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Neurofibromatosis

Neurofibromatosis is a group of three conditions in which tumors grow in the nervous system. The three types are neurofibromatosis type I, neurofibromatosis type II, schwannomatosis. In NF1 symptoms include light brown spots on the skin, freckles in the armpit and groin, small bumps within nerves, scoliosis. In NF2, there may be hearing loss, cataracts at a young age, balance problems, flesh colored skin flaps, muscle wasting. In schwannomatosis there may be pain either in wide areas of the body; the tumors in NF are non-cancerous. The cause is a genetic mutation in certain genes; these can be inherited from a person's parents, or in about half of cases spontaneously occur during early development. Different mutations result in the three types of NF; the tumors involve the supporting cells of the nervous system rather than the neurons. In NF1 the tumors are neurofibromas, while in NF2 and schwannomatosis tumors of Schwann cells are more common. Diagnosis is based on symptoms, medical imaging, biopsy.

Genetic testing may be done to support the diagnosis. There is cure. Surgery may be done to have become cancerous. Radiation and chemotherapy may be used if cancer occurs. A cochlear implant or auditory brainstem implant may help some who have hearing loss due to the condition. In the United States, about 1 in 3,500 people have NF1 and 1 in 25,000 have NF2. Males and females are affected often. In NF1, symptoms are present at birth or develop before 10 years of age. While the condition worsens with time, most people with NF1 have a normal life expectancy. In NF2, symptoms may not become apparent until early adulthood. NF2 increases the risk of early death. Descriptions of the condition occur as far back as the 1st century, it was formally described by Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen in 1882, after whom it was named. Neurofibromatosis type 1 in early life may cause learning and behavior problems – about 60% of children who have NF1 have mild difficulty in school. Signs the individual might have are as follows: Six or more light brown dermatological spots At least two neurofibromas At least two growths on the eye's iris Abnormal growth of the spine People with neurofibromatosis type 2 can exhibit the same type of skin symptoms as type 1, but not in every case.

The symptom most characteristic of NF2 is hearing loss. The hearing loss occurs due to the pressure of tumors on the acoustic nerve; the same pressure can cause headaches and nausea. The main symptom of schwannomatosis is localized pain; this pain is due to nerves experiencing more pressure because of nearby tumors. The three types of Neurofibromatosis are caused by different mutations on chromosomes. NF1 is caused by a mutation on the NF1 gene on the arm of chromosome 17. NF2 is caused by a mutation on the NF2 tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 22. Schwannomatosis is caused by various mutations on chromosome 22. Neurofibromatosis is an autosomal dominant disorder, which means only one copy of the affected gene is needed for the disorder to develop. If one parent has neurofibromatosis, his or her children have a 50% chance of developing the condition as well; the severity of the parent's condition does not affect the child. The types of neurofibromatosis are: Neurofibromatosis type I, in which the nerve tissue grows tumors that may be benign, but may cause serious damage by compressing nerves and other tissues.

Neurofibromatosis type II, in which bilateral acoustic neuromas develop leading to hearing loss. Schwannomatosis, in which painful schwannomas develop on spinal and peripheral nerves. Neurofibromatosis type I is caused by a mutation on chromosome 17 encoding a cytoplasmic protein known as neurofibromin; this protein is a tumor suppressor and therefore serves as a signal regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation. A dysfunction or lack of neurofibromin can affect regulation, cause uncontrolled cell proliferation, leading to the tumors that characterize NF1; the neurofibromas caused by NF consist of Schwann cells, perineuronal cells, mast cells and axons embedded in an extracellular matrix. Another function of neurofibromin is to bind to microtubules that play a role in the release of adenylyl cyclase and its activity. Adenylyl cyclase plays an essential role in cognition. Neurofibromin's role in the activity of adenylyl cyclase explains why patients with NF experience cognitive impairment.

Neurofibromatosis type II is caused by a mutation on chromosome 22. The mutation falls on the NF2 tumor suppressor gene; the gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein known as merlin. The normal function of merlin is to regulate the activity of multiple growth factors, the mutated copy of the gene leads to merlin's loss of function; the loss of function leads to increased activity of growth factors regulated by merlin, leading to the formation of the tumors associated with NF2. Schwannomatosis is caused by a mutation on the SMARCB1 gene; this gene is located near the NF2 tumor suppressor gene leading to the thought that schwannomatosis and NF2 were the same condition. The two conditions show different mutations on two different genes; the normal function of the SMARCB1 gene is to encode a protein called SMARCB1, part of a larger protein complex whose function is not understood. The complex including SMARCB1 plays a role in tumor suppression; the mutation

CASY cell counting technology

CASY technology is an electric field multi-channel cell counting system. It was first marketed by Schärfe System GmbH in 1987 under the name CASY1; the first systems were sold with a rectangular chassis. In the 1990s the ATARI computer got replaced by the chassis changed into cylinders. In 2006, Schärfe System was acquired by a company focused on cell culture analysis. CASY utilizes the techniques of electric current exclusion and pulse area analysis, the cells can be analyzed and counted in an efficient and precise manner; this technology can be applied for cell counting, cell culture analysis at a certain time interval, or a period of time. Cell viability can be assessed based on the integrity of plasma membrane: the living cells have intact plasma membranes whereas membranes of dead cells are broken; when a cell is exposed to a low voltage field, the electric current cannot go through the intact membrane, an electric insulator, if it is viable. Otherwise, as the cellular membrane is broken, electric field can go through the injured cell as there are pores on their membrane.

For a normal cell, its size cannot be smaller than its nuclear size, the criterion to distinguish between living cells and dead cells. As a result, when cells in an electrolyte or a particular buffer, they are aligned one by one to a precision measuring pore and exposed to the electric field, each of their information can be captured and the culture condition, including its concentration and volume, can be analyzed. For example, when the living cells get greater volume and pass through the current flow, a greater pulse, in amp-1, can be generated and amplified; as the cell size is related to the cell volume, a cell size profile in cell population can be produced in terms of pulse height. Since the cells are scanned at such high frequency, a precise result and a high resolution can be produced; these results from each cell are cumulated and assigned in a calibrated multi-channel analyser with over 500,000 channels. So, for the CASY technology, as the cell flow cytometry, it can present data of each cell as a cell size distribution graph, which has 2 variables, the change in cell volume and that in cell viability.

The materials passing through the apparatus can be gated. For the newly invented equipments, they have an automatically lower threshold at 7 um, which can exclude small particles and cell debris in the cell culture. At the same time, there will be an upper threshold to prevent from cell aggregation for counting. However, some of users may set upper threshold to unlimited for cell size. Since the cell size of each cell type is varied, before doing gating, it should ensure the correct cell size is included during the cell size related experiment. Since the cell viability is determined by electric current exclusion, viability dyes such as Trypan blue and Propidium iodide are not needed. Hence, cell viability determination need no longer be a terminal experiment; this advantage permits subsequent tests using the cells such as viability after a further time interval. The given result will be accurate because not only are all steps performed robotically, but are high throughput. CASY technology it is fast but reliable and reproducible because of features such as the multi-channel analyzer for detecting and analyzing the pulse height generation.

In fact, a channel means the pulse counted in a particular energy. In the past, single channel analyzers were used the instruments, they can count the pulse in a narrow range only. So, they can analyze few times at the set frequency only. Once the electric current is changed during the cell transfer, it could not be detected; this can use not only a much time for analysis but inaccurate cell counting result. However, for the multi- channel analyzer, it can scan the entire energy range and the pulses in each channel; as there are more than 500, 000 channels for a cell counting, once a cell is pass through the measuring pore, there would be a lot of channel monitoring for 1 cell. As a result, the speed of CASY technology to obtain the information of cells can be high. One of CASY technology applications is electronic cell counter for determining cell number and their viability in a sample; the equipment is shown as Fig. 3 and the Fig. 4 states the result, including the total cell count, as well as the percentage of debris, living cells and dead cells, displayed on the screen of the cell counter.

Lindl et al. has compared the CASY technology to two standard methods for cell viability measurement, including the neutral red uptake and MTT assay. They found that the most sensitive IC50 values, which were the closest to those in the literature, were performed by this electronic cell counter; some toxicants in these experiments by using chemical methods would affect the mechanisms of the assays. So, the results would become invalid. However, for the electronic cell counter, it can not only monitor all the cells changes the cell necrosis, by various toxicants types and concentration, but a complex mixture of toxicants in the cell culture, it would be seen. On the other hand, all the results from electric cell counter could be transferred to the computers with common spreadsheet programs. No other specific software would be set up to every computer to obtain the result. A Coulter counter is one of the other devices used for cell counting. Like CASY technology, this uses electric current for cell counting.

However, the difference between them is that there is an aperture called “sensing zone”, with a known volume of electrolyte in a coulter counter. When suspended cells pass through it, they would displace the equivalent volume of elec

2001–02 Duke Blue Devils men's basketball team

The 2001–02 Duke Blue Devils men's basketball team represented Duke University. The head coach was Mike Krzyzewski; the team played its home games in the Cameron Indoor Stadium in Durham, North Carolina, was a member of the Atlantic Coast Conference. South Duke 84, Winthrop 37 Duke 84, Notre Dame 77 Indiana 74, Duke 73 Duke Blue Devils became the first team to be seeded #1 in the NCAA tournament for five straight seasons; the team finished. Jason Williams was a National Player of the Year winner for the second straight year, but oddly enough didn't win ACC Player of the Year in either 2000–01 or 2001–02. Shane Battier and Joseph Forte shared the award in'01 and Maryland's Juan Dixon won it in'02. Statistical Database- Duke Blue Devils Basketball Statistical Database

Darren Kenton

Darren Edward Kenton is an English former professional footballer who last played for Rochester Rhinos in the USL First Division. Kenton was born in Wandsworth and started his career at Norwich City in 1997, he played 158 league games and scored nine goals for the Canaries in the old Football League First Division. Kenton signed for Southampton in 2003 on a free transfer. Kenton scored his only goal for Southampton in an FA Cup match against MK Dons on 7 January 2006. Having been released by Southampton in May 2006, he joined Leicester City on 27 June 2006, a team for which he had had a loan spell in 2005, he started the 2006–07 Championship season as a first-team regular, despite scoring an own goal against West Bromwich Albion in his sixth game for the club. He struggled with injury towards the end of the season. On 31 March 2007 he scored his first goal for the club in a 4–2 defeat away to Stoke City and got his second of the season in a 2–1 loss against Norwich City on 14 April 2007. On 19 June 2007 Kenton was placed on the transfer list by manager Martin Allen.

However, the injury of Stephen Clemence and James Wesolowski on 23 October 2007 saw a recall into the senior squad, playing in midfield position. He was involved in the first team in November and December 2007. On 10 January 2008, Kenton joined League One side Leeds United on a one-month loan deal He had his Leicester contract terminated by mutual consent on 31 January 2008 and he joined Leeds permanently on the same day, he played 12 games for the club as they finished sixth, but he did not play in their play-off campaign and he was released at the end of the season. On 2 October 2008, Kenton joined Cheltenham Town, he signed at the same time as former Leicester teammate James Wesolowski and linked up with former Leicester manager Martin Allen, he made 13 league appearances before turning down an extended contract and left the club on 6 January 2009. He scored once for Cheltenham, in a 4–3 win over Colchester United. After an unsuccessful trial with Toronto FC in February 2009, Kenton joined Rochester Rhinos on a one-year contract on 9 April.

Rochester Rhinos bio Darren Kenton at Soccerbase Career information at ex-canaries.co.uk

Vampironica

Vampironica is an ongoing American comic book series published by Archie Horror, an imprint of Archie Comics, beginning in 2018. The story, which takes place outside of the main Archie Comics continuity, focuses on Veronica Lodge as she navigates life after becoming a vampiress, it is written by Greg and Meg Smallwood, with the former serving as an artist. In 2019, the series crossed over with fellow Archie Horror staple, Jughead: The Hunger, in the limited-run comic book series, Jughead: The Hunger vs. Vampironica. In March 2015, Archie Comics announced that a new title was in the works for the imprint featuring a significant female character from Archie's past. Written by Megan Smallwood, with art by co-writer Greg Smallwood and lettering by Jack Morelli, Vampironica was announced in December 2017; the series debuted on March 14, 2018. The title originates from Betty and Veronica #261 by Dan Parent, which debuted the first version of the Vampirella-inspired Vampironica; the name is mentioned in the first issue of fellow Archie Horror series Afterlife with Archie.

In the flagship series, Betty Cooper refers to Veronica Lodge as "Vampironica" in regards to the latter's Vampirella costume. In October 2018, a crossover miniseries with fellow Archie Horror staple Jughead: The Hunger was announced; the limited series, titled Jughead: The Hunger vs. Vampironica, was written by Frank Tieri and illustrated by Pat & Tim Kennedy. Discussing the story and means of the crossover, Tieri said, "There are no vampires in Jughead: The Hunger. Vampironica, on the other hand, has no werewolves. Now, why is that? What happened in their respective worlds to cause an entire race to be wiped out? Jughead: The Hunger vs. Vampironica answers that question as well as what happens when these elements are reintroduced once again." The first issue was released on April 24, 2019. Volume 1: First Blood Riverdale’s resident rich girl Veronica Lodge is turned into a vampiress by another blood sucker hundreds of years her senior. Forced to contend with this new, radical transformation, Veronica must deal with the prospect of feeding on her own small-town cohorts.

Jughead: The Hunger vs. VampironicaFollowing her triumph against Ivan and his master, Veronica has to learn to her dismay that she, as well as her parents, were vampires all along, but as she confronts her parents and other vampires are whisked away into a parallel world, dominated by werewolves and where vampires are extinct since the days of the French and Indian War. Veronica joins her friends in that world to combat the rogue vampires. Vampironica: New BloodIn September 2019 the publication of a new Vampironica mini-series, entitled New Blood, was announced for December the same year. A direct follow-up on the events of Jughead: The Hunger vs. Vampironica, the story follows Veronica's investigation of her newly-revealed ancestor Sir Francis Lodge, the tyrannical vampire who founded her American family line, while at the same time dealing with a new vampiric infestation in her native Riverdale. Veronica Lodge, a cheerleader at Riverdale Senior High who becomes a strigoi vampiress after being bitten by Ivan.

She protects the people of Riverdale from other vampires as she attempts to break the curse on her and the other victims by destroying the master vampire. In Jughead: The Hunger vs. Vampironica, however, it is revealed that her parents have been vampires all the time, that she inherited this dark trait. Archie Andrews, a football player and Veronica's longtime crush who dates Betty. Upon an untimely visit to the Lodges, where he learns of Veronica's situation, he joins her in combatting the vampiric menace looming over Riverdale. Betty Cooper, Veronica's best friend, fellow cheerleader, competitor for Archie's affections, she joins the fight against the brood of vampires. Dilton Doiley, Veronica's intelligent schoolmate who, after discovering Veronica's condition, becomes her first confidant and ally in her fight against her vampiric nemesis. Hiram and Hermione Lodge, Veronica's wealthy parents who become Ivan's first victims and minions as moroi vampires. However, it is shown that they were vampires all along, that their conflict with Ivan was part of factional infighting.

Reggie Mantle, a football player and Veronica's back-up date. He was turned into a moroi vampire by Ivan. Jughead Jones, Archie's best friend and a friend of Veronica and Betty. Cheryl Blossom, Veronica's wealthy frenemy from Pembrooke Estates, she is co-host of the pool party. Jason Blossom, Cheryl's twin brother and co-host of the pool party who has a romantic interest in Betty. Moose Mason, Midge Klump, Nancy Woods, Veronica's schoolmates who are all turned into moroi vampires in First Blood. Ethel Muggs, Veronica's peer, present at the pool party attack in First Blood. Ivan, a centuries-old strigoi vampire who turns Veronica, her parents, Reggie into vampires in First Blood, he is affiliated with the medieval Order of the Dragon. It is revealed that he is not the master vampire when no one becomes human again after he is killed by being plunged into a pool of holy water. Dracula, Ivan's patron, the hidden mastermind behind the vampiric takeover of Riverdale in First Blood and has the power to project hallucinations into an attacker's mind.

Veronica succeeds in overcoming his illusions and staking him, ending the menace and restoring all afflicted to normal. Sir Francis Lodge and Hiram's ancestor, the first vampire in the New World, whose existence was first discovered by Veronica in the reality of Jughead: The Hunger; the series has received positive reviews. Justin Partridge of Newsarama said of the debut that it "fu

Kulkarni

Kulkarni is a family name native to the Indian state of Maharashtra and northern Karnataka. It is found among the Brahmin communities of these states such as Deshastha and among the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu community; the reason the Kulkarni was a Brahmin or CKP was. The Kulkarni operated at the village level but at a Pargana level he was known as a "Deshkulkarni", Deshpande or Nadkarni; the name "Kulkarni" is a combination of two words. Kula means "family", Karanika means "archivist". Traditionally, Kulkarni was a title used for people who used to maintain the accounts and records of the villages and used to collect taxes; the title of the Kulkarni was replaced by the Talathi. The Pargana and Kulkarni watans were abolished in 1950. Jñāneśvar 1275 - 1296 Eknath: Pre-sainthood name: Eknāth Kulkarni: 1533 - 1599 Samarth Ramdas: Pre-sainthood name: Narayan Kulkarni: 1608 - 1681 Nivruttinath: Pre-sainthood name: Nivrutti Kulkarni: Elder brother and teacher of Dnyaneshwar Sopan: Pre-sainthood name: Sopan Kulkarni Muktabai: Pre-sainthood name: Mukta Kulkarni Mahipati: Chronicler of many Indian saints, author of the Bhaktavijaya: Ramchandra Pant Amatya: 1650–1716 The third Peshwa, Finance Minister to Emperor Shivaji and Imperial Regent Parshuram Trimbak Kulkarni: 1660–1718 Held post of Pant Pratinidhi, the fifth Peshwa and the founder of Aundh and Vishalgad princely states.

G. A. Kulkarni: Short story writerRaj Kulkarni: story writer Atul Kulkarni: Marathi film and theater actor Chandrakant Kulkarni: Film director Dhondutai Kulkarni: Vocalist of the Jaipur-Atrauli Gharana Girish Kulkarni: Marathi film actor Mamta Kulkarni: Bollywood actress Mrinal Dev-Kulkarni: Marathi television actress. Saleel Kulkarni: Marathi singer and composer Sameep Kulkarni - Sitarist Sandeep Kulkarni: Marathi actor Sonali Kulkarni: Bollywood actress Sonalee Kulkarni: Marathi film actress Umesh Vinayak Kulkarni: Film Director Nilesh Kulkarni: Indian cricketer Raju Kulkarni: Former Indian cricketer Umesh Kulkarni: Former Indian cricketer Shubhangi Kulkarni: Indian woman cricketer and secretary of the Women's Cricket Association of India Dhawal Kulkarni: Indian Cricketer Vineet Kulkarni: Indian cricket umpire and member of the International Cricket Council's International Panel of Umpires and Referees Ravi S. Kulkarni: Indian mathematician Sudha Kulkarni Murty: Kannada writer, Founder of Sudha Murty Foundation and wife of Narayan Murthy Vinay Kulkarni Sudheendra Kulkarni Sri Preston Kulkarni -American politician Virupax Ganesh “VG” Kulkarni, Hong Kong-based former Regional Editor, Far Eastern Economic Review