Hôtel de Hanau
The Hôtel de Hanau known as the Hôtel de ville and as the Hanauer Hof, is a historic building located on Place Broglie on the Grande Île in the city center of Strasbourg, in the French department of the Bas-Rhin. It has been classified as a Monument historique since 1921; the Hôtel de Hanau stands on a site owned by the rulers of Hanau-Lichtenberg, a county of the Holy Roman Empire. The current building, a typical hôtel particulier with a grand portal, a grand courtyard and two ornate façades, was commissioned by Johann Reinhard III, the last Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg, in 1728, it was constructed between 1731 and 1736 by Joseph Massol, the executive architect of Palais Rohan at the same time. It became state-owned in 1790 in the wake of the French Revolution. Today the building is the Hôtel de ville or city hall for the city of Strasbourg, a role it has had since 1805 and the first visit of Napoleon, who bestowed propriety of the hôtel to the city, it is now principally used for weddings, official receptions and banquets, whilst the administration of the city and the Strasbourg Eurométropole is run from the centre administratif near Parc de l'Étoile.
The city hall is not open for tourists apart on special days such as European Heritage Days. Media related to Hôtel de Hanau at Wikimedia Commons Hôtel de ville - place Broglie on archi-wiki.org Recht, Roland.
Grande Île (Strasbourg)
The Grande Île is an island that lies at the historic centre of the city of Strasbourg in France. Its name means "Large Island", derives from the fact that it is surrounded on one side by the main channel of the Ill River and on the other side by the Canal du Faux-Rempart, a canalised arm of that river. Grand Île was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. At the time, the International Council on Monuments and Sites noted that Grand Île is "an old quarter that exemplifies medieval cities". Grande Île is sometimes referred to as "ellipse insulaire" because of its shape, it measures some 1.25 kilometres by 0.75 kilometres at broadest. At the centre of the island lies Place Kléber, the city's central square. Further south is Strasbourg Cathedral, the world's fourth-tallest church and an ornate example of 15th-century Gothic architecture. At the western end of the island is the quarter of Petite France, the former home of the city's tanners and fishermen, now one of Strasbourg's main tourist attractions.
The Grande Île houses the former fluvial customs house Ancienne Douane. Besides the cathedral, the Grande Île is home to four other centuries-old churches: St. Thomas, St. Pierre-le-Vieux, St. Pierre-le-Jeune, St. Étienne. Being the historical center of Strasbourg and the seat of local secular power, it houses the city's most imposing 18th-century hôtels particuliers and palaces, including the Palais Rohan, the Hôtel de Hanau, Hôtel des Deux-Ponts, Hôtel de Klinglin, Hôtel d'Andlau-Klinglin, Hôtel de Neuwiller, among many others; the island is home to the Episcopal palace of the Archdiocese of Strasbourg. To mark Grande Île's status as a World Heritage Site, 22 brass plates were placed on the bridges giving access to the island. UNESCO
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history; the causes of the French Revolution are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years' War and the American Revolution, the French government was in debt, it attempted to restore its financial status through unpopular taxation schemes, which were regressive.
Leading up to the Revolution, years of bad harvests worsened by deregulation of the grain industry and environmental problems inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy and the Catholic clergy of the established church. Some historians hold something similar to what Thomas Jefferson proclaimed: that France had "been awakened by our Revolution." Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates General in May 1789. During the first year of the Revolution, members of the Third Estate took control, the Bastille was attacked in July, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was passed in August, the Women's March on Versailles forced the royal court back to Paris in October. A central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime; the next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms.
The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats shaped the course of the Revolution; the Revolutionary Wars beginning in 1792 featured French victories that facilitated the conquest of the Italian Peninsula, the Low Countries and most territories west of the Rhine – achievements that had eluded previous French governments for centuries. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins; the dictatorship imposed by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror, from 1793 until 1794, established price controls on food and other items, abolished slavery in French colonies abroad, de-established the Catholic church and created a secular Republican calendar, religious leaders were expelled, the borders of the new republic were secured from its enemies. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795.
They suspended elections, repudiated debts, persecuted the Catholic clergy, made significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. Napoleon, who became the hero of the Revolution through his popular military campaigns, established the Consulate and the First Empire, setting the stage for a wider array of global conflicts in the Napoleonic Wars; the modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution. All future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor, its central phrases and cultural symbols, such as La Marseillaise and Liberté, fraternité, égalité, ou la mort, became the clarion call for other major upheavals in modern history, including the Russian Revolution over a century later. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day; the Revolution resulted in the suppression of the feudal system, emancipation of the individual, a greater division of landed property, abolition of the privileges of noble birth, nominal establishment of equality among men.
The French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not only national, for it intended to benefit all humanity. Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of democracies, it became the focal point for the development of most modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism and secularism, among many others. The Revolution witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France and the lives of its citizens towards the objective of military conquest; some of its central documents, such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, continued to inspire movements for abolitionism and universal suffrage in the next century. Historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Rising social and economic inequality, new political ideas emerging from the Enlightenment, economic mismanagement, environmental factors leading to agricultural failure, unmanageable national debt, political mismanagement on the part of King Louis XVI have all been cited as laying the groundwork for the Revolution.
Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the "public sphere" in France and elsewhere
Napoléon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French as Napoleon I from 1804 until 1814 and again in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars, he won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over much of continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history, he was born in Corsica to a modest family of Italian origin from minor nobility. He was serving as an artillery officer in the French army when the French Revolution erupted in 1789.
He rose through the ranks of the military, seizing the new opportunities presented by the Revolution and becoming a general at age 24. The French Directory gave him command of the Army of Italy after he suppressed a revolt against the government from royalist insurgents. At age 26, he began his first military campaign against the Austrians and the Italian monarchs aligned with the Habsburgs—winning every battle, conquering the Italian Peninsula in a year while establishing "sister republics" with local support, becoming a war hero in France. In 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt, he became First Consul of the Republic. Napoleon's ambition and public approval inspired him to go further, he became the first Emperor of the French in 1804. Intractable differences with the British meant that the French were facing a Third Coalition by 1805. Napoleon shattered this coalition with decisive victories in the Ulm Campaign and a historic triumph over the Russian Empire and Austrian Empire at the Battle of Austerlitz which led to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.
In 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became worried about growing French influence on the continent. Napoleon defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt marched his Grande Armée deep into Eastern Europe and annihilated the Russians in June 1807 at the Battle of Friedland. France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. Tilsit signified the high-water mark of the French Empire. In 1809, the Austrians and the British challenged the French again during the War of the Fifth Coalition, but Napoleon solidified his grip over Europe after triumphing at the Battle of Wagram in July. Napoleon invaded the Iberian Peninsula, hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, declared his brother Joseph Bonaparte the King of Spain in 1808; the Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support. The Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, ended in victory for the Allies against Napoleon.
The Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states Russia. The Russians were unwilling to bear the economic consequences of reduced trade and violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon into another war; the French launched a major invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The campaign did not yield the decisive victory Napoleon wanted, it resulted in the collapse of the Grande Armée and inspired a renewed push against Napoleon by his enemies. In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in the War of the Sixth Coalition against France. A lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, but his tactical victory at the minor Battle of Hanau allowed retreat onto French soil; the Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April. He was exiled to the island of Elba off the coast of Tuscany, the Bourbon dynasty was restored to power.
Napoleon took control of France once again. The Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition which defeated him at the Battle of Waterloo in June; the British exiled him to the remote island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died six years at the age of 51. Napoleon's influence on the modern world brought liberal reforms to the numerous territories that he conquered and controlled, such as the Low Countries and large parts of modern Italy and Germany, he implemented fundamental liberal policies throughout Western Europe. His Napoleonic Code has influenced the legal systems of more than 70 nations around the world. British historian Andrew Roberts states: "The ideas that underpin our modern world—meritocracy, equality before the law, property rights, religious toleration, modern secular education, sound finances, so on—were championed, consolidated and geographically extended by Napoleon. To them he added a rational and efficient local administration, an end to rural banditry, the encouragement of science and the arts, the abolition of feudalism and the greatest codification of laws since the fall of the Roman Empire".
The ancestors of Napoleon descended from minor Italian nobility of Tuscan origin who had come to Corsica fr
In architecture the capital or chapiter forms the topmost member of a column. It mediates between the column and the load thrusting down upon it, broadening the area of the column's supporting surface; the capital, projecting on each side as it rises to support the abacus, joins the square abacus and the circular shaft of the column. The capital may be convex, as in the Doric order; these form the three principal types. The Composite order, established in the 16th century on a hint from the Arch of Titus, adds Ionic volutes to Corinthian acanthus leaves. From the visible position it occupies in all colonnaded monumental buildings, the capital is selected for ornamentation; the treatment of its detail may be an indication of the building's date. The two earliest Egyptian capitals of importance are those based on the lotus and papyrus plants and these, with the palm tree capital, were the chief types employed by the Egyptians, until under the Ptolemies in the 3rd to 1st centuries BC, various other river plants were employed, the conventional lotus capital went through various modifications.
Many motifs of Egyptian ornamentation are symbolic, such as the scarab, or sacred beetle, the solar disk, the vulture. Other common motifs include palm leaves, the papyrus plant, the buds and flowers of the lotus; some of the most popular types of capitals were the Hathor, lotus and Egyptian composite. Most of the types are based on vegetal motifs. Capitals of some columns were painted in bright colors; some kind of volute capital is shown in the Assyrian bas-reliefs, but no Assyrian capital has been found. In the Achaemenid Persian capital the brackets are carved with two decorated back-to-back animals projecting right and left to support the architrave; the bull is the most common, but there are lions and griffins. The capital extends below for further than in most other styles, with decoration drawn from the many cultures that the Persian Empire conquered including Egypt and Lydia. There are double volutes at the top and, bottom of a long plain fluted section, square, although the shaft of the column is round, fluted.
The earliest Aegean capital is. Capitals of the second, concave type, include the richly carved examples of the columns flanking the Tomb of Agamemnon in Mycenae: they are carved with a chevron device, with a concave apophyge on which the buds of some flowers are sculpted; the orders, structural systems for organising component parts, played a crucial role in the Greeks' search for perfection of ratio and proportion. The Doric capital is the simplest of the five Classical orders: it consists of the abacus above an ovolo molding, with an astragal collar set below, it was developed in the lands occupied by the Dorians, one of the two principal divisions of the Greek race. It became the preferred style of the western colonies. In the Temple of Apollo, the echinus moulding has become a more definite form: this in the Parthenon reaches its culmination, where the convexity is at the top and bottom with a delicate uniting curve; the sloping side of the echinus becomes flatter in the examples, in the Colosseum at Rome forms a quarter round.
In versions where the frieze and other elements are simpler the same form of capital is described as being in the Tuscan order. Doric reached its peak in the mid-5th century BC, was one of the orders accepted by the Romans, its characteristics are masculinity and solidity. The Doric capital consists of a cushion-like convex moulding known as an echinus, a square slab termed an abacus. In the Ionic capital, spirally coiled volutes are inserted between the ovolo; this order appears to have been developed contemporaneously with the Doric, though it did not come into common usage and take its final shape until the mid-5th century BC. The style prevailed in Ionian lands, centred on the coast of Asia Aegean islands; the order's form was far less set with local variations persisting for many decades. In the Ionic capitals of the archaic Temple of Artemis at Ephesus the width of the abacus is twice that of its depth the earliest Ionic capital known was a bracket capital. A century in the temple on the Ilissus, the abacus has become square.
Acording to the Roman architect Vitruvius, the Ionic order's main characteristics were beauty and slenderness, derived from its basis on the proportion of a woman. The volutes of an Ionic capital rest on an echinus invariably carved with egg-and-dart. Above the scrolls was an abacus, more shallow than that in Doric examples, again ornamented with egg-and-dart, it has been suggested that the foliage of the Greek Corinthian capital was based on the Acanthus spinosus, that of the Roman on the Acanthus mollis. Not all architectural foliage is as realistic; the leaves are carved in two "ranks" or bands, like one leafy cup set within another. One of the most beautiful Corinthian capitals is t
Sgraffito is a technique either of wall decor, produced by applying layers of plaster tinted in contrasting colours to a moistened surface, or in pottery, by applying to an unfired ceramic body two successive layers of contrasting slip or glaze, in either case scratching so as to reveal parts of the underlying layer. The Italian past participle "sgraffiato" is used of pottery. Sgraffito and Sgraffiti derive from the Italian word graffiare from the Greek γράφειν. Related terms include graffito and graffiti. Sgraffito on walls has been used in Europe since classical times, it was popularized in Italy in the 15th and 16th centuries and can be found in African art. In combination with ornamental decoration these techniques formed an alternative to the prevailing painting of walls. Of late there has been an unmistakable growing interest in this old technique; the technical procedure is simple, the procedures are similar to the painting of frescoes. Sgraffito played a significant role during the years of the Renaissance in Italy, with two of Raphael's workshop, Polidoro da Caravaggio and his partner Maturino da Firenze, among the leading specialists, painting palace facades in Rome and other cities.
Most of their work has now weathered away. During the 16th century, the technique was brought to Germany by the master builders of the Renaissance and taken up with enthusiasm; as a simple native art, old examples of sgraffito can be found in the wide surroundings of Wetterau and Marburg. In Germany, the technique is most predominant in Bavaria; the use of sgraffito was common in the creation of housing façades for the purposes of advertising. The technique was used in Thuringia, the Engadin and Transylvania. In Catalonia, sgraffito was implemented in the early 20th century by the Noucentista neo-classical architects and became a recurrent technique in façade decoration. Another use of sgraffito is seen in its simplified painting technique. One coat of paint is left to dry on a sheet of paper. Another coat of a different color is painted on top of the first layer; the artist uses a palette knife or oil stick to scratch out a design, leaving behind an image in the color of the first coat of paint.
This can be achieved by using oil pastels for the first layer and black ink for the top layer. Sometimes a first coat of paint is not needed, the wet coat scraped back reveals the canvas; this cannot be achieved by using the oil pastel method. This technique is used in art classes to teach the sgraffito technique to novice art students. In glass making, sgraffito refers to creating imagery with finely powdered black glass on a sheet glass substrate. Sgraffito is a subtractive technique; the powdered glass is manipulated with a variety of tools. The finished drawing is vulnerable until the piece is fired in a kiln. Examples of graphic work on facades saw a resurgence circa 1890 through 1915, in the context of the rise of the Arts and Crafts Movement, the Vienna Secession, the Art Nouveau movement in Belgium and France; the English artist Heywood Sumner has been identified as this era's pioneer of the technique, for example his work at the 1892 St Mary's Church, Surrey. Sumner's work is sgraffito per se, scratched plaster, but the term has come to encompass a variety of techniques for producing exterior graphic decoration.
Other examples include: ceramic panels on the Grande Maison de Blanc, architect Oscar François, artist Henri Privat-Livemont, 1896–1897 the Hôtel Ciamberlani, architect Paul Hankar, 1897 Princess of Dreams tile tympanum and other work, Hotel Metropol, architect William Walcot, artist Mikhail Vrubel, 1899–1907 the Cauchie house, architect Paul Cauchie, 1905 ceramic Homage to Prague tympanum of the Municipal House in Prague, architect Osvald Polívka, artist Karel Špillar, 1905–1912 Scagliola Stucco Terrazzo Venetian plaster Scratchboard Sgraffito Collection of Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam. St. Benet's Chaplaincy at Queen Mary, University of London
The Corinthian order is the last developed of the three principal classical orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. The other two are the Doric order, the earliest, followed by the Ionic order; when classical architecture was revived during the Renaissance, two more orders were added to the canon, the Tuscan order and the Composite order. The Corinthian, with its offshoot the Composite, is the most ornate of the orders; this architectural style is characterized by slender fluted columns and elaborate capitals decorated with acanthus leaves and scrolls. There are many variations; the name Corinthian is derived from the ancient Greek city of Corinth, although the style had its own model in Roman practice, following precedents set by the Temple of Mars Ultor in the Forum of Augustus. It was employed in southern Gaul at the Maison Carrée, Nîmes and at the comparable podium temple at Vienne. Other prime examples noted by Mark Wilson Jones are the lower order of the Basilica Ulpia and the arch at Ancona the "column of Phocas", the "Temple of Bacchus" at Baalbek.
The Corinthian order is named for the Greek city-state of Corinth, to which it was connected in the period. However, according to the architectural historian Vitruvius, the column was created by the sculptor Callimachus an Athenian, who drew acanthus leaves growing around a votive basket, its earliest use can be traced back to the Late Classical Period. The earliest Corinthian capital was found in Bassae, dated at 427 BC. Proportion is a defining characteristic of the Corinthian order: the "coherent integration of dimensions and ratios in accordance with the principles of symmetria" are noted by Mark Wilson Jones, who finds that the ratio of total column height to column-shaft height is in a 6:5 ratio, so that, the full height of column with capital is a multiple of 6 Roman feet while the column height itself is a multiple of 5. In its proportions, the Corinthian column is similar to the Ionic column, though it is more slender, stands apart by its distinctive carved capital; the abacus upon the capital has concave sides to conform to the outscrolling corners of the capital, it may have a rosette at the center of each side.
Corinthian columns were erected on the top level of the Roman Colosseum, holding up the least weight, having the slenderest ratio of thickness to height. Their height to width ratio is about 10:1. One variant is the Tivoli Order, found at the Temple of Tivoli; the Tivoli Order's Corintinan Capital has two rows of Acanthus and its abacus is decorated with oversize fleuron in the form of hibiscus flowers with pronounced spiral pistils. The column flutes have flat tops; the frieze exhibits fruit swag suspended between bucrania. Above each swag is a rosette; the cornice does not have modillions. Indo-Corinthian capitals are capitals crowning columns or pilasters, which can be found in the northwestern Indian subcontinent, combine Hellenistic and Indian elements; these capitals are dated to the 1st centuries of our era, constitute important elements of Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara. The classical design was adapted taking a more elongated form, sometimes being combined with scrolls within the context of Buddhist stupas and temples.
Indo-Corinthian capitals incorporated figures of the Buddha or Bodhisattvas as central figures surrounded, in the shade, of the luxurious foliage of Corinthian designs. During the first flush of the Italian Renaissance, the Florentine architectural theorist Francesco di Giorgio expressed the human analogies that writers who followed Vitruvius associated with the human form, in squared drawings he made of the Corinthian capital overlaid with human heads, to show the proportions common to both; the Corinthian architrave is divided in two or three sections, which may be equal, or may bear interesting proportional relationships, to one with another. Above the plain, unadorned architrave lies the frieze, which may be richly carved with a continuous design or left plain, as at the U. S. Capitol extension. At the Capitol the proportions of architrave to frieze are 1:1. Above that, the profiles of the cornice moldings are like those of the Ionic order. If the cornice is deep, it may be supported by brackets or modillions, which are ornamental brackets used in a series under a cornice.
The Corinthian column is always fluted, the flutes of a Corinthian column may be enriched. They may be filleted, with rods nestled within the hollow flutes, or stop-fluted, with the rods rising a third of the way, to where the entasis begins. In French, these are called chandelles and sometimes terminate in carved wisps of flame, or with bellflowers. Alternatively, beading or chains of husks may take the place of the fillets in the fluting, Corinthian being the most flexible of the orders, with more opportunities for variation. Elaborating upon an offhand remark when Vitruvius accounted for the origin of its acanthus capital, it became a commonplace to identify the Corinthian column with the slender figure of a young girl. Sir William Chambers expressed the conventional comparison with the Doric order: The proportions of the orders were by the ancients formed on those of the human body, it could n