Arth is a village, a statistic town, a municipality in Schwyz District in the canton of Schwyz in Switzerland. The municipality consists of the villages Arth and Goldau; the four settlements Rigi Kulm, Rigi First, Rigi Klösterli, Rigi Staffel on the mountain Rigi to the west of Arth are part of the municipality. The official language of Arth is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. Arth is first mentioned in 1036 as Arta. In 1353 it was mentioned as ze Arth. Arth has an area, as of 2006, of 42.1 km2. Of this area, 40.8 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 8.5% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. The municipality is situated on the southern shore of Lake Zug, along the Gotthard route between Rigi and Rossberg, it consists of the villages of Arth Oberarth and Goldau as well as the hamlets of Klösterli and Kulm an der Rigi. Arth has a population of 11,877; as of 2007, 23.6% of the population was made up of foreign nationals.
Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 6.3%. Most of the population speaks German, with Albanian being second most common and Serbo-Croatian being third; as of 2000 the gender distribution of the population was 49.7 % female. The age distribution, as of 2008, in Arth is. 2,870 people or 29.9% are 20 to 39, 2,832 people or 29.5% are 40 to 64. The senior population distribution is 734 people or 7.7% are 65 to 74. There are 467 people or 4.9% who are 70 to 79 and 135 people or 1.41% of the population who are over 80. There is one person in Arth, over 100 years old; as of 2000 there are 3,806 households. 275 or about 7.2% are large households, with at least five members. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the SVP; the next three most popular parties were the CVP, the FDP and the SPS. In Arth about 63.6% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Arth has an unemployment rate of 1.55%. As of 2005, there were 329 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 129 businesses involved in this sector.
810 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 88 businesses in this sector. 1868 people are employed with 302 businesses in this sector. From the 2000 census, 6,927 or 72.2% are Roman Catholic, while 939 or 9.8% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there are less than 5 individuals who belong to the Christian Catholic faith, there are 273 individuals who belong to the Orthodox Church, there are 7 individuals who belong to another Christian church. There are less than 5 individuals who are Jewish, 717 who are Islamic. There are 84 individuals who belong to another church, 337 belong to no church, are agnostic or atheist, 302 individuals did not answer the question; the historical population is given in the following table: The railway station at Goldau, named Arth-Goldau, is an important junction of the Swiss Federal Railways. The Voralpen Express train connects here to St. Gallen. Meanwhile, trains to Bellinzona and Italy, as well as trains to Zug and Zürich join here with trains heading toward Basel.
Karl Jakob Weber a Swiss architect and engineer, in charge of the first organized excavations at Herculaneum and Stabiae Robbie Hunter a retired South African professional road racing cyclist who competed professionally between 1999 and 2013.
Buttisholz Castle is a castle in the municipality of Buttisholz of the Canton of Lucerne in Switzerland. It is a Swiss heritage site of national significance. List of castles in Switzerland
Kastelen Tower Ruins
Kastelen Tower is a ruined castle in the municipality of Alberswil of the Canton of Lucerne in Switzerland. It is a Swiss heritage site of national significance. List of castles in Switzerland
Schauensee Castle is a castle in the municipality of Kriens of the Canton of Lucerne in Switzerland. It was first mentioned in the 13th century in connection with the Knight Rudolf von Schauensee and was built in the 13th century. By the beginning of the 14th century it was in ruins. At the end of the 16th century, Johannes von Mettenwyl acquired the complex and rebuilt it, retaining only the tower from the original castle. In 1750 it was rebuilt to its current appearance under the "Meyer von Schauensee" family; the municipality of Kriens was able to acquire the "Schlössli" in 1963. Today, the castle is used as a reception hall. List of castles in Switzerland
Meggenhorn Castle is a castle in Meggen near the Swiss city of Lucerne. It was built in 1868/70 by Edouad Hofer-Grosjean from Mulhouse and in 1926 equipped with a Welte Philharmonic Organ, it is considered to be the municipality's symbol. Today, it is used as a tourist attraction and reception venue, it is a Swiss heritage site of national significance. List of castles in Switzerland Short description Images of the Schloss Meggenhorn
Gothic Revival architecture
Gothic Revival is an architectural movement popular in the Western world that began in the late 1740s in England. Its popularity grew in the early 19th century, when serious and learned admirers of neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval Gothic architecture, in contrast to the neoclassical styles prevalent at the time. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, lancet windows, hood moulds and label stops; the Gothic Revival movement emerged in 18th-century England. Its roots were intertwined with philosophical movements associated with Catholicism and a re-awakening of High Church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism; the "Anglo-Catholicism" tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. Gothic Revival architecture varied in its faithfulness to both the ornamental style and principles of construction of its medieval original, sometimes amounting to little more than pointed window frames and a few touches of Gothic decoration on a building otherwise on a wholly 19th-century plan and using contemporary materials and construction methods.
In parallel to the ascendancy of neo-Gothic styles in 19th-century England, interest spread to the continent of Europe, in Australia, Sierra Leone, South Africa and to the Americas. The influence of the Revival had peaked by the 1870s. New architectural movements, sometimes related as in the Arts and Crafts movement, sometimes in outright opposition, such as Modernism, gained ground, by the 1930s the architecture of the Victorian era was condemned or ignored; the 20th century saw a revival of interest, manifested in the United Kingdom by the establishment of the Victorian Society in 1958. The rise of Evangelicalism in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries saw in England a reaction in the High church movement which sought to emphasise the continuity between the established church and the pre-Reformation Catholic church. Architecture, in the form of the Gothic Revival, became one of the main weapons in the High church's armoury; the Gothic Revival was paralleled and supported by "medievalism", which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals and curiosities.
As "industrialisation" progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories grew. Proponents of the picturesque such as Thomas Carlyle and Augustus Pugin took a critical view of industrial society and portrayed pre-industrial medieval society as a golden age. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values, supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation. Gothic Revival took on political connotations. In English literature, the architectural Gothic Revival and classical Romanticism gave rise to the Gothic novel genre, beginning with The Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, inspired a 19th-century genre of medieval poetry that stems from the pseudo-bardic poetry of "Ossian". Poems such as "Idylls of the King" by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance. In German literature, the Gothic Revival had a grounding in literary fashions. Gothic architecture began at the Basilica of Saint Denis near Paris, the Cathedral of Sens in 1140 and ended with a last flourish in the early 16th century with buildings like Henry VII's Chapel at Westminster.
However, Gothic architecture did not die out in the 16th century but instead lingered in on-going cathedral-building projects. In Bologna, in 1646, the Baroque architect Carlo Rainaldi constructed Gothic vaults for the Basilica of San Petronio in Bologna, under construction since 1390. Guarino Guarini, a 17th-century Theatine monk active in Turin, recognized the "Gothic order" as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice. Gothic architecture survived in an urban setting during the 17th century, as shown in Oxford and Cambridge, where some additions and repairs to Gothic buildings were considered to be more in keeping with the style of the original structures than contemporary Baroque. Sir Christopher Wren's Tom Tower for Christ Church, University of Oxford, Nicholas Hawksmoor's west towers of Westminster Abbey, blur the boundaries between what is called "Gothic survival" and the Gothic Revival. Throughout France in the 16th and 17th centuries, churches such as St-Eustache continued to be built following gothic forms cloaked in classical details, until the arrival of Baroque architecture.
In the mid-18th century, with the rise of Romanticism, an increased in
Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments. The term is historically used to refer to excommunications from the Catholic Church, but it is used more to refer to similar types of institutional religious exclusionary practices and shunning among other religious groups. For instance, many Protestant denominations, such as the Lutheran Churches, have similar practices of excusing congregants from church communities, while Jehovah's Witnesses, as well as the Churches of Christ, use the term "disfellowship" to refer to their form of excommunication; the Amish have been known to excommunicate members that were either seen or known for breaking rules, or questioning the church. The word excommunication means putting a specific group out of communion. In some denominations, excommunication includes spiritual condemnation of the group.
Excommunication may involve banishment and shaming, depending on the group, the offense that caused excommunication, or the rules or norms of the religious community. The grave act is revoked in response to sincere penance, which may be manifested through public recantation, sometimes through the Sacrament of Confession, piety or through mortification of the flesh. Within the Catholic Church, there are differences between the discipline of the majority Latin Church regarding excommunication and that of the Eastern Catholic Churches. In Latin Catholic canon law, excommunication is a applied censure and thus a "medicinal penalty" intended to invite the person to change behaviour or attitude and return to full communion, it is not an "expiatory penalty" designed to make satisfaction for the wrong done, much less a "vindictive penalty" designed to punish: "excommunication, the gravest penalty of all and the most frequent, is always medicinal", is "not at all vindictive". Excommunication can be either latae ferendae sententiae.
According to Bishop Thomas J. Paprocki, "excommunication does not expel the person from the Catholic Church, but forbids the excommunicated person from engaging in certain activities..." These activities are listed in Canon 1331 §1, prohibit the individual from any ministerial participation in celebrating the sacrifice of the Eucharist or any other ceremonies of worship. Under current Catholic canon law, excommunicates remain bound by ecclesiastical obligations such as attending Mass though they are barred from receiving the Eucharist and from taking an active part in the liturgy. "Excommunicates lose rights, such as the right to the sacraments, but they are still bound to the obligations of the law. They are urged to retain a relationship with the Church, as the goal is to encourage them to repent and return to active participation in its life; these are the only effects for those. For instance, a priest may not refuse Communion publicly to those who are under an automatic excommunication, as long as it has not been declared to have been incurred by them if the priest knows that they have incurred it.
On the other hand, if the priest knows that excommunication has been imposed on someone or that an automatic excommunication has been declared, he is forbidden to administer Holy Communion to that person.. In the Catholic Church, excommunication is resolved by a declaration of repentance, profession of the Creed and an Act of Faith, or renewal of obedience by the excommunicated person and the lifting of the censure by a priest or bishop empowered to do this. "The absolution can be in the internal forum only, or in the external forum, depending on whether scandal would be given if a person were absolved and yet publicly considered unrepentant." Since excommunication excludes from reception of the sacraments, absolution from excommunication is required before absolution can be given from the sin that led to the censure. In many cases, the whole process takes place on a single occasion in the privacy of the confessional. For some more serious wrongdoings, absolution from excommunication is reserved to a bishop, another ordinary, or the Pope.
These can delegate a priest to act on their behalf. Interdict is a censure similar to excommunication, it too excludes from ministerial functions in public worship and from reception of the sacraments, but not from the exercise of governance. In the Eastern Catholic Churches, excommunications is imposed only by decree, never incurred automatically by latae sententiae excommunication. A distinction is made between major excommunication; those on whom minor excommunication has been imposed are excluded from receiving the Eucharist and can be excluded from participating in the Divine Liturgy. They can be excluded from entering a church when divine worship is being celebrated there; the decree of excommunication must indicate the precise effect of the excommunication and, if required, its duration. Those under major excommunication