A blog is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete informal diary-style text entries. Posts are displayed in reverse chronological order, so that the most recent post appears first, at the top of the web page; until 2009, blogs were the work of a single individual of a small group, covered a single subject or topic. In the 2010s, "multi-author blogs" emerged, featuring the writing of multiple authors and sometimes professionally edited. MABs from newspapers, other media outlets, think tanks, advocacy groups, similar institutions account for an increasing quantity of blog traffic; the rise of Twitter and other "microblogging" systems helps integrate MABs and single-author blogs into the news media. Blog can be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog; the emergence and growth of blogs in the late 1990s coincided with the advent of web publishing tools that facilitated the posting of content by non-technical users who did not have much experience with HTML or computer programming.
A knowledge of such technologies as HTML and File Transfer Protocol had been required to publish content on the Web, early Web users therefore tended to be hackers and computer enthusiasts. In the 2010s, the majority are interactive Web 2.0 websites, allowing visitors to leave online comments, it is this interactivity that distinguishes them from other static websites. In that sense, blogging can be seen as a form of social networking service. Indeed, bloggers do not only produce content to post on their blogs, but often build social relations with their readers and other bloggers. However, there are high-readership blogs. Many blogs provide commentary on topic, ranging from politics to sports. Others function as more personal online diaries, others function more as online brand advertising of a particular individual or company. A typical blog combines text, digital images, links to other blogs, web pages, other media related to its topic; the ability of readers to leave publicly viewable comments, interact with other commenters, is an important contribution to the popularity of many blogs.
However, blog owners or authors moderate and filter online comments to remove hate speech or other offensive content. Most blogs are textual, although some focus on art, videos and audio. In education, blogs can be used as instructional resources; these blogs are referred to as edublogs. Microblogging is another type of blogging, featuring short posts. On 16 February 2011, there were over 156 million public blogs in existence. On 20 February 2014, there were around 172 million Tumblr and 75.8 million WordPress blogs in existence worldwide. According to critics and other bloggers, Blogger is the most popular blogging service used today. However, Blogger does not offer public statistics. Technorati lists 1.3 million blogs as of February 22, 2014. The term "weblog" was coined by Jorn Barger on 17 December 1997; the short form, "blog", was coined by Peter Merholz, who jokingly broke the word weblog into the phrase we blog in the sidebar of his blog Peterme.com in April or May 1999. Shortly thereafter, Evan Williams at Pyra Labs used "blog" as both a noun and verb and devised the term "blogger" in connection with Pyra Labs' Blogger product, leading to the popularization of the terms.
Before blogging became popular, digital communities took many forms including Usenet, commercial online services such as GEnie, Byte Information Exchange and the early CompuServe, e-mail lists, Bulletin Board Systems. In the 1990s, Internet forum software created running conversations with "threads". Threads are topical connections between messages on a virtual "corkboard". From 14 June 1993, Mosaic Communications Corporation maintained their "What’s New" list of new websites, updated daily and archived monthly; the page was accessible by a special ``. The earliest instance of a commercial blog was on the first business to consumer Web site created in 1995 by Ty, Inc. which featured a blog in a section called "Online Diary". The entries were maintained by featured Beanie Babies that were voted for monthly by Web site visitors; the modern blog evolved from the online diary where people would keep a running account of the events in their personal lives. Most such writers journalers. Justin Hall, who began personal blogging in 1994 while a student at Swarthmore College, is recognized as one of the earlier bloggers, as is Jerry Pournelle.
Dave Winer's Scripting News is credited with being one of the older and longer running weblogs. The Australian Netguide magazine maintained the Daily Net News on their web site from 1996. Daily Net News ran links and daily reviews of new websites in Australia. Another early blog was Wearable Wireless Webcam, an online shared diary of a person's personal life combining text, digital video, digital pictures transmitted live from a wearable computer and EyeTap device to a web site in 1994; this practice of semi-automated blogging with live video together with text was referred to as sousveillance, such journals were used as evidence in legal matters. Some early bloggers, such as The Misanthropic Bitch, who began in 1997 referred to their online presence as a zine, before the term blog entered common usage. Early blogs were manually updated components of common Websites. In 1995, the "Online Diary" on
A profession is an occupation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of, to supply disinterested objective counsel and service to others, for a direct and definite compensation, wholly apart from expectation of other business gain. The term is a truncation of the term "liberal profession", which is, in turn, an Anglicization of the French term "profession libérale". Borrowed by English users in the 19th century, it has been re-borrowed by international users from the late 20th, though the class overtones of the term do not seem to survive retranslation: "liberal professions" are, according to the European Union's Directive on Recognition of Professional Qualifications "those practiced on the basis of relevant professional qualifications in a personal and professionally independent capacity by those providing intellectual and conceptual services in the interest of the client and the public", it has been said. Medieval and early modern tradition recognized only three professions: divinity and law – the so-called "learned professions".
Major milestones which may mark an occupation being identified as a profession include: an occupation becomes a full-time occupation the establishment of a training school the establishment of a university school the establishment of a local association the establishment of a national association of professional ethics the establishment of state licensing lawsApplying these milestones to the historical sequence of development in the United States shows surveying achieving professional status first, followed by medicine, actuarial science, dentistry, civil engineering, logistics and accounting. With the rise of technology and occupational specialization in the 19th century, other bodies began to claim professional status: mechanical engineering, veterinary medicine, nursing, librarianship and social work, each of which could claim, using these milestones, to have become professions by 1900. Just as some professions rise in status and power through various stages, others may decline. Disciplines formalized more such as architecture, now have long periods of study associated with them.
Although professions may enjoy high status and public prestige, not all professionals earn high salaries, within specific professions there exist significant inequalities of compensation. A profession arises when any trade or occupation transforms itself through "the development of formal qualifications based upon education and examinations, the emergence of regulatory bodies with powers to admit and discipline members, some degree of monopoly rights." Any regulation of the professions was self-regulation through bodies such as the College of Physicians or the Inns of Court. With the growing role of government, statutory bodies have taken on this role, their members being appointed either by the profession or by government. Proposals for the introduction or enhancement of statutory regulation may be welcomed by a profession as protecting clients and enhancing its quality and reputation, or as restricting access to the profession and hence enabling higher fees to be charged, it may be resisted as limiting the members' freedom to innovate or to practice as in their professional judgement they consider best.
An example was in 12, when the British government proposed wide statutory regulation of psychologists. The inspiration for the change was a number of problems in the psychotherapy field, but there are various kinds of psychologist including many who have no clinical role and where the case for regulation was not so clear. Work psychology brought especial disagreement, with the British Psychological Society favoring statutory regulation of "occupational psychologists" and the Association of Business Psychologists resisting the statutory regulation of "business psychologists" – descriptions of professional activity which it may not be easy to distinguish. Besides regulating access to a profession, professional bodies may set examinations of competence and enforce adherence to an ethical code. There may be several such bodies for one profession in a single country, an example being the accountancy bodies of the United Kingdom, all of which have been given a Royal Charter, although their members are not considered to hold equivalent qualifications, which operate alongside further bodies.
Another example of a regulatory body that governs a profession is the Hong Kong Professional Teachers Union, which governs the conduct, rights and duties of salaried teachers working in educational institutions in Hong Kong. The engineering profession is regulated in some countries with a strict licensing system for Professional Engineer that controls the practice but not in others where titles and qualifications are regulated Chartered Engineer but practice is not regulated. Individuals are required by law to be qualified by a local professional body before they are permitted to practice in that profession. However, in some countries, individuals may not be required by law to be qualified by such a professional body in order to practice, as is the case for accountancy in the United Kingdom. In such c
A bridge is a type of social tie that connects two different groups in a social network. In general, a bridge is a direct tie between nodes that would otherwise be in disconnected components of the graph; this means that say that A and B make up a social networking graph, n 1 is in A, n 2 is in B, there is a social tie e between n 1 and n 2. If e were to be removed, A and B would become disconnected components of the graph; this means. For example, A could represent B Congress. N 1 could be a lobbyist and n 2 a Congressman. E would represent the relationship between that corporation and Congress that only exists through the lobbyist; this is similar to the concept of a bridge in graph theory, but with special social networking properties such as strong and weak ties. Local bridges are ties between two nodes in a social graph that are the shortest route by which information might travel from those connected to one to those connected to the other. Local bridges differ from regular bridges in that the end points of the local bridge once the bridge has been deleted cannot have a tie directly between them and should not share any common neighbors.
If the local bridge is deleted the distance between these two nodes will be increased to a value more than two. In social networks, bridge relationships transmit information from one group to another; the breadth of information spread depends on the number and connectedness of the bridges available to the originators of the information. Author Malcolm Gladwell characterizes people that habitually act as bridges as Connectors in his book The Tipping Point. Bridges and local bridges are powerful ways to convey awareness of new things, but they are weak at transmitting behaviors that are in some way risky or costly to adopt. Weak ties are able to spread awareness of a joke or an on-line video with remarkable speed, but political mobilization moves more sluggishly, needing to gain momentum within neighborhoods and small communities. McAdams observed that strong ties, rather than weak ties, played a much more dominant role in recruitment to Freedom Summer on college campuses in the 1960s. Interpersonal ties
A community is a small or large social unit that has something in common, such as norms, values, or identity. Communities share a sense of place, situated in a given geographical area or in virtual space through communication platforms. Durable relations that extend beyond immediate genealogical ties define a sense of community. People tend to define those social ties as important to their identity and roles in social institutions. Although communities are small relative to personal social ties, "community" may refer to large group affiliations, such as national communities, international communities, virtual communities; the English-language word "community" derives from the Old French comuneté, which comes from the Latin communitas "community", "public spirit". Human communities may share intent, resources, preferences and risks in common, affecting the identity of the participants and their degree of cohesiveness. In archaeological studies of social communities the term "community" is used in two ways, paralleling usage in other areas.
The first is an informal definition of community as a place. In this sense it is synonymous with the concept of an ancient settlement, whether a hamlet, town, or city; the second meaning is similar to the usage of the term in other social sciences: a community is a group of people living near one another who interact socially. Social interaction on a small scale can be difficult to identify with archaeological data. Most reconstructions of social communities by archaeologists rely on the principle that social interaction is conditioned by physical distance. Therefore, a small village settlement constituted a social community, spatial subdivisions of cities and other large settlements may have formed communities. Archaeologists use similarities in material culture—from house types to styles of pottery—to reconstruct communities in the past; this is based on the assumption that people or households will share more similarities in the types and styles of their material goods with other members of a social community than they will with outsiders.
In ecology, a community is an assemblage of populations of different species, interacting with one another. Community ecology is the branch of ecology that studies interactions among species, it considers how such interactions, along with interactions between species and the abiotic environment, affect community structure and species richness and patterns of abundance. Species interact in three ways: competition and mutualism. Competition results in a double negative—that is both species lose in the interaction. Predation is a win/lose situation with one species winning. Mutualism, on the other hand, involves both species cooperating in some way, with both winning; the two main types of communities are major which are self-sustaining and self-regulating and minor communities which rely on other communities and are the building blocks of major communities. In Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft, German sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies described two types of human association: Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft.
Tönnies proposed the Gemeinschaft–Gesellschaft dichotomy as a way to think about social ties. No group is one or the other. Gemeinschaft stress personal social interactions, the roles and beliefs based on such interactions. Gesellschaft stress indirect interactions, impersonal roles, formal values, beliefs based on such interactions. In a seminal 1986 study, McMillan and Chavis identify four elements of "sense of community": membership, influence and fulfillment of needs, shared emotional connection. A "sense of community index was developed by Chavis and colleagues, revised and adapted by others. Although designed to assess sense of community in neighborhoods, the index has been adapted for use in schools, the workplace, a variety of types of communities. Studies conducted by the APPA indicate that young adults who feel a sense of belonging in a community small communities, develop fewer psychiatric and depressive disorders than those who do not have the feeling of love and belonging; the process of learning to adopt the behavior patterns of the community is called socialization.
The most fertile time of socialization is the early stages of life, during which individuals develop the skills and knowledge and learn the roles necessary to function within their culture and social environment. For some psychologists those in the psychodynamic tradition, the most important period of socialization is between the ages of one and ten, but socialization includes adults moving into a different environment, where they must learn a new set of behaviors. Socialization is influenced by the family, through which children first learn community norms. Other important influences include schools, peer groups, mass media, the workplace, government; the degree to which the norms of a particular society or community are adopted determines one's willingness to engage with others. The norms of tolerance and trust are important "habits of the heart," as de Tocqueville put it, in an individual's involvement in community. Community development is linked with community work or community planning, may involve stakeholders, governments, or contracted entities incl
Social identity theory
Social identity is the portion of an individual's self-concept derived from perceived membership in a relevant social group. As formulated by social psychologists Henri Tajfel and John Turner in the 1970s and the 1980s, social identity theory introduced the concept of a social identity as a way in which to explain intergroup behaviour. Social identity theory is described as a theory that predicts certain intergroup behaviours on the basis of perceived group status differences, the perceived legitimacy and stability of those status differences, the perceived ability to move from one group to another; this contrasts with occasions where the term "social identity theory" is used to refer to general theorizing about human social selves. Moreover, although some researchers have treated it as such, social identity theory was never intended to be a general theory of social categorization, it was awareness of the limited scope of social identity theory that led John Turner and colleagues to develop a cousin theory in the form of self-categorization theory, which built on the insights of social identity theory to produce a more general account of self and group processes.
The term social identity approach, or social identity perspective, is suggested for describing the joint contributions of both social identity theory and self-categorization theory. Social identity theory suggests that an organization can change individual behaviors if it can modify their self-identity or part of their self-concept that derives from the knowledge of, emotional attachment to the group. Social identity theory states that social behavior will vary along a continuum between interpersonal behavior and intergroup behaviour. Interpersonal behaviour would be behaviour determined by the individual characteristics and interpersonal relationships that exists between only two people. Intergroup behaviour would be behaviour determined by the social category memberships that apply to more than two people; the authors of social identity theory state that purely interpersonal or purely intergroup behaviour is unlikely to be found in realistic social situations. Rather, behaviour is expected to be driven by a compromise between the two extremes.
The cognitive nature of personal vs. social identities, the relationship between them, is more developed in self-categorization theory. Social identity theory instead focuses on the social structural factors that will predict which end of the spectrum will most influence an individual's behaviour, along with the forms that that behavior may take. A key assumption in social identity theory is that individuals are intrinsically motivated to achieve positive distinctiveness; that is, individuals "strive for a positive self-concept". As individuals to varying degrees may be defined and informed by their respective social identities it is further derived in social identity theory that "individuals strive to achieve or to maintain positive social identity"; the precise nature of this strive for positive self-concept is a matter of debate. Both the interpersonal-intergroup continuum and the assumption of positive distinctiveness motivation arose as outcomes of the findings of minimal group studies.
In particular, it was found that under certain conditions individuals would endorse resource distributions that would maximize the positive distinctiveness of an ingroup in contrast to an outgroup at the expense of personal self-interest. Building on the above components, social identity theory details a variety of strategies that may be invoked in order to achieve positive distinctiveness; the individual's choice of behaviour is posited to be dictated by the perceived intergroup relationship. In particular the choice of strategy is an outcome of the perceived permeability of group boundaries, as well as the perceived stability and legitimacy of the intergroup status hierarchy; the self-enhancing strategies detailed in social identity theory are detailed below. Although these are viewed from the perspective of a low status group member, comparable behaviours may be adopted by high status group members, it is predicted that under conditions where the group boundaries are considered permeable individuals are more to engage in individual mobility strategies.
That is, individuals "disassociate from the group and pursue individual goals designed to improve their personal lot rather than that of their ingroup". Where group boundaries are considered impermeable, where status relations are considered reasonably stable, individuals are predicted to engage in social creativity behaviours. Here, low-status ingroup members are still able to increase their positive distinctiveness without changing the objective resources of the ingroup or the outgroup; this may be achieved by comparing the ingroup to the outgroup on some new dimension, changing the values assigned to the attributes of the group, choosing an alternative outgroup by which to compare the ingroup. Here an ingroup seeks positive distinctiveness via direct competition with the outgroup in the form of ingroup favoritism, it is considered competitive in that in this case favoritism for the ingroup occurs on a value dimension, shared by all relevant social groups. Social competition is predicted to occur when group boundaries are considered impermeable, when status relations are considered to be reasonably unstable.
Although not privileged in the theory, it is this positive distinctiveness strategy that has received the greatest amount of attention. The term'social identity theory' achieved academic currency only i
Social networking service
A social networking service is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relations with other people who share similar personal or career interests, backgrounds or real-life connections. The social network is distributed across various computer networks; the social networks are inherently computer networks, linking people and knowledge. Social networking services vary in the number of features, they can incorporate a range of new information and communication tools, operating on desktops and on laptops, on mobile devices such as tablet computers and smartphones. They may feature "web logging" diary entries online. Online community services are sometimes considered social-network services by programmers and users, though in a broader sense, a social-network service provides an individual-centered service whereas online community services are group-centered. Defined as "websites that facilitate the building of a network of contacts in order to exchange various types of content online," social networking sites provide a space for interaction to continue beyond in person interactions.
These computer mediated interactions link members of various networks and may help to both maintain and develop new social ties. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, digital photos and videos, to inform others about online or real-world activities and events with people in their network. While in-person social networking – such as gathering in a village market to talk about events – has existed since the earliest development of towns, the Web enables people to connect with others who live in different locations, ranging from across a city to across the world. Depending on the social media platform, members may be able to contact any other member. In other cases, members can contact anyone they have a connection to, subsequently anyone that contact has a connection to, so on; the success of social networking services can be seen in their dominance in society today, with Facebook having a massive 2.13 billion active monthly users and an average of 1.4 billion daily active users in 2017.
LinkedIn, a career-oriented social-networking service requires that a member know another member in real life before they contact them online. Some services require members to have a preexisting connection to contact other members; the main types of social networking services contain category places, means to connect with friends, a recommendation system linked to trust. One can categorize social-network services into three types: socializing social network services used for socializing with existing friends online social networks are decentralized and distributed computer networks where users communicate with each other through internet services. Networking social network services used for non-social interpersonal communication social navigation social network services used for helping users to find specific information or resources There have been attempts to standardize these services to avoid the need to duplicate entries of friends and interests. A study reveals that India recorded world's largest growth in terms of social media users in 2013.
A 2013 survey found that 73% of U. S. adults use social-networking sites. There is a variety of social networking services available online. However, most incorporate common features: social networking services are Web 2.0, Internet-based applications user-generated content is the lifeblood of social networking services. Users create service-specific profiles for the site or app that are designed and maintained by the SNS organization social networking services facilitate the development of online social networks by connecting a user's profile with those of other individuals or groups; the variety and evolving range of stand-alone and built-in social networking services in the online space introduces a challenge of definition. Furthermore, the idea that these services are defined by their ability to bring people together and provides too broad a definition; such a broad definition would suggest that the telegraph and telephone were social networking services – not the Internet technologies scholars are intending to describe.
The terminology is unclear, with some referring to social networking services as social media. A recent attempt at providing a clear definition reviewed the prominent literature in the area and identified four commonalities unique to current social networking services: social networking services are interactive Web 2.0 Internet-based applications, user-generated content, such as user-submitted digital photos, text posts, "tagging", online comments, diary-style "web logs", is the lifeblood of the SNS organism, users create service-specific profiles for the site or app that are designed and maintained by the SNS organization, social networking services facilitate the development of social networks online by connecting a user's profile with those of other individuals or groups. The potential for computer networking to facilitate newly improved forms of computer-mediated social interaction was suggested early on. Efforts to support social networks via computer-mediated communication were made in many early online services, including Usenet, ARPANET, LISTSERV, bulletin board services.
Many prototypical features of social networking sites were present in online services such as America Online, CompuServe, ChatNet, The WELL. Early social netw