Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, surgical treatment, rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, cerebrovascular system. In different countries, there are different requirements for an individual to practice neurosurgery, there are varying methods through which they must be educated. In most countries, neurosurgeon training requires a minimum period of seven years after graduating from medical school. In the United States, a neurosurgeon must complete four years of undergraduate education, four years of medical school, seven years of residency. Most, but not all, residency programs have some component of clinical research. Neurosurgeons may pursue additional training in the form of a fellowship, after residency or in some cases, as a senior resident; these fellowships include pediatric neurosurgery, trauma/neurocritical care and stereotactic surgery, surgical neuro-oncology, neurovascular surgery, skull-base surgery, peripheral nerve and spine surgery.
In the U. S. neurosurgery is considered a competitive specialty composed of 0.5% of all practicing physicians. In the United Kingdom, students must gain entry into medical school. MBBS qualification takes four to six years depending on the student's route; the newly qualified physician must complete foundation training lasting two years. Junior doctors apply to enter the neurosurgical pathway. Unlike most other surgical specialties, it has its own independent training pathway which takes around eight years. Neurosurgery remains amongst the most competitive medical specialties in which to obtain entry. Neurosurgery, or the premeditated incision into the head for pain relief, has been around for thousands of years, but notable advancements in neurosurgery have only come within the last hundred years; the Incas appear to have practiced a procedure known as trepanation since the late Stone age. During the Middle Ages in Al-Andalus from 936 to 1013 AD, Al-Zahrawi performed surgical treatments of head injuries, skull fractures, spinal injuries, subdural effusions and headache.
There was not much advancement in neurosurgery until late 19th early 20th century, when electrodes were placed on the brain and superficial tumors were removed. History of electrodes in the brain: In 1878 Richard Canton discovered that electrical signals transmitted through an animal's brain. In 1950 Dr. Jose Delgado invented the first electrode, implanted in an animal's brain, using it to make it run and change direction. In 1972 the cochlear implant, a neurological prosthetic that allowed deaf people to hear was marketed for commercial use. In 1998 researcher Philip Kennedy implanted the first Brain Computer Interface into a human subject. History of tumor removal: In 1879 after locating it via neurological signs alone, Scottish surgeon William Macewen performed the first successful brain tumor removal. On November 25, 1884 after English physician Alexander Hughes Bennett used Macewen's technique to locate it, English surgeon Rickman Godlee performed the first primary brain tumor removal, which differs from Macewen's operation in that Bennett operated on the exposed brain, whereas Macewen operated outside of the "brain proper" via trepanation.
On March 16, 1907 Austrian surgeon Hermann Schloffer became the first to remove a pituitary tumor. The main advancements in neurosurgery came about as a result of crafted tools. Modern neurosurgical tools, or instruments, include chisels, dissectors, elevators, hooks, probes, suction tubes, power tools, robots. Most of these modern tools, like chisels, forceps, hooks and probes, have been in medical practice for a long time; the main difference of these tools and post advancement in neurosurgery, were the precision in which they were crafted. These tools are crafted with edges. Other tools such as hand held power saws and robots have only been used inside of a neurological operating room; as an example, the University of Utah developed a device for computer-aided design / computer-aided manufacturing which uses an image-guided system to define a cutting tool path for a robotic cranial drill. General neurosurgery involves most neurosurgical conditions including neuro-trauma and other neuro-emergencies such as intracranial hemorrhage.
Most level 1 hospitals have this kind of practice. Specialized branches have developed to cater to difficult conditions; these specialized branches co-exist with general neurosurgery in more sophisticated hospitals. To practice advanced specialization within neurosurgery, additional higher fellowship training of one to two years is expected from the neurosurgeon; some of these divisions of neurosurgery are: Vascular neurosurgery includes clipping of aneurysms and performing carotid endarterectomy. Stereotactic neurosurgery, functional neurosurgery, epilepsy surgery (the latter includes partial or total corpus callosotomy – severing part or all of the corpus callosum to stop or lessen seizure spread and activity, the surgical removal of functional, physiological and/or anatomical pieces or divisions of the brain, called epileptic foci, that are operable and that are causin
The Black Radical Congress or BRC is an organization founded in 1998 in Chicago. It is a grassroots network of individuals and organizations of African descent focused on advocating for broad progressive social justice, racial equality and economic justice goals within the United States. At the organizing congress in Chicago in June 1998, 2,000 people participated in creating the organization. However, their first mission predates the organizing congress, having been publicly endorsed and published by a number of high-profile black scholars and activists on 16 March 1998. On 17 April 1999, the BRC ratified a "freedom agenda" listing 15 objectives dealing with racial and economic justice in the United States; the National Council of the BRC adopted a mission statement on 26 September 1999 in East St. Louis, Illinois; the opening paragraph states: The purpose of the Black Radical Congress is to promote dialogue among African American activists and scholars on the left. The complete mission statement discusses approaches to radical democratic methods involving conferences and publications.
"Principles of unity" were adopted, stating that the BRC was established as a "center without walls" focusing on "transformative politics that focuses on the conditions of Black working and poor people."A national organizing conference was convened in Detroit in 2000, other conferences have taken place in subsequent years. The BRC has both organizational memberships, it is headed by a National Congress. Each year, the BRC chooses a different "theme" to focus its work on; the BRC has at least two caucuses, subgroups within the organization, the labor and working-class caucus and the Pat Parker Queer Caucus. The BRC has local chapters in Washington, D. C.. The BRC states: "Black is not a color or hue, but encompasses all peoples of African descent." Their work is focused on racial justice as well as broader social and economic justice as it intersects with the politics of race and racial oppression. "Radical means getting to the root causes of society's injustices and working for root-level, fundamental change.
Radicalism is an honored tradition in Black political history."The BRC has many ties to the Communist Party, USA, although the Congress does not explicitly identify itself as communist, socialist or Marxist. A number of high-profile black scholars and activists endorsed the creation of the BRC on 16 March 1998: Marlene Archer Amina Baraka Amiri Baraka Debbie Bell Angela Y. Davis Johanna Fernandez Bill Fletcher, Jr. Lewis Gordon Robin D. G. Kelley Marian Kramer Julianne Malveaux Manning Marable Sonia Sanchez Joe Sims Yicki Smith Jarvis Tyner Cornel West Black Lives Matter Nation of Islam Black Radical Congress website "From Conference to Organization: The Challenges of Building the Black Radical Congress", by Jamala Rogers "Global Apartheid and America's New Racial Domain", by Manning Marable "Rosa Parks: A Woman of Substance", by Eric Foner, discussing the life and death of Rosa Parks "The Left and the Millions More Movement", by Amiri Baraka "We Charge Genocide", by Jamala Rogers, discussing Hurricane Katrina "The terrorist named Hurricane Katrina", by Bill Fletcher, Jr. discussing Hurricane Katrina "Whither the Struggle Against Racism", by Rose Brewer, discussing the World Social Forum in Porto Alegre, Brazil in 2005 "Contemporary Police Brutality and Misconduct" press release, undated "We Must Succeed!!
The Black Radical Congress Campaign" press release, undated "African Leaders Hide Political Woes Behind Homophobia", press release, 25 April 2001 "Statement on the Giuliani "Decency" Panel", press release, 12 April 2001 "Statement on the Post-Election Crisis by the National Coordinating Committee of the BRC", press release, 1 December 2000 "The Black Radical Congress Condemns the Acquittal of Four Police Officers in the Murder of Amadou Diallo", press release, 28 February 2000
NcFTP is an FTP client program which debuted in 1990 as the first alternative FTP client. It was created as an alternative to the standard UNIX ftp program, offers a number of additional features and greater ease of use. NcFTP is a command-line user interface program, runs on a large number of platforms. NcFTPd Lftp Comparison of FTP client software Wget Peter Leung Upload directories recursively with NcFTP, Linux.com Richard Petersen, Fedora 7 & Red Hat Enterprise Linux: the complete reference, Edition 4, McGraw-Hill Professional, 2007, ISBN 0-07-148642-9, p. 342 Karl Kopper, The Linux Enterprise Cluster: build a available cluster with commodity hardware and free software, No Starch Press, 2005, ISBN 1-59327-036-4, pp. 369–371 Official website IBM -- NcFTP: The flexible FTP client Debian -- Details of package ncftp in jessie
George Phillips Bevan F. S. S. F. G. S. was a Victorian statistician and author, the brother of William Latham Bevan. His Statistical Atlas was a massive tome with 45 plates, each 20×28 inches, many statistical tables, it provides a useful reference list of schools of the period. These tables and map provide a useful reference to educational institutions of the 1880s, including statistical information about the following: Primitive Methodist York Jubilee School Birmingham Bourne College Moravian Fulneck School Gomersal School Mirfield School Wyke School 1880 The strikes of the past ten years. Journal of the Statistical Society of London, 43, 35–64. 1880 Tourists' Guide to the West Riding of Yorkshire... With... Maps. 1882 The Statistical Atlas of England and Ireland. Edinburgh & London: W. & A. K. Johnston Bevan edited a series of volumes consisting of papers on primary manufacturing and crafts in the UK. There were 15 volumes, published from 1876 to 1878. Works by G. Phillips Bevan at Project Gutenberg Works by or about G. Phillips Bevan at Internet Archive
Chen Shutong was a Chinese politician who served in the governments of the Qing Dynasty, the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China. He was born in Hangzhou and received the title of Jinshi in 1903. From 1904 to 1906, Chen studied abroad at Hosei University in Japan. Following the Xinhai Revolution in 1911, Chen was selected as a representative to the National Assembly, he served in various positions until 1915, when he became the chairman of the Commercial Press in Shanghai. Beginning in 1927, Chen served for a long period as the chairman of The National Commercial Bank. Chen opposed Japanese occupation during the Second Sino-Japanese War, fled to Hong Kong through an underground Communist Party of China organization in 1948. Following the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Chen served as a vice-chairman of both the National People's Congress and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference until his death in 1966
Gonario II was the giudice of Logudoro from the death of his father to his own abdication in 1154. He was a son of Marcusa de Gunale, he was born between 1113 and 1114 according to sources and the Camaldolese church of S. Trinità di Saccargia was founded in his name by his parents on 16 December 1112, though it wasn't consecrated until 5 October 1116. Constantine died between 1128, leaving his son under the regency of Ittocorre Gambella; when the Athen family tried to harm the young ruler, Ittocorre whisked him away to Porto Torres and the protection of the Pisans, who took him to Pisa and the house of Ugo da Parlascio Ebriaco. When he turned seventeen, he married Ebriaco's daughter and returned to Sardinia, with Pisan permission and four armed galleys, his father-in-law was part of this expedition to repossess his giudicato. Together they landed at Torres and marched on Ardara, the location of the judicial palace, took it. Controlling the giudicato again, they began construction of a castle at Goceano to guard the frontier.
At this time, Comita II of Arborea allied with the Republic of Genoa to defend himself from filopisano Logudoro, thus dividing the island's allegiance. Gonario was among the first to do homage to the Pisan archdiocese for his giudicato. On 6 March 1131, Gonario did homage to Roger, Archbishop of Pisa, acting papal legate on the island. In the previous year, Constantine I of Arborea, Comita's father, had done likewise. In the following year, 1132, on 26 June, Comita I of Gallura did homage to Roger at Ardara, thus preliminarily establishing the legatine status of Gonario's principality. In 1135, Roger's successor, declared Logudoro the base of the Sardinian legateship. In 1144, Gonario got involved in a war with Arborea and, on 10 November, Archbishop of Pisa, moved to give him aid from the Republic. In 1145, Baldwin excommunicated Comita of Arborea; the Pisan prelate, travelling the island as a papal legate, had excommunicated the judge for oppressing the people and warring against Pisa, his righfult sovereign.
Bernard of Clairvaux weighed into island politics and sent a letter to Pope Eugene III to justify Baldwin's actions and commend Gonario as quia bonus princeps dicitur. Nominally Arborea was transferred to Logudoro, but Comita died soon after and his son Barison II succeeded him. In 1146, this Barison hosted the consecration ceremony of Santa Maria di Bonarcado with most of the Arborean clergy and Villano, Archbishop of Pisa. Gonario and Constantine II of Cagliari attended this ceremony, the only instance of three out of the four giudici appearing in the same place. On 24 June 1147, Gonario was in his twentieth year of rule as Gonnarius... Turritanorum Rex et Dominus; this statement indicates that Gonario's rule was considered to begin with his father's death and was uninterrupted by exile and regency. In that year, Gonario left on the Second Crusade as a pilgrim to Jerusalem, he left his four sons, Peter and Comita as regents during his absence. He met Saint Bernard; the two founded the Cistercian abbey of Cabuabbas di Sindia.
Gonario extended this journey, making a pilgrimage to Saint Martin of Tours as well. Not long after this, Gonario moved by his meeting with Bernard, entered the monastery of Clairvaux. Moore, John C. "Pope Innocent III, the Papal State." Speculum, Vol. 62, No. 1. Pp 81–101. Caravale, Mario. Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani: LVII Giulini – Gonzaga. Rome, 2001. Scano, D. "Serie cronol. Dei giudici sardi." Arch. stor. sardo. 1939. Besta, E. and Somi, A. I condaghi di San Nicolas di Trullas e di Santa Maria di Bonarcado. Milan, 1937. Libellus iudicum Turritanorum. Onnis, Omar. Illustres. Vita, morte e miracoli di quaranta personalità sarde. Sestu: Domus de Janas. ISBN 978-88-97084-90-7. OCLC 1124656644. Retrieved 2019-12-06