Meißenheim is a municipality in the district of Ortenau in Baden-Württemberg in Germany. Ferdinand Kopf, born in Kürzell, member of parliament Karl Hoppe, member of the Saarland Parliament 1947-1952 Friederike Brion, the youthful love of Goethe was buried in Meißenheim
Lahr is a city in western Baden-Württemberg, Germany 50 km north of Freiburg im Breisgau, 40 km south east of Strasbourg, 95 km south west of Karlsruhe. It is the second largest city in Ortenau after Offenburg, serves as an intermediate economic centre for the cities and towns of Ettenheim, Kappel-Grafenhausen, Mahlberg, Meißenheim, Rust, Schuttertal and Seelbach; the population of Lahr passed the 20,000 mark in the mid-1950s. When the new body of Municipal Law for Baden-Württemberg came into effect on April 1, 1956, the city was therefore accorded Große Kreisstadt status. In addition, Lahr cooperates with the town of Kippenheim in administrative matters. Lahr is located on the western edge of the Black Forest where the Schutter Valley merges with the Upper Rhine River Plains from the east; the Schutter enters the city from the southeast and runs in a northwesterly direction first through the boroughs of Reichenbach and Kuhbach through Lahr where the Altstadt is situated on the right bank of the river.
It traverses the borough of Dinglingen where it bends north until it leaves the city after traversing the borough of Hugsweier. A canal for emergency relief in times of flooding branches off from the Schutter not far from Dinglingen; the city of Lahr is made up of Lahr and the independent communities of Burgheim and Dinglingen. Burgheim and Dinglingen have merged with Lahr in a geographic sense. During the last major district reform in Baden-Württemberg in the 1970s Hugsweier, Kughbach, Mietersheim and Sulz joined Lahr as new boroughs. Several of the boroughs include additional, geographically distinct settlements or neighbourhoods that either have a long history of their own or were created as new developments but with areal boundaries that have not been defined. Most of these settlements have only small populations and some have since merged with their borough in a geographic sense. Brudertal is part of the borough of Kuhbach; the following cities and towns share a border with Lahr. They are listed clockwise starting from the north: Friesenheim, Kippenheim, Kappel-Grafenhausen and Schwanau.
Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb". Lahr developed around the Storchenturm owned by the House of Geroldseck around 1220 and received a city charter around 1278; the charter was renewed in 1377 and served as the foundation for municipal independence through to the end of the Old Empire. The significant tax privileges enjoyed by Lahr allowed the city to grow into a centre of trade during the eighteenth century; the city and surrounding land with the same name remained the property of the Geroldsecks until 1426. Their successor was the House of Moers-Saarwerden, which gave half the land to Baden as collateral for loans and in 1497 legal ownership was transferred to it; the other half was transferred to the House of Nassau-Saarbrücken in 1522. Both Baden and the House of Nassau-Saarbrücken implemented the Reformation in the areas under their control and ruled the city jointly until the Baden half became the property of the Nassaus in 1629.
The Thirty Years' War reduced the city's population and during the Dutch War in 1677 it was burned to the ground by French troops under the leadership of Marshall de Créquy. On, during the eighteenth century, the citizens of Lahr sued the House of Nassau in the "Lahr Law Suits" in 1726 and 1778; the suits were decided in favor of the citizens of Lahr and thwarted Nassau's attempt at absolute rule. In 1803 Lahr and the surrounding land in Baden became the seat of a court, whose areal boundaries were modified several times. During the 19th century Lahr was involved in the printing industry and the Burda Publishing Company, nowadays located in neighboring Offenburg, had its start at least in Lahr. Between 1898 and 1919 and again between 1936 and 1945, the city was home to a garrison. After World War II, Lahr became one of the bases for the French until France left the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1966. After that, from 1967 until 1994, the Canadian NATO forces maintained their European headquarters in Lahr.
Following the closing down of the "old" Brigade Area in North-Rhine Westphalia centred around Iserlohn, Deilinghofen as well as Werl and Soest the Land Forces and their families were transferred to the Lahr area to join the existing Air Force contingent. On 6 May 1994, Werner Dietz, Mayor of Lahr/Schwarzenwald presented the Canadian Forces a plaque "The City of Lahr/Schwarzenwald, in the Black Forest, thanks the Canadian Forces for their contribution to Peace and harmonious relations between Canadian and German populations of our city during their presence from 1967 to 1994." After the Canadian Forces left in 1994, a small Canadian contingent of former civilian employees remained in Lahr. As early as 1939 Lahr was the seat of the rural district of the same name, its automobile license plates code was "LR" but during the Baden-Württemberg district reform in the 1970s the district was dissolved and its communities were assigned and made part of the newly created Ortenau District. Lahr's boroughs enjoy a long hi
Achern is a city in Western Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is located 18 km southwest of Baden-Baden and 19 km northeast of Offenburg. Achern is the fourth largest city in the county of Ortenau, after Offenburg, Lahr / Black Forest and Kehl; as subsequent to the district reform in the 1970s the population passed the 20,000 mark, Achern requested to be awarded the status of Große Kreisstadt. The status was granted by the State government effective January 1, 1974. Achern collaborates with the communities of Lauf and Sasbachwalden in administrative matters. Besides Achern itself, the municipality includes the boroughs of Fautenbach, Großweier, Mösbach, Oberachern, Önsbach and Wagshurst. Achern is located in the northern Black Forest near the Hornisgrinde, at the entrance to the Acher Valley and not far from the eastern edge of the Upper Rhine Valley. Coming from the Black Forest, the Acher enters the city from the southeast and passes Oberachern on its way to the center of town with the historic center, the Altstadt, situated on the right bank.
The Acher continues on in northwesterly direction between Fautenbach and Großweier and south of Gamshurst, before leaving the city to head for the Rhine. The river gave the city its name; the city contains several artificially created lakes, some of which still produce sand. The largest lake is called Achernsee, near the Achern Autobahn ramp, in the West of the city. Achern is surrounded by the following communities: Lichtenau and Ottersweier, as well as Sasbach, Sasbachwalden, Kappelrodeck and Rheinau, all part of Ortenau County. Within the municipal borders of Achern, the city is made up of the city center, the boroughs that were redistricted into Achern during the District Reform in the 1970s, Fautenbach, Großweier, Mösbach, Oberachern, Önsbach and Wagshurst. Except Oberachern, the boroughs have community status under state administrative law, which entitles them to a borough council, elected by registered voters in municipal elections; the borough councils are headed up by the Borough President.
In some cases, named neighborhoods or developments are part of the boroughs, though with few residents and not defined limits. Examples of such neighborhoods are Litzloch and Ziegelhütte in Gamshurst, Malghurst in Sasbachried, Lindenhof in Fautenbach and Schollenhof in Wagshurst. Achern was first mentioned in 1095 as Acchara and developed into Oberachern and Niederachern. Niederachern was referred to only as Achern. During the High Middle Ages the town became part of the German Reich, courtesy of the Staufenberger and Zähringer families, was included in the Landsvogtei of Ortenau. In 1334, together with Ortenau Achern became part of Baden, in 1351 it went to Strasbourg, in 1405 to the Electorate of the Palatinate, in 1504 to Fürstenberg-Fürstenberg. In 1551 the town became part of the Reichlandsvogtei Ortenau. In 1495 and again in 1637 Achern burned to the ground and was uninhabited for several years thereafter. In 1805 Achern again became part of what was the Grand Duchy of Baden and was made a district court seat.
In 1808 it was awarded City status. In 1924 the district of Achern was dissolved and became part of the district of Bühl, awarded County status in 1939. After World War II, Bühl County was part of the State of Baden and from 1952 part of the Regierungsbezirk of South Baden. Pursuant to the district reform Bühl County was dissolved, effective January 1, 1973, its southern part — and with it the city of Achern — was made part of the newly created Ortenaukreis. The boroughs all came under the rule of Baden in 1805 as part of the district of Achern. Exceptions are Mösbach, which first belonged to the district of Oberkirch and was joined into the Achern district in 1859, Wagshurst, which first belonged to the district of Appenweier and became part of the Achern district in 1819; when the district of Achern was dissolved in 1924, all of its communities except Wagshurst were joined with the district, in 1939, County of Bühl. Wagshurst became part of the County of Kehl. Fautenbach was first mentioned circa 1100 as Vultenbach.
Via the cloister in Hirsau it gained Großweier und Schauenburg. Gamshurst was an expansion of Sasbach. Großweier was first mentioned around 1115 as Crosvvilare, it remained Croschweier well into the 19th century. Like Gamshurst it was an expansion of Sasbach. Großweier had been given to a family as a fief by the Duke of Baden; that vassal family took its name from the castle in town. When the last of the vassal family died, Großweier became the property of the Lords of Seldeneck whose kin sold it back to Baden in 1583; the moated castle was the seat of the district court until it was moved to Bühl after the castle's destruction in 1689 by French troops during the Nine Years' War. Mösbach was first mentioned in 1386 as Mestbach, it belonged to Strasbourg. Oberachern was first mentioned in 1347 as Obernacher. Before that date no distinction was made between Niederachern, it belonged to the Staufenberg family as early as 1100 though parts of it belonged to the cloister in Hirsau. Before 1130 Oberachern belonged to the cloister St. Georgen.
In the 12th century a noble and free family who also supplied the judges for Achern, named itself after the city. This family lived in a moated castle the remains of which were used in the construction of the Stephanus church tower in Oberachern. While Oberac
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France. It is Germany's third-largest state, with an area of 11 million inhabitants. Baden-Württemberg is a parliamentary republic and sovereign, federated state, formed in 1952 by a merger of the states of Württemberg-Baden, Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern; the largest city in Baden-Württemberg is the state capital of Stuttgart, followed by Karlsruhe and Mannheim. Other cities are Freiburg im Breisgau, Heilbronn, Pforzheim and Ulm; the sobriquet Ländle is sometimes used as a synonym for Baden-Württemberg. Baden-Württemberg is formed from the historical territories of Baden, Prussian Hohenzollern, Württemberg, parts of Swabia. In 100 AD, the Roman Empire invaded and occupied Württemberg, constructing a limes along its northern borders. Over the course of the third century AD, the Alemanni forced the Romans to retreat west beyond the Rhine and Danube rivers. In 496 AD the Alemanni were defeated by a Frankish invasion led by Clovis I.
The Holy Roman Empire was established. The majority of people in this region continued to be Roman Catholics after the Protestant Reformation influenced populations in northern Germany. In the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, numerous people emigrated from this rural area to the United States for economic reasons. After World War II, the Allies established three federal states in the territory of modern-day Baden-Württemberg: Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Württemberg-Baden. Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern were occupied by France, while Württemberg-Baden was occupied by the United States. In 1949, each state became a founding member of the Federal Republic of Germany, with Article 118 of the German constitution providing an accession procedure. On 16 December 1951, Württemberg-Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern and Baden voted via referendum in favor of a joint merger. Baden-Württemberg became a state in West Germany on 25 April 1952. Baden-Württemberg shares borders with the German states of Rhineland Palatinate and Bavaria, Switzerland.
Most of the major cities of Baden-Württemberg straddle the banks of the Neckar River, which runs downstream through the state past Tübingen, Heilbronn and Mannheim. The Rhine forms the western border as well as large portions of the southern border; the Black Forest, the main mountain range of the state, rises east of the Upper Rhine valley. The high plateau of the Swabian Alb, between the Neckar, the Black Forest, the Danube, is an important European watershed. Baden-Württemberg shares Lake Constance with Switzerland and Bavaria, the international borders within its waters not being defined, it shares the foothills of the Alps with Bavaria and the Austrian Vorarlberg, but Baden-Württemberg does not border Austria over land. The Danube River has its source in Baden-Württemberg near the town of Donaueschingen, in a place called Furtwangen in the Black Forest. Baden-Württemberg is divided into thirty-five districts and nine independent cities, both grouped into the four Administrative Districts of Freiburg, Stuttgart, Tübingen.
Map Baden-Württemberg contains nine additional independent cities not belonging to any district: The state parliament of Baden-Württemberg is the Landtag. The politics of Baden-Württemberg have traditionally been dominated by the conservative Christian Democratic Union of Germany, who until 2011 had led all but one government since the establishment of the state in 1952. In the Landtag elections held on 27 March 2011 voters replaced the Christian Democrats and centre-right Free Democrats coalition by a Greens-led alliance with the Social Democrats which secured a four-seat majority in the state parliament. From 1992 to 2001, the Republicans party held seats in the Landtag; the Baden-Württemberg General Auditing Office acts as an independent body to monitor the correct use of public funds by public offices. Although Baden-Württemberg has few natural resources compared to other regions of Germany, the state is among the most prosperous and wealthiest regions in Europe with a low unemployment rate historically.
A number of well-known enterprises are headquartered in the state, for example Daimler AG, Robert Bosch GmbH, Carl Zeiss AG, SAP SE and Heidelberger Druckmaschinen. In spite of this, Baden-Württemberg's economy is dominated by medium-sized enterprises. Although poor in workable natural resources and still rural in many areas, the region is industrialised. In 2003, there were 8,800 manufacturing enterprises with more than 20 employees, but only 384 with more than 500; the latter category accounts for 43% of the 1.2 million persons employed in industry. The Mittelstand or mid-sized company is the backbone of the Baden-Württemberg economy. Medium-sized businesses and a tradition of branching out into different industrial sectors have ensured specialization over a wide range. A fifth of the "old" Federal Republic's industrial gross value added is generated by Baden-Württemberg. Turnover for manufacturing in 2003 e
Oberharmersbach is a town in the district of Ortenau in Baden-Württemberg in Germany
Gutach is a municipality in the district of Ortenau in Baden-Württemberg in Germany. The borough is home to the Black Forest Open-Air Museum. Anton Joos, communist functionary Wilhelm Hasemann, painter.