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Mount Washington, Baltimore

Mount Washington is an area of northwest Baltimore, Maryland. It is a designated city historic district and divided into two sections: South Road/Sulgrave to the southeast and Dixon's Hill to the north; the Mount Washington Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1990 with a boundary increase in 2001, with five contributing buildings and four contributing structures. Mount Washington was a small area; however and businesses of many other nearby neighborhoods in the 21209 ZIP code and a small portion of the 21215 ZIP code around the neighborhood refer to their location as Mount Washington. Though within the Baltimore city limits, but mixed with some of these areas within Baltimore County as Pikesville; the Mount Washington neighborhood is served by the Mount Washington Improvement Association, though not speaking on behalf of all the neighborhood's residents, wields significant political clout in Baltimore. Mount Washington is residential, though it has two small commercial areas: Mount Washington Village, off the west side of the Jones Falls Expressway near the beautiful Kelly Avenue bridge, containing several restaurants and stores, as well as the Baltimore Light Rail's Mount Washington Station.

Mount Washington Mill, a refurbished textile mill now housing a Whole Foods and other stores and offices, off the east side of the Jones Falls Expressway near the Kelly Avenue bridge referred to as Historic Mount Washington. These two areas were at one time viewed as a single area, but since the construction of Interstate 83 these areas have been separated, travel over a longer distance is required between them. In 1854, George Gelbach and Elias Heiner purchased 314 acres near a mill village. Though the original homes were designed as summer houses, Gelbach envisioned that Mount Washington would become become a suburb of Baltimore. Building picked up after the Civil War, with developers, such as John Graham developing small groups of houses around the South Road section; the northern section of the area, what became Dixon's Hill, was the result of Thomas Dixon purchasing 20 acres from Gelbach in 1855 and developed in the 1860s. Mount Washington is considered by some to be Baltimore's first suburb.

It was part of Baltimore County until it was annexed in 1914. Some of the main roads that run through the Mount Washington area are: Immediate: Interstate 83 known as the Jones Falls Expressway Falls Road Kelly Avenue Greely Road Smith AvenueExtended: Greenspring Avenue Cross Country Boulevard Pimlico Road Northern Parkway Lake AvenueOther communities near Mount Washington include: Village of Cross Keys Cheswolde Pimlico Rodgers Forge Ruxton Mount Washington is well known for its public transportation operated by the Maryland Transit Administration. This, most notably, includes the Central Light Rail line, it has a stop in historic Mount Washington Village. Light Rail service operates to downtown Baltimore, Hunt Valley, BWI Airport every 10–15 minutes at most times. MTA operates three public bus lines in Mount Washington Village, all of which originate at the Reisterstown Plaza Metro Subway Station; these are: Route 27, which operates to areas including Hampden, Downtown Baltimore, the Cherry Hill area, Route 58, which terminates at a loop in Mt. Washington after serving the Fallstaff area, Route 60, which serves Fallstaff and continues north to Greenspring Station and Stevenson University.

The zoned local public schools are Mount Washington Elementary and Northwestern High School, although most of the children in the community who pursue their education in the Baltimore City public school system do so at either of the magnet schools, City or Poly. Most of the upper-middle-class families send their children to some of the many private schools in the area; the neighborhood has been the home of the Mount Washington Lacrosse Club since its establishment in 1904. Mount Washington dominated the sport at collegiate level for much of the 20th century. Since 1999, Mount Washington has shared its home field, Norris Field on Kelly Avenue, with the all-girls Bryn Mawr School. Mount Washington is home of Meadowbrook Swim Club, established in 1930, which has hosted many famous swimmers in the 1930s and 1940s and is now a venue rented by of the most prestigious swimming clubs in the world, the North Baltimore Aquatic Club or NBAC for short; the NBAC is a team of many Olympic swimmers including Michael Phelps, Chase Kalisz, Katie Hoff, Patrick Kennedy, Theresa Andrews, Anita Nall, Beth Botsford, Whitney Metzler, Allison Schmitt.

NBAC is home to Paralympians Ian Silverman, Jessica Long and Becca Meyers. Elizabeth Turner Graham, Civil War relief activist, women's movement organizer, philanthropist Charles L. Bennett, astrophysicist Duke Cameron, heart surgeon Katie Hoff, Olympic swimmer Doug Turnbull, National Lacrosse Hall of Fame inductee Historic American Engineering Record No. MD-57, "Mount Washington Mills, Falls Road & Cotton Avenue, Independent City, MD", 5 photos, 2 color transparencies, 1 photo caption page

John Nunn

John Denis Martin Nunn is an English chess grandmaster, a three-time world champion in chess problem solving, a chess writer and publisher, a mathematician. He is one of England's strongest chess players and was in the world's top ten; as a junior, Nunn showed a prodigious talent for the game and in 1967, at twelve years of age, he won the British under-14 Championship. At fourteen, he was London Under-18 Champion for the 1969/70 season and less than a year at just fifteen years of age, he proceeded to Oriel College, Oxford, to study mathematics. At the time, Nunn was Oxford's youngest undergraduate since Cardinal Wolsey in 1520. Graduating in 1973, he went on to gain his Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1978 with a thesis on finite H-spaces supervised by John Hubbuck. Nunn remained in Oxford as a mathematics lecturer until 1981, when he became a professional chess player. In 1975, he became the European Junior Chess Champion, he gained the Grandmaster title in 1978 and was British champion in 1980.

Nunn has twice won individual gold medals at Chess Olympiads. In 1989, he finished sixth in the inaugural'World Cup', a series of tournaments in which the top 25 players in the world competed, his best performance in the World Chess Championship cycle came in 1987, when he lost a playoff match against Lajos Portisch for a place in the Candidates Tournament. He won the prestigious Hoogovens tournament in 1982, 1990 and 1991, he achieved his highest Elo rating of 2630 in January 1995. Six years earlier, in January 1989, his rating of 2620 was high enough to elevate him into the world's top ten, where he shared ninth place; this was close to the peak of the English chess boom, there were two English players above him on the list: Nigel Short and Jonathan Speelman. Nunn has now retired from serious tournament play and, until he resurfaced as a player in two Veterans events in 2014 and 2015, had not played a FIDE-rated game since August 2006; as well as being a strong player, Nunn is regarded as one of the best contemporary authors of chess books.

He has penned many books, including Secrets of Grandmaster Chess, which won the British Chess Federation Book of the Year award in 1988, John Nunn's Best Games, which took the award in 1995. He is the director of chess publishers Gambit Publications. Chess historian Edward Winter has written of him: A polymath, Nunn has written authoritative monographs on openings and compositions, as well as annotated games collections and autobiographical volumes; as an annotator he is at home presenting lucid prose descriptions for the relative novice and analysis of extreme depth for the expert. In a 2010 interview, Magnus Carlsen explained that he thought extreme intelligence could be a hindrance to one's chess career; as an example of this, he cited Nunn's failure to have won the World Chess Championship: He has so much in his head. Too much, his enormous powers of understanding and his constant thirst for knowledge distracted him from chess. Nunn is involved with chess problems, composing several examples and solving as part of the British team on several occasions.

On this subject he wrote Solving in Style. He won the World Chess Solving Championship in Halkidiki, Greece, in September 2004 and made his final GM norm in problem solving. There were further wins of the World Championship in 2007 and in 2010, he is the third person to gain both over-the-board and solving GM titles. Nunn has long been interested in computer chess. In 1984, Nunn began annotating games between computers for Personal Computer World magazine, joined the editorial board of Frederic Friedel's Computerschach & Spiele- magazine. In 1987, Nunn was announced as the first editor of the newly created Chessbase magazine. In 1992, Nunn released his first book making use of chess endgame tablebases, Secrets Of Rook Endings following with Secrets of Minor-Piece Endings, Secrets Of Pawnless Endings; these books include human-usable endgame strategies found by Nunn by extensive experimentation with tablebases, new editions have come out and are due as more tablebases are created and tablebases are more data-mined.

Nunn is thus the foremost data miner of chess endgame tablebases. Nunn finished third in the World Senior Chess Championship of 2014 in Katerini and second in the European Senior Chess Championship of 2015 in Eretria, Greece. Jacob Øst-Hansen vs John Nunn, World Student Olympiad, Teesside 1974, Vienna Game, 0–1: the Frankenstein-Dracula Variation of the Vienna Game provides swashbuckling play and Nunn's game with Jacob Øst-Hansen at Teesside 1974, was no exception; the latter part of the game was played in a frantic time scramble, with Nunn sacrificing pieces to bring the enemy king into the open and deliver checkmate. Alexander Beliavsky vs John Nunn 1985, Wijk Aan Zee 1985, King's Indian, Samisch Variation, 0–1: this game is sometimes referred to as "Nunn's Immortal", was included in the book The Mammoth Book Of The World's Greatest Chess Games. In his book Winning Chess Brilliancies, Yasser Seirawan called this game the best of the 1980s. Nunn is married to a German chess player with the title Woman FIDE Master.

They have Michael. Coincident with a reduction in his over-the-board chess, Nunn has developed a passion for astronomy, a hobby he shares with ex-world chess champion Viswanathan Anand. Nunn regards himself as a keen amateur in the field, but the various articles and

Judiciary of Jamaica

The judiciary of Jamaica is based on the judiciary of the United Kingdom. The courts are organized at four levels, with additional provision for appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London; the Court of Appeal is the highest appellate court. The Supreme Court has unlimited jurisdiction in all cases, sits as the Circuit Court to try criminal cases; the Parish Court in each parish hears both civil cases, excluding grave offences. The Petty Sessions are held with power to hear minor crimes. Jamaica is a common law jurisdiction, in which precedents from English law and British Commonwealth tradition may be taken into account; the Court of Appeal is the highest appellate court in Jamaica. The Court is composed of six other Judges; the Chief Justice is a judge ex officio of the Court of Appeal, but participates only when asked to do so by the President. Although the Court of Appeal is the highest court in Jamaica, its judgements may themselves be appealed to the Queen-in-Council, in which case they are heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London.

In May 2015, the House of Representatives approved with the necessary two-thirds majority bills to end legal appeals to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council and make the Caribbean Court of Justice as Jamaica's final court of appeal. The reform will be debated by the Senate. However, the government will need the support of at least one opposition senator for the measures to be approved by the required two-thirds majority; the Supreme Court has unlimited original jurisdiction in civil cases. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is the head of the judiciary. Besides the Chief Justice, the court is composed of the Senior Puisne Judge and additional Puisne Judges, with their number established by Parliament. In response to increasing case load, Parliament in 2008 increased the number of spaces on the Supreme Court from 26 to 40 with the new spaces filled over time by appointment of new judges; the Supreme Court has a number of divisions, in which a subset of the justices hear specific types of cases.

The Circuit Court is the division for holding sessions in the individual parishes. The Justices of the Peace Act states that the "Circuit Court for every parish in this Island shall be the Appeal Court for matters arising in every such parish." Other divisions of the Supreme Court are the Gun Court, the Commercial Court, the Revenue Court, the Family Court. In the civil division of the Supreme Court the judge sits alone without the jury, except in cases of defamation; the Supreme Court serves as a Constitutional Court for Jamaica. Each parish has a Parish Court with power to hear criminal matters; the jurisdiction of each court extends one mile beyond the border of its parish. Severe crimes such as rape and murder are not tried by the Parish Courts, but are referred to the Supreme Court after a preliminary hearing; the Parish Courts have a number of divisions, including the Family Court, Coroners Court, Tax Court, Juvenile Court, Traffic Court, Small Claims Court, Night Court, Drug Court, Gun Court.

Resident Magistrates or Parish Court are appointed by the Governor General on recommendation of the Judicial Services Commission. They are report to the Chief Justice; the minimum qualification for the Resident Magistrate is five years at the Bar. The Petty Sessions hear minor criminal matters, such as resisting arrest. Justices of the Peace serve as judges in the Petty Sessions. In 2001 Jamaica signed the agreement establishing the Caribbean Court of Justice; the Court has a dual role: it has original jurisdiction and functions as an international court in interpreting and applying the Treaty of Chaguaramas, which established CARICOM. In 2004 the Jamaican Parliament approved the establishment of the CCJ as the highest court in its Original Jurisdiction in the interpretation of the Revised Treaty of Chagaramus, while at the same time attempting to replace Privy Council as the final appellate court in Jamaica. However, in 2005 the Privy Council struck down the change to the final appellate court as unconstitutional because the Privy Council's status is an entrenched provision in the Jamaican Constitution and as such more would be required to remove the Privy Council as the final appellate court.

The Council ruled that although Parliament was within its powers to remove appellate jurisdiction from the Privy Council, it could not grant jurisdiction to the CCJ through an ordinary act. Instead, such a change must meet the more rigorous standards for amending "entrenched" provisions of the Jamaican Constitution; as a result, the Privy Council remains the final court of appeal for Jamaica. As of June 2015, three bills which would abolish appeals to the Privy Council and make the CCJ Jamaica's final court of appeal have passed the House of Representatives and have been sent to the Senate where they must be approved by a two-thirds majority to become law. Chief Justices of Jamaica Structure of the Jamaican Court System from the Ministry of Justice Constitution of Jamaica from the Georgetown University Political Database of the Americas

69 (novel)

69 is a roman à clef novel by Ryu Murakami. It was published first in 1987, it takes place in 1969, tells the story of some high school students coming of age in an obscure Japanese city who try to mimic the counter-culture movements taking place in Tokyo and other parts of the world. Thirty-two-year-old narrator Kensuke Yazaki takes a nostalgic look back at the year 1969, when he was an ambitious and enthusiastic seventeen-year-old, living in Sasebo, in western Kyushu, where he gets into antics with his ambitious and enthusiastic best friends and Adama, their priorities are girls, music, pop culture, organising a school festival to be called "The Morning Erection Festival", besting teachers and enemies, finding a way to change the world somehow. The 2004 film 69 is based on Murakami's novel. 1987, Japan,?, Pub date 1 August 1987, hardback 1993, Europe?, Kodansha Europe, Pub date 1 September 1993, hardback 1995, Europe?, Kodansha Europe, Pub date? March 1995, paperback 2006, Europe?, Kodansha Europe, Pub date 7 February 2006, paperback 2004, Suhrkamp Verlag, Pub date 30 September 2004, paperback "69" review Japanzine By Zack Davisson "69" review By

Post-graduate service

Post-graduate service is a range of commitments that people who have graduated with a college degree can make to volunteer in a community in need. Discussed within the setting of colleges and universities, post-graduate service is seen as an alternative to entering the workforce or going to a graduate or professional school. A post-graduate volunteer works for a non-profit organization on a long-term basis. Non-profits can have internal programs for taking on such volunteers, but what is more meant by "post-graduate service" is when graduates interested in service of this kind become applicants to broader programs that have relationships with multiple non-profits. These programs, upon accepting the graduate, "place" him or her with a non-profit; the placement can resemble paid employment and demands a commitment of one year. In wider circles, the terms “service” and “volunteering” tend to be invoked when the person is unpaid. Thus, here they are used somewhat differently, as many who engage in post-graduate service are given stipends or are compensated.

There are programs that care to address this—by referring to their participants as “members” and not “volunteers.” There are some programs designed for graduated students, such as Teach For America, that have certain similarities to post-graduate service but offer members more than mere compensation but full salaries and thus are not considered post-graduate service. However, with post-graduate service being an umbrella term that has meaning insofar as university students and staff members use it and find it helpful, these exclusions and exceptions are not significant; the organizations that fit this umbrella term—i.e. that take on post-graduate volunteers, either for their own use or to place with separate non-profits—differ in several important ways. The United States federal government has launched its own programs aimed at putting volunteers in places within the country or in the world that have been identified as needful of such service; the Corporation for National and Community Service was established in 1993, while it takes volunteers of all ages across multiple programs, its AmeriCorps program is an option that many recent college graduates choose.

Meanwhile, the Peace Corps has been in existence since 1961, placing volunteers in third-world poverty, that they might be partner to local communities efforts at self-improvement. With these programs understood to be “governmental post-graduate service”, most of the rest of what is considered post-graduate service is non-governmental; some organizations put volunteers in others in international service. In addition to the Peace Corps, examples of international post-graduate service programs would be Jesuit Volunteer Corps International and Good Shepherd Volunteers International. Domestic programs include City Loretto Volunteers. Parallelistically, non-profit organizations that have their own programs for taking on full-time volunteers which are domestic include Nazareth Farm and Amate House. Non-profits that have their own programs for taking on full-time volunteers which are international include Farm of the Child and Working Boys’ Center. Organizations can differ in their religious character.

Some programs are secular and some are faith-based, including being affiliated with religions, denominations, or religious institutes. Many organizations that would be called post-graduate service programs are in fact the lay missioner/volunteer arm of a particular religious institute or society of apostolic life; this includes some programs named, as well as the Augustinian Volunteers, Good Shepherd Volunteers, Dominican Volunteers, Maryknoll Lay Missioners, Cabrini Mission Corps, Little Sisters of the Assumption Family in Mission. A post-graduate volunteer’s housing and living situation varies across programs; some volunteer residences would qualify as intentional community. In such cases, volunteers may not be expected to contribute to housing costs, as when the house belongs to or is paid for by the post-graduate service program. In other cases, volunteers are expected to procure their own housing; some differences lie in program philosophies. Many organizations that place or take volunteers have distinct approaches to service integrating their understandings of service with values or “pillars” that present their vision of how a volunteer should live.

For instance, the Jesuit Volunteer Corps identifies its “values” as social justice, community and simple living. An integrated approach to service means living out these values and includes specific actions for the volunteers that speak to them and build on them. Colleges and universities in the United States can be found to have structures in place, or particular staff members, who—like career development departments—aid interested students in their search for the right service program; the Catholic Volunteer Network is made up of 200 member organizations that take post-graduate volunteers. Many of these organizations report to CVN the colleges and universities from which their volunteers come, such that CVN can publicize which colleges are sending the most students into volunteering positions within their network. In previous rank orderings, the University of Notre Dame has topped CVN’s list. Post-graduate service is chosen by a person when she or he has just acquired a degree and, because it is a full-time commitment, thus precludes