network-owned stations will carry the full programming sc
National Women's Day is a South African public holiday celebrated annually on 9 August. The day commemorates the 1956 march of 20,000 women to the Union Buildings in Pretoria to petition against the country's pass laws that required South Africans defined as "black" under The Population Registration Act to carry an internal passport, known as a pass, that served to maintain population segregation, control urbanisation, manage migrant labour during the apartheid era; the first National Women's Day was celebrated on 9 August 1995. In 2006, a reenactment of the march was staged for its 50th anniversary, with many of the 1956 march veterans. On 9 August 1956, more than 20,000 South African women of all races staged a march on the Union Buildings in protest against the proposed amendments to the Urban Areas Act of 1950 referred to as the "pass laws"; the march was led by Helen Joseph, Rahima Moosa and Sophia Williams. Other participants included Frances Baard, a statue of whom was unveiled by Northern Cape Premier Hazel Jenkins in Kimberley on National Women's Day 2009.
The women left 14,000 petitions at the office doors of prime minister J. G. Strijdom; the women stood silently for 30 minutes and started singing a protest song, composed in honour of the occasion: Wathint'Abafazi Wathint'imbokodo!. In the years since, the phrase has come to represent women's strength in South Africa. National Women's Day draws attention to significant issues African women still face, such as parenting, domestic violence, sexual harassment in the workplace, unequal pay, schooling for all girls, it can be used as a day to protest these ideas. Due to this public holiday, there have been many significant advances. Before 1994, women had low representation in the Parliament, only at 2.7%. Women in the national assembly were at 27.7%. This number has nearly doubled. National Women's Day is based around much of the same principles as International Women's Day, strives for much of the same freedoms and rights. International Women's Day Public holidays in South Africa National Women's Day
Bruce Carman Shorts was an American football player and coach. He played as a tackle at the University of Michigan from 1900 to 1901. Shorts served as the head football coach at the Nevada State University—now known as the University of Nevada, Reno—in 1904 and at the University of Oregon in 1905. Shorts attended high school at Mt. Pleasant, Michigan before enrolling at the University of Michigan. Shorts played for Fielding H. Yost's first Michigan Wolverines football team; the 1901 team compiled a record of 11–0 and outscored its opponents 550–0. He was regarded as one of the best tackles in the Western Conference, he weighed close to 190 pounds while playing at Michigan. He played in 1901 despite being sick. Coach Yost recalled Shorts' efforts in playing through sickness as follows: Well do I remember how dangerously near Bruce Shorts, star right tackle, came to being lost to the 1901 Michigan football team, he was sick all season with an attack of appendicitis. His enforced withdrawal from the team would have weakened it.
In an evenly matched game one can visualize. Shorts played through the season, but this nearly cost him his life, for he was a short time so sick that it was reported he had died. However, he pulled through. Prior to the 1902 Rose Bowl, the Los Angeles Times wrote a profile about the stars of the Michigan football team. About Shorts, the Times wrote: "Bruce Shorts, the newly chosen team captain of 1902 is 6 feet in height and weighs 190 pounds. For his two years he has played right tackle, his weight makes him one of the strongest men on the team, he is the best ground gainer of the line men."In addition to football, Shorts competed in the "weight" events for the Michigan track and field team. He won the Western intercollegiate championship in the hammer throw, was "also recognized as a good shot-putter." Shorts graduated from the University of Michigan Law School. After practicing law for several months, Shorts was hired in September 1904 as the head football coach at the University of Nevada, Reno.
He replaced Allen Steckle, as Nevada's coach. A Reno newspaper reported on Shorts' hiring as follows: Bruce Shorts, captain of the famous Michigan football team of 1901, arrived in Reno yesterday to enter upon his duties as coach of the University of Nevada team. Mr. Shorts is undoubtedly one of the best posted as well as one of the best football players in the country.... He is looked upon as the best coach west of the Mississippi River, his work this year will undoubtedly result in maintaining, if not surpassing, the record made by Coach Steckle last year; the Nevada Sagebrush compiled a 3–3 record in Shorts' one year as head coach. In 1905, Shorts was hired by the University of Oregon; the Oakland Tribune reported on Shorts' hiring at Oregon as follows: "This year the Oregonians are coached by Bruce Shorts, the great Michigan captain of 1902. Shorts has a record for turning out fast players. Fred Staiwer is manager of the Oregon eleven."Shorts became a successful corporate lawyer in Seattle