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Network packet

A network packet is a formatted unit of data carried by a packet-switched network. A packet consists of control information and user data, known as the payload. Control information provides data for delivering the payload, for example: source and destination network addresses, error detection codes, sequencing information. Control information is found in packet headers and trailers. In packet switching, the bandwidth of the communication medium is shared between multiple communication sessions, in contrast to circuit switching, in which circuits are preallocated for the duration of one session and data is transmitted as a continuous bit stream. In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, packet refers to a protocol data unit at layer 3, the network layer; the correct term for a data unit at layer 2, the data link layer, is a frame, at Layer 4, the transport layer, the correct term is segment or datagram. For TCP/IP communication over Ethernet, a TCP segment is carried in one or more IP packets, which are each carried in one or more Ethernet frames.

The basis of the packet concept is the postal letter: the header is like the envelope, the payload is the entire content inside the envelope, the footer would be your signature at the bottom.. Network design can achieve two major results by using packets: error detection and multiple host addressing. Different communications protocols use different conventions for distinguishing between the elements of a packet and for formatting the user data. For example, in Point-to-Point Protocol, the packet is formatted in 8-bit bytes, special characters are used to delimit the different elements. Other protocols, like Ethernet, establish the start of the header and data elements by their location relative to the start of the packet; some protocols format the information at a bit level instead of a byte level. A packet may contain any of the following components: Addresses The routing of network packets requires two network addresses, the source address of the sending host, the destination address of the receiving host.

Error detection and correction Error detection and correction is performed at various layers in the protocol stack. Network packets may contain a checksum, parity bits or cyclic redundancy checks to detect errors that occur during transmission. At the transmitter, the calculation is performed; when received at the destination, the checksum is recalculated, compared with the one in the packet. If discrepancies are found, the packet may be discarded. Any packet loss due to these discards is dealt with by the network protocol. In some cases modifications of the network packet may be necessary while routing, in which cases checksums are recalculated. Hop limit. If nothing was done the number of packets circulating would build up until the network was congested to the point of failure. Time to live is a field, decreased by one each time a packet goes through a network hop. If the field reaches zero, routing has failed, the packet is discarded. Ethernet packets have no time-to-live field and so are subject to broadcast radiation in the presence of a switching loop.

Length There may be a field to identify the overall packet length. However, in some types of networks, the length is implied by the duration of transmission. Priority Some networks implement quality of service which can prioritize some types of packets above others; this field indicates. Payload In general, payload is the data, carried on behalf of an application, it is of variable length, up to a maximum, set by the network protocol and sometimes the equipment on the route. When necessary, some networks can break a larger packet into smaller packets. IP packets are payload; the header consists of optional fields. The payload appears after the header. An IP packet has no trailer. However, an IP packet is carried as the payload inside an Ethernet frame, which has its own header and trailer. Many networks do not provide guarantees of delivery, non-duplication of packets, or in-order delivery of packets, e.g. the UDP protocol of the Internet. However, it is possible to layer a transport protocol on top of the packet service that can provide such protection.

The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems packet telemetry standard defines the protocol used for the transmission of spacecraft instrument data over the deep-space channel. Under this standard, an image or other data sent from a spacecraft instrument is transmitted using one or more packets. Packetized elementary stream is a specification associated with the MPEG-2 standard that allows an elementary stream to be divided into packets; the elementary stream is packetized by encapsulating sequential data bytes from the elementary stream between PES packet headers. A typical method of transmitting elementary stream data from a video or audio encoder is to first create PES packets from the elementary stream data and to encapsulate these PES packets inside an MPEG transport stream packets or an MPEG program stream; the TS packets can be transmitted using broadcasting techniques, such as those used in an ATSC and DVB. In order to provide mono "compatibility", the NICAM signal is transmitted on a subcarrier alongside the sound carrier.

This means that the FM or AM regular mono sound carrier is left alone for reception by monaural receivers. The NICAM packet (except for t

Hannah Mayho

Hannah Mayho is an English road and track cyclist from Cullingworth, West Yorkshire, a member of British Cycling's Olympic Academy Squad. A former county netball player and cross-country runner, Mayho began cycling in 2006 having been spotted at her school by British Cycling's Talent Team, she was coached by their coaches Phil West and Frances Newstead. At first she concentrated on athletics, seeing the pathway to success more defined in cycling, she chose to concentrate on that sport. A car collided with her on a training ride in May 2010, breaking her left leg and her right arm and wrist. A year after her accident Mayho returned to racing at the British National Time Trial Championships where she finished third in the Junior Women's event. Mayho went on to study for a BSc in Dietetics at the University of Chester. Hannah Mayho at Cycling Archives

Greenwell baronets

The Greenwell Baronetcy, of Marden Park in Godstone in the County of Surrey and Greenwell in Wolsingham in the County of Durham, is a title in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom. It was created on 19 July 1906 as part of the King's Birthday Honours for the stockbroker Walpole Greenwell; the Greenwell family still owns the land in Durham awarded them by William the Conqueror and from which they take their surname, as well as land in Suffolk and Inverness-shire. Sir Walpole Lloyd Greenwell, 1st Baronet Sir Bernard Eyre Greenwell, 2nd Baronet Sir Peter McClintock Greenwell, 3rd Baronet Sir Edward Bernard Greenwell, 4th Baronet The first Baronet had been High Sheriff of Surrey in 1903 and His Majesty's Lieutenant of the City of London. Walpole Greenwell, who fought in the First Boer War, became a member of the London Stock Exchange at age 21 and founded W. Greenwell & Co. which would become one of the wealthiest and most prominent stockbroking firms in the City of London. He was a keen agriculturist, a prominent breeder of pedigree stock Shorthorn cattle and Shire horses, for which he was awarded numerous championships, was President of the Royal Shire Horse Society.

His Shire horse stud was considered the finest in the country. He was a trustee of the Whiteley Homes Trust, the Holloway Sanatorium, a member of the governing body of Royal Holloway College. Walpole Greenwell was succeeded by his son Major Bernard Greenwell MBE, who succeeded him as senior partner in the family stockbroking firm. Bernard Greenwell had been educated at Harrow and Trinity College, before serving in the Second Boer War where he earned the Queen's South Africa Medal with four clasps. In 1932 he took over as chairman of the County of London Electric Supply Company and expanded it to become the largest electric supply company in the country. Electricity distribution had been confined to urban areas, but under Greenwell's chairmanship supplies were extended in Essex and Dorset, he was keen to see electrical supplies provided for agricultural concerns. Like his father, he bred stock, in 1938 he purchased the entire herd of Shorthorn cattle reared by William Duthie at Collynie in Aberdeenshire, considered one of the best in the country.

He farmed Marden Park and Butley Abbey Farm near Woodbridge, Suffolk. He was married to Anna Elizabeth McClintock, daughter of Admiral Sir Francis Leopold McClintock KCB. Peter Greenwell was High Sheriff of Suffolk for 1966–67. Edward Greenwell is a Deputy Lieutenant of Suffolk and was High Sheriff of Suffolk for 2013–14

√Čtienne Dedroog

Étienne Dedroog, known as The Lodgers' Killer, is a Belgian criminal and serial killer, responsible for killing a woman in France and the double murder of a Flemish couple. He is suspected of another murder in Spain. Dedroog was sentenced to life imprisonment for the double murder, 25 years for the France murder and is being investigated for the Spain killing. Not much is known about Étienne's early life, but it was known that he was attached to his mother; when she passed away in 2007, at the same time period he was getting a divorce, Dedroog experienced a mental breakdown the following year. According to reports from psychiatrists and psychologists, he has a "psychopathic personality", referring to his morbid egocentrism and tendency to manipulate others. Before settling in Crettaz's rural B&B home in Bouchet, Dedroog committed fuel fraud, as well as scamming tens of hotels and B&Bs in Châteauneuf-du-Pape, Vedène and Caderousse. In October 11, 2011, he killed the 57-year-old by cutting her external carotid artery, before stealing her credit cards and escaping in her car towards Spain.

On the early morning of November 16, the 76-year-old López had decided to go fishing near the Cabo de Gata-Níjar Natural Park in Andalusia. After mentioning his intentions at a bar where he had breakfast, he travelled to a location called Cala Raja, only to be found dead on a gravel road with his car missing. Believed to be an accidental fall that had caused the death, it was revealed that López had been killed by a violent blow to the head with a rock, which had fractured his skull, his missing car was found on December 10 in La Jonquera, with DNA traces from the steering wheel matching those of Étienne Dedroog. At the time of the murder, Dedroog was in Almería. Authorities learned that between November 17 and 25, the suspected killer was spotted first in Valencia and Huesca before returning to Belgium. While examining the deceased's home, they found a bill issued in Dedroog's name from a hotel in Benidorm, disposed of in the wastebucket. After arriving in Grandvoir, Neufchâteau, Dedroog was directed towards lodging at the Blankaerts' house.

Deciding that he wanted to steal their car, but was afraid that they would notice him, Étienne subsequently strangled the couple. He stole their car and a computer, before abandoning the car in Bruges. On December 1, Dedroog sent a message to his niece on Facebook, stating that he "does not recognize anymore", that "he did not deserve to be called a brother" and that "he had done more serious things than Ronald Janssen"; the day after, he surrendered himself to the police in Leuven. He confessed to killing the Blankaerts, on November 7, 2014, he was sentenced to life imprisonment by the Assizes in Arlon. However, he vehemently denied killign Crettaz, despite admitting that he had indeed stayed in her lodge on the date of death. Despite the best efforts of his defense team, Dedroog was sentenced to a further 25 years imprisonment by the French assize court. Since 2015, after a complete investigation, the Spanish police have suspected Dedroog as the killer of López, the lawyer has requested, on behalf of the victim's family, an extradition so he could face trial.

Ronald Janssen

Turnip Prize

The Turnip Prize is a spoof UK award satirising the Tate Gallery's Turner Prize by rewarding deliberately bad modern art. It was started as a joke in 1999, but inspired similar prizes. Credit is given for entries containing bad puns as titles, displaying "lack of effort" or "is it shit?". Conversely, entries with "too much effort" or "not shit enough" are disqualified; the first prize is a turnip nailed to a block of wood. The prizegiving is held at The New Inn in Wedmore, Somerset; the prize was conceived in 1999 by management and regulars of The George Hotel, Somerset, after the exhibition of Tracey Emin's My Bed was shortlisted for the Turner Prize. It is owned and organised by Trevor Prideaux and was announced thus: "The Turnip Prize is a crap art competition... You can enter anything you like, but it must be rubbish." The competition is based on the supposition, "We know it's rubbish, but is it art?". Competitors submitted entries of ridiculous objects posing as contemporary art made from junk titled with spoofs or puns.

The prize is a turnip impaled on a rusty six-inch nail. In May 2000, the nominees appeared on the BBC TV Esther show, presented by Esther Rantzen and featured by national and international media. In 2001, the competition was held in the public conveniences in Wedmore. In 2002, the "Monster Raving Loony Party" attempted to hijack the competition at The Trotter, Wedmore. In 2003, the prize moved to the New Wedmore; the winner was James Timms with Take a Leaf out of My Chook, an exhibit of a raw chicken stuffed with leaves. James Timms subsequently appeared on BBC Radio Scotland's Fred MacAulay Show with Ed Byrne. In 2005, Ian Osenthroat, a 69-year-old former photocopier salesman, won with the exhibit Birds Flew, a bird's nest with a flu remedy box, he commented satirically, "I have entered this most coveted art award on several occasions and I feel that the lack of effort this year has paid off."Winner in 2006 was Ian Lewis with the exhibit Torn Beef, an empty corned beef can. He stated, "The work took no time at all to create."

Trevor Prideaux commented, "I believe that over the last seven years the bad artists of Wedmore and surrounding areas have created far better works than Nicholas Serota and The Tate Britain Gallery could wish to exhibit." In 2006, the BBC's Chief Somerset Correspondent, Clinton Rogers, was immortalised as Clint on a Row of Jars. In 2007, the competition gained more publicity with the entry of artwork with the title By the Banksea; the painting bears a striking resemblance to work by the famous Bristol graffiti artist Banksy, its origins are a guarded secret. By the Banksea portrays a seaside Aunt Sally in the form of a stencil of the Mona Lisa, but in true Banksy style, Mona Lisa is depicted holding a rocket launcher firing a turnip over the wreckage of a seaside pier and an emergency exit sign. Competition organiser Trevor Prideaux commented: "It does seem to be in Banksy's style, but someone has tried too hard. So for that reason it's not to win." The piece was duly disqualified for "too much effort, not shit enough."

The 2007 competition was won by Bracey Vermin with Tea P, a group of used tea bags in the shape of a letter P. Competition entries for 2010 included "Ivor Crush"'s clothes hanger linking the letter U in "Crush", entitled Hung up on You, an entry by Banksy, which focused on the recent student protests of the day. Entries for 2011 included a piece of cheese carved into the letter E, entitled CheeseE, A fish full of dollars, an exhibit of an Action Man toy – called First Class Mail – with a placed stamp, a coloured rock called Half a Stone Lighter; this year's prize featured on the BBC's Have I Got News For You for two weeks running.2012 – 87 entries.2013 – 69 entries, which included entries from Ireland, Italy and the USA.2014 – 69 entries, which included entries from Canada, USA, Italy.2015 – 69 entries, which included entries from France, Czech Republic and Macedonia.2016 – 99 entries, which included entries from Brisbane, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Lundy.2017 – 100 entries, which included entries from Guernsey and Germany.2018 – 90 entries, which included entries from Australia and Antigua 2019 - 107 entries, which included entries from Sydney, Australia and Belgium.

This list is nearly complete 1999 – David Stone, winner – Alfred The Grate David Gannon – Sharp Infested Waters Neil Ellis – Soiled Serviette Iain Jones – Half Cut Maureen Hodge – Laundry Day Tracey 2000 – Jacqui Redman, winner – Minstrel Cycle Jenny Vining – Cereal Killer Kerry Bobbett – Wind In The Willows Sue Smith – Surf In The Net 2001 – Chloe Wilson, winner – nothing 2002 – Jenny Vining, winner – Piston Broke Dick Stelling – A Bit on the Side James Timms – Privot Investigator 2003 – James Timms, winner – Take a Leaf out of my Chook Di Vorce – Bitter and Twisted (

Coverham

Coverham is a village in Coverdale in the Yorkshire Dales in North Yorkshire, England. It lies 2 miles west of the town of Middleham. Coverham was mentioned in Domesday Book in 1086, it became the centre of a large parish in the Honour of Richmond in the North Riding of Yorkshire, which included the townships of Coverham with Agglethorpe, Caldbergh with East Scrafton, Carlton Highdale, Carlton Town and West Scrafton. All these townships became separate civil parishes in 1866; the ruins of the Grade I listed Coverham Abbey are in the village and the site has no access to the public. Holy Trinity Church dates from the 13th century and became redundant in 1985, it is a Grade II* listed building. It is said to have a slope at its south east corner whereby the gradient is so steep, that though you are in the graveyard you cannot see the church nor hear the bells for the adjacent waterfall. Triple Crown winning jockey Harry Grimshaw is buried in the churchyard. Coverham Bridge, a medieval bridge over the River Cover, is a Scheduled Ancient Monument and Grade II* listed building.

The tourist attraction Forbidden Corner is in the village. Media related to Coverham at Wikimedia Commons