Compuware Corporation is an American software company with products aimed at the information technology departments of large businesses. The company's services include testing, development and performance management software for programs running on mainframe computer systems; the company has its headquarters in Michigan. In December 2014, Compuware was acquired by private equity firm Thoma Bravo and became a held company. In 1973, Peter Karmanos, Jr. Thomas Thewes, Allen B. Cutting established Compuware Corporation, their vision was to help people do things with computers by providing their clients with professional technical services, allowing them to focus on their own core businesses. In 1977, Compuware introduced its first software product. Designed to detect bugs and suggest corrective action in corporate IBM mainframe systems; the release of Abend-AID established a product strategy for Compuware, alleviating the peaks and valleys of revenue that occur in the services business. By 1978, Compuware opened its first remote office to service the Washington, D.
C. and Baltimore area. Compuware launched its File-AID product line. Using a request-driven interface, File-AID products help programmers and developers and find, extract, fix, load, edit and compare data; this allows developers to focus on maintaining applications that meet business needs. Compuware announced Playback, the company's first automated testing tool. Compuware moved from its Southfield location to a new corporate headquarters in Farmington Hills, Michigan. Compuware acquired its first European subsidiaries during the 1980s. Compuware launched Powerbase with Datazoom, a user-friendly, non-programmable, relational database for MS-DOS through Compuware/Power-base Systems, Inc. Throughout the 1990s, Compuware acquired several companies, building their position in the marketplace, including Centura Software, XA Systems, EcoSystems Software, Uniface development environment, Coronet, Direct Technology Limited, DRD Promark, Inc, NuMega, Data Processing Resources Corporation and the CACI Products Company.
In 1992, Compuware completed its initial public offering of stock trading on the NASDAQ under the symbol CPWR. In 1994, Compuware commenced a secondary public offering to raise cash, named Joseph A. Nathan President and Chief Operating Officer. By April 1998, Compuware had more than $800 million in sales. At the end of 1998, Compuware surpassed the US$1 billion revenue mark. In 1999, the number of Compuware employees grew prompting the company to build a new headquarters building in Campus Martius Park in Detroit, Michigan. Since 2000, Compuware has acquired Inc.. Nomex, Inc. Covisint, LLC, Inc. SteelTrace, Proxima Technology's Centauri Business Service Manager. In 2003, the company's 30th year of existence, Compuware completed construction on its new world headquarters building in downtown Detroit. On November 9, 2009 Compuware acquired Gomez, Inc. for its application performance management software. On July 6, 2011, Compuware acquired dynaTrace software. On September 25, 2013 Compuware subsidiary Covisint announced pricing of Initial Public Offering.
On January 8, 2014 Compuware announced the planned divestiture of its Changepoint, Professional Services, Uniface divisions to Marlin Equity Partners for $160 million. Compuware completed a spin-off of Covisint on October 31, 2014. In December 2014, Compuware was acquired by private equity firm Thoma Bravo, LLC. On September 2, 2014 Compuware and private equity firm Thoma Bravo, LLC, jointly announced that Compuware had entered into a definitive agreement to be acquired by Thoma Bravo for $2.5 billion. After finalizing the deal in December 2014, plans were announced to separate Compuware's remaining Mainframe and Application Performance Management business units into two distinct companies; the mainframe business unit retains the Compuware name and is focused on mainframe software. Christopher O'Malley is the current CEO. Compuware's former APM business operates independently under the new Dynatrace name with John Van Siclen operating as CEO; as a result of the privatization, Compuware stock is no longer listed on the NASDAQ.
Beginning in 2014, around the time of Thoma Bravo, LLC's acquisition, Compuware began shifting from a Waterfall development methodology to Agile development. With the release of Compuware Topaz—a solution that allows developers, data architects and other IT professionals to discover and work with mainframe and non-mainframe data in a common, intuitive manner—on January 5, 2015, Compuware has since released net-new mainframe software on a quarterly basis. In an interview with Jim Probasco of Benzinga, Compuware CEO Chris O'Malley said the company had adopted a startup mentality and that he supported an "agenda of innovation where our strategy is, every quarter like clockwork, to introduce updates to the existing base of technology as well as bringing out net new products." "We've retooled development," he added, "and gone from the traditional'waterfall' model that has 12 to 18 month development cycles quarterly with an'agile' methodology." By pursuing technology integrations and partnerships with companies focused on non-mainframe DevOps software, Compuware has allowed "CIOs to shift responsibility for mainframe applications to enterprise DevOps staff with mainstream skills using popular tools within today's mainstream culture of agility and innovation."
According to eWeek, "O'Malley said he believes that large enterprises that fail to bring Agile and DevOps best practices to their high-value COBOL applications wi
North American Numbering Plan
The North American Numbering Plan is a telephone numbering plan that encompasses twenty-five distinct regions in twenty countries in North America, including the Caribbean. Some North American countries, most notably Mexico, do not participate in the NANP; the NANP was devised in the 1940s by AT&T for the Bell System and independent telephone operators in North America to unify the diverse local numbering plans, established in the preceding decades. AT&T continued to administer the numbering plan until the breakup of the Bell System, when administration was delegated to the North American Numbering Plan Administration, a service, procured from the private sector by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States; each participating country forms a regulatory authority that has plenary control over local numbering resources. The FCC serves as the U. S. regulator. Canadian numbering decisions are made by the Canadian Numbering Administration Consortium; the NANP divides the territories of its members into numbering plan areas which are encoded numerically with a three-digit telephone number prefix called the area code.
Each telephone is assigned a seven-digit telephone number unique only within its respective plan area. The telephone number consists of a four-digit station number; the combination of an area code and the telephone number serves as a destination routing address in the public switched telephone network. For international call routing, the NANP has been assigned the international calling code 1 by the International Telecommunications Union; the North American Numbering Plan conforms with ITU Recommendation E.164, which establishes an international numbering framework. From its beginnings in 1876 and throughout the first part of the 20th century, the Bell System grew from local or regional telephone systems; these systems expanded by growing their subscriber bases, as well as increasing their service areas by implementing additional local exchanges that were interconnected with tie trunks. It was the responsibility of each local administration to design telephone numbering plans that accommodated the local requirements and growth.
As a result, the Bell System as a whole developed into an unorganized system of many differing local numbering systems. The diversity impeded the efficient operation and interconnection of exchanges into a nationwide system for long-distance telephone communication. By the 1940s, the Bell System set out to unify the various numbering plans in existence and developed the North American Numbering Plan as a unified, systematic approach to efficient long-distance service that did not require the involvement of switchboard operators; the new numbering plan was accepted in October 1947, dividing most of North America into eighty-six numbering plan areas. Each NPA was assigned a numbering plan area code abbreviated as area code; these codes were first used by long-distance operators to establish long-distance calls between toll offices. The first customer-dialed direct call using area codes was made on November 10, 1951, from Englewood, New Jersey, to Alameda, California. Direct distance dialing was subsequently introduced across the country.
By the early 1960s, most areas of the Bell System had been converted and DDD had become commonplace in cities and most larger towns. In the following decades, the system expanded to include all of the United States and its territories, Canada and seventeen nations of the Caribbean. By 1967, 129 area codes had been assigned. At the request of the British Colonial Office, the numbering plan was first expanded to Bermuda and the British West Indies because of their historic telecommunications administration through Canada as parts of the British Empire and their continued associations with Canada during the years of the telegraph and the All Red Line system. Not all North American countries participate in the NANP. Exceptions include Mexico, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the Central American countries and some Caribbean countries; the only Spanish-speaking state in the system is the Dominican Republic. Mexican participation was planned, but implementation stopped after three area codes had been assigned, Mexico opted for an international numbering format, using country code 52.
The area codes in use were subsequently withdrawn in 1991. Area code 905 for Mexico City, was reassigned to a split of area code 416 in the Greater Toronto Area. Dutch-speaking Sint Maarten joined the NANP in September 2011, receiving area code 721; the NANP is administered by the North American Numbering Plan Administration. Today, this function is overseen by the Federal Communications Commission, which assumed the responsibility upon the breakup of the Bell System; the FCC solicits private sector contracts for the role of the administrator. The service was provided by a division of Lockheed Martin. In 1997, the contract was awarded to Neustar Inc.. In 2012, the contract was renewed until 2017. In 2015, the contract beginning 2017 was granted to Ericsson; the vision and goal of the architects of the North American Numbering Plan was a system by which telephone subscribers in the United States and Canada could themselves dial and establish a telephone call to any other subscriber wi
Myspace is a social networking website offering an interactive, user-submitted network of friends, personal profiles, groups, photos and videos. Myspace was the largest social networking site in the world from 2005 to 2009, it is headquartered in California. Myspace was acquired by News Corporation in July 2005 for $580 million, in June 2006 surpassed Google as the most visited website in the United States. In April 2008, Myspace was overtaken by Facebook in the number of unique worldwide visitors and was surpassed in the number of unique U. S. visitors in May 2009, though Myspace generated $800 million in revenue during the 2008 fiscal year. Since the number of Myspace users has declined in spite of several redesigns; as of January 2018, Myspace was ranked 4,153 by total Web traffic, 1,657 in the United States. Myspace had a significant influence on pop culture and music and created a computer game platform that launched the successes of Zynga and RockYou, among others. Despite an overall decline, in 2015 Myspace still had 50.6 million unique monthly visitors and had a pool of nearly 1 billion active and inactive registered users.
In June 2009, Myspace employed 1,600 employees. In June 2011, Specific Media Group and Justin Timberlake jointly purchased the company for $35 million. On February 11, 2016, it was announced that Myspace and its parent company had been purchased by Time Inc. Time Inc. was in turn purchased by the Meredith Corporation on January 31, 2018. In August 2003, several eUniverse employees with Friendster accounts saw potential in its social networking features; the group decided to mimic the more popular features of the website. Within 10 days, the first version of Myspace was ready for launch, implemented using ColdFusion. A complete infrastructure of finance, human resources, technical expertise and server capacity was available for the site; the project was overseen by Brad Greenspan, who managed Chris DeWolfe, Josh Berman, Tom Anderson, a team of programmers and resources provided by eUniverse. The first Myspace users were eUniverse employees; the company held contests to see. EUniverse used its 20 million users and e-mail subscribers to breathe life into Myspace, move it to the head of the pack of social networking websites.
A key architect was tech expert Toan Nguyen who helped stabilize the Myspace platform when Brad Greenspan asked him to join the team. Co-founder and CTO Aber Whitcomb played an integral role in software architecture, utilizing the superior development speed of ColdFusion over other dynamic database driven server-side languages of the time. Despite over ten times the number of developers, developed in JavaServer Pages, could not keep up with the speed of development of Myspace and cfm; the MySpace.com domain was owned by YourZ.com, Inc. intended until 2002 for use as an online data storage and sharing site. By late 2003, it was transitioned from a file storage service to a social networking site. A friend, who worked in the data storage business, reminded Chris DeWolfe that he had earlier bought the domain MySpace.com. DeWolfe suggested. Brad Greenspan nixed the idea, believing that keeping Myspace free was necessary to make it a successful community. Myspace gained popularity among teenagers and young adults.
In February 2005, DeWolfe held talks with Mark Zuckerberg over acquiring Facebook but DeWolfe rejected Zuckerberg's $75 million offer. Some employees of Myspace, including DeWolfe and Berman, were able to purchase equity in the property before MySpace and its parent company eUniverse was bought. In July 2005, in one of the company's first major Internet purchases, Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation purchased Myspace for US$580 million. News Corporation had beat out Viacom by offering a higher price for the website, the purchase was seen as a good investment at the time. Of the $580 million purchase price $327 million has been attributed to the value of Myspace according to the financial adviser fairness opinion. Within a year, Myspace had tripled in value from its purchase price. News Corporation saw the purchase as a way to capitalize on Internet advertising and drive traffic to other News Corporation properties. After losing the bidding war for Myspace, Viacom chairman Sumner Redstone stunned the entertainment industry in September 2006 when he fired Tom Freston from the position of CEO. Redstone believed that the failure to acquire MySpace contributed to the 20% drop in Viacom's stock price in 2006 up to the date of Freston's ouster.
Freston's successor as CEO, Philippe Dauman, was quoted as saying "never let another competitor beat us to the trophy". Redstone told interviewer Charlie Rose that losing MySpace had been "humiliating", adding, "MySpace was sitting there for the taking for $500 million" In January 2006, Fox announced plans to launch a UK version of Myspace in a bid to "tap into the UK music scene", which they did, they launched similar versions in other countries. The 100 millionth account was created on August 2006, in the Netherlands. On November 1, 2007, Myspace and Bebo joined the Google-led OpenSocial alliance, which included Friendster, Hi5, LinkedIn, Plaxo and Six Apart. OpenSocial was to promote a common set of standards for software developers to write programs for social networks. Facebook remained independent. Google had been unsuccessful in build
Mountain View, California
Mountain View is a city located in Santa Clara County, United States, named for its views of the Santa Cruz Mountains. From its origins as a stagecoach stop, it grew to a large suburb with a pedestrian-friendly downtown and a population of 74,066; the city borders Palo Alto and the San Francisco Bay to the north, Los Altos to the south, Moffett Federal Airfield and Sunnyvale to the east. Situated in the southern end of the Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, in the northwest corner of Santa Clara county, Mountain View is home to many high technology companies. In 1956, Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory, the first company to develop silicon semiconductor devices in what came to be known as Silicon Valley, was established in the city by William Shockley. Today, many of the largest technology companies in the world are headquartered in the city, including Google, Mozilla Foundation and Intuit; the original Byte Shop computer store was opened at 1063 El Camino Real, Mountain View, by Paul Terrell, the first 50 Apple I computers were sold from that location.
The Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority integrates the city with the neighboring cities of Palo Alto, Los Altos, Sunnyvale. The Mexican land grant of Rancho Pastoria de las Borregas was given in 1842 by Alta California Governor Juan Alvarado to Francisco Estrada; this grant was passed on to Mariano Castro, who sold half of the land to Martin Murphy, Jr. Eventually, the former land grant became the cities of Mountain View and Sunnyvale; the area, on the southwest shore of San Francisco Bay, was settled in 1852 as a stagecoach station. By the early 1900s, it was a shipping point for fruit and grain, as well as a center of religious book publishing, it was first known as the major center of Fremont Twp. before the first California 1852 census, for Santa Clara County. Which meant that it was a predecessor to Palo Alto. Mountain View Station named in 1864, had its beginnings earlier as a stagecoach stop on the route between San Francisco and San Jose, including the Butterfield Overland Mail.
Incorporated on November 7, 1902. Phyllis Ave. & El Camino Real of today, was closer to what was once the original town center and its San Jose Road. The early pioneers were buried at the old cemetery between Mercy & Church, off Castro Street, now the present city Library and park, aka Pioneer Park. Reverend Henry Merrill Henderson, born in Maryland, age 35, arrived in Spring of 1852, with his family to meet with relatives Ricketts and many others from Missouri and Kentucky, he was the first Baptist minister in town and soon was going by horse to Half-Moon Bay, McCartersville for services. His next-door neighbor arrived that year, Seligman Weilheimer and brother Samuel from Dossenheim, Germany, who built at that property, the first big general merchandise store in 1856; the Fremont twp. population was about 560 by 1860, less Mayfield Post office section, which began north of present San Antonio Road. The town's early growth was due to agriculture, William Bubb being a town figure, buying 80 acres to farm in October 1851, where he died in 1864.
His heirs intermarried in the area. Agriculture remained the primary industry into the middle of the 20th century; the U. S. Navy's adjacent 1000 acre Moffett Field Complex began after 1931 and brought many economic opportunities. After World War II, the population grew with the development of the aerospace and electronics industries. Between 1950 and 1960, the population grew from 6,563 to 30,889, an increase of 370.7%. Between 1929 and 1994, the city was the home of the Moffett Field Naval Air Station. In 1940, the city became the home of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, influencing the city's development of its aerospace and electronics industries. Today, high technology is the foundation of the local economy, there exist few remnants of the city's agricultural past. In 1990, Kevin Duggan began his position as city manager, he built a relationship with Google, Inc. and issued a long-term lease to that and other technology companies. As of 2014, those leases generate over $5 million per year in city revenue.
Duggan reinstituted a special tax district for the Shoreline area, a landfill and pig farm in 1990. That money allowed the city to create a large golf course on the site; the Castro Street downtown area benefited from a special tax district. In 2016, the city's voters approved a rent control ordinance. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.3 sq mi, of which 12.0 sq mi is land and 0.27 sq mi is water. Mountain View is located at the north end of State Route 85, where it meets U. S. Route 101. State Route 82 follows the route of the historic El Camino Real through Mountain View; the city is bounded to the northwest by Palo Alto, to the north by the Bay, to the south and southwest by Los Altos, to the east by Sunnyvale and Moffett Federal Airfield. To the west lie the Santa Cruz Mountains, after which the city is named and which separate it from the Pacific Ocean. To the east lies the Diablo Range; the two ranges demarcate the Santa Clara Valley. Most of Mountain View consists of residential neighborhoods.
Business parks are located in the North Shoreline neighborhood, north of Highway 101, east of Highway 85. Mountain View has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate. Summers are warm and dry, while winters a
LinkedIn is a business and employment-oriented service that operates via websites and mobile apps. Founded on December 28, 2002, launched on May 5, 2003, it is used for professional networking, including employers posting jobs and job seekers posting their CVs; as of 2015, most of the company's revenue came from selling access to information about its members to recruiters and sales professionals. As of March 2019, LinkedIn had 610 million registered members in 200 countries. LinkedIn allows members to create profiles and "connections" to each other in an online social network which may represent real-world professional relationships. Members can invite anyone to become a connection. Since December 2016 it has been a wholly owned subsidiary of Microsoft. LinkedIn participated in the EU's International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles. LinkedIn is headquartered in Sunnyvale, with offices in Omaha, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, Washington, D. C. São Paulo, Dublin, Milan, Munich, Stockholm, Hong Kong, Japan, Canada and Dubai.
In January 2016, the company had around 9,200 employees. LinkedIn's CEO is Jeff Weiner a Yahoo! Inc. executive. Founder Reid Hoffman CEO of LinkedIn, is Chairman of the Board, it is funded by Sequoia Capital, Bain Capital Ventures, Bessemer Venture Partners and the European Founders Fund. LinkedIn reached profitability in March 2006. Through January 2011, the company had received a total of $103 million of investment; the site has an Alexa Internet ranking as the 28th most popular website. According to the New York Times, US high school students are now creating LinkedIn profiles to include with their college applications. Based in the United States, the site is, as of 2013, available in 24 languages, including Arabic, English, German, Portuguese, Dutch, Danish, Russian, Japanese, Polish, Indonesian and Tagalog. LinkedIn filed for an initial public offering in January 2011 and traded its first shares on May 19, 2011, under the NYSE symbol "LNKD"; the company was founded in December 2002 by Reid Hoffman and founding team members from PayPal and Socialnet.com.
In late 2003, Sequoia Capital led the Series A investment in the company. In August 2004, LinkedIn reached 1 million users. In March 2006, LinkedIn achieved its first month of profitability. In April 2007, LinkedIn reached 10 million users. In February 2008, LinkedIn launched a mobile version of the site. In June 2008, Sequoia Capital, Greylock Partners, other venture capital firms purchased a 5% stake in the company for $53 million, giving the company a post-money valuation of $1 billion. In November 2009, LinkedIn opened its office in Mumbai and soon thereafter in Sydney, as it started its Asia-Pacific team expansion. In 2010, LinkedIn opened an International Headquarters in Dublin, received a $20 million investment from Tiger Global Management LLC at a valuation of $2 billion, announced its first acquisition and improved its 1% premium subscription ratio. In October of that year, Silicon Valley Insider ranked the company No. 10 on its Top 100 List of most valuable start ups. By December, the company was valued at $1.575 billion in private markets.
LinkedIn filed for an initial public offering in January 2011. The company traded its first shares on May 19, 2011, at $45 per share. Shares of LinkedIn rose as much as 171% on their first day of trade on the New York Stock Exchange and closed at $94.25, more than 109% above IPO price. Shortly after the IPO, the site's underlying infrastructure was revised to allow accelerated revision-release cycles. In 2011, LinkedIn earned $154.6 million in advertising revenue alone, surpassing Twitter, which earned $139.5 million. LinkedIn's fourth-quarter 2011 earnings soared because of the company's increase in success in the social media world. By this point, LinkedIn had about 2,100 full-time employees compared to the 500 that it had in 2010. In April 2014, LinkedIn announced that it had leased 222 Second Street, a 26-story building under construction in San Francisco's SoMa district, to accommodate up to 2,500 of its employees, with the lease covering 10 years; the goal was to join all San Francisco-based staff in one building, bringing sales and marketing employees together with the research and development team.
They started to move in in March 2016. In February 2016, following an earnings report, LinkedIn's shares dropped 43.6% within a single day, down to $108.38 per share. LinkedIn lost $10 billion of its market capitalization that day. On June 13, 2016, Microsoft announced that it would acquire LinkedIn for $196 a share, a total value of $26.2 billion and the largest acquisition made by Microsoft to date. The acquisition would be an debt-financed transaction. Microsoft would allow LinkedIn to "retain its distinct brand and independence", with Weiner to remain as CEO, who would report to Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella. Analysts believed Microsoft saw the opportunity to integrate LinkedIn with its Office product suite to help better integrate the professional network system with its products; the deal was completed on December 8, 2016. In late 2016, LinkedIn announced a planned increase of 200 new positions in its Dublin office, which would bring the total employee count to 1,200. In July 2012, LinkedIn acquired 15 key Digg patents for $4 million including a "click a button to vote up a story" patent.
The Gap, Inc. known as Gap Inc. or Gap, is an American worldwide clothing and accessories retailer. Gap was founded in 1969 by Donald Fisher and Doris F. Fisher and is headquartered in San Francisco, California; the company operates six primary divisions: Gap, Banana Republic, Old Navy, Hill City, Athleta. Gap Inc. is the largest specialty retailer in the United States, is 3rd in total international locations, behind Inditex Group and H&M. As of September 2008, the company has 135,000 employees and operates 3,727 stores worldwide, of which 2,406 are located in the U. S; the Fisher family remains involved in the company, collectively owning much of its stock. Donald Fisher served as Chairman of the Board until 2004, playing a role in the ouster of then-CEO Millard Drexler in 2002, remained on the board until his death on September 27, 2009. Fisher's wife and their son, Robert J. Fisher serve on Gap's board of directors. Robert succeeded his father as chairman in 2004 and served as CEO on an interim basis following the resignation of Paul Pressler in 2007, before being succeeded by Glenn K. Murphy up until 2014.
On February 1, 2015, Art Peck took over as CEO of Gap Inc. In 1959, Don Fisher, a California commercial real estate broker specializing in retail store location, was a social friend of Walter "Wally" Haas Jr, President of Levi Strauss & Co. Fisher was inspired by the sudden success of'The Tower of Shoes' in an old Quonset Hut in a non-retail industrial area of Sacramento, California; that drew crowds by advertising that no matter what brand, style or size of shoes a woman could want it was at The Tower of Shoes. And knowing that Macy's, the biggest Levi's customer, was running out of the best selling Levi's sizes, colors, Fisher asked Haas to let him copy The Tower of Shoes' business model and apply it to Levi's products. Haas referred Fisher to Bud Robinson, his Director of Advertising, for what Haas assumed would be a quick refusal. Fisher agreed to stock only Levi's apparel in every style and size, all grouped by size, Levi's guaranteed The Gap to be never out of stock by overnight replenishment from Levi's San Jose, California warehouse.
And Robinson offered to pay 50% of The Gap's radio advertising upfront and avoided antitrust laws by offering the same marketing package to any store that agreed to sell nothing but Levi's products. Fisher opened the first Gap store on Ocean Avenue in San Francisco on August 21, 1969. In 1970, Gap opened its second store in San Jose. In 1971, Gap established its corporate headquarters in California with four employees. By 1973, the company had over 25 locations and had expanded into the East Coast market with a store in the Echelon Mall in Voorhees, New Jersey. In 1974, Gap began to sell private-label merchandise. In the 1990s, Gap assumed an upscale identity and revamped its inventory under the direction of Millard Drexler. However, Drexler was removed from his position after 19 years of service in 2002 after over-expansion, a 29-month slump in sales, tensions with the Fisher family. Drexler refused to sign a non-compete agreement and became CEO of J. Crew. One month after his departure, merchandise that he had ordered was responsible for a strong rebound in sales.
Robert J. Fisher recruited Paul Pressler as the new CEO. However, his focus groups failed to recover the company's leadership in its market. In 2007, Gap announced that it would "focus efforts on recruiting a chief executive officer who has deep retailing and merchandising experience ideally in apparel, understands the creative process and can execute strategies in large, complex environments while maintaining strong financial discipline"; that January, Pressler resigned after two disappointing holiday sales seasons and was succeeded by Robert J. Fisher on an interim basis, he began working with the company in 1980 and joined the board in 1990, would assume several senior executive positions, including president of Banana Republic and the Gap units. The board's search committee was led by Adrian Bellamy, chairman of The Body Shop International and included founder Donald Fisher. On February 2, Marka Hansen, the former head of the Banana Republic division, replaced Cynthia Harriss as the leader of the Gap division.
The executive president for marketing and merchandising Jack Calhoun became interim president of Banana Republic. In May, Old Navy laid off 300 managers in lower volume locations to help streamline costs; that July, Glenn Murphy CEO of Shoppers Drug Mart in Canada, was announced as the new CEO of Gap, Inc. New lead designers were brought on board to help define a fashionable image, including Patrick Robinson for Gap Adult, Simon Kneen for Banana Republic, Todd Oldham for Old Navy. Robinson was hired as chief designer in 2007, but was dismissed in May 2011 after sales failed to increase. However, he enjoyed commercial success in international markets. In 2007, Ethisphere Magazine chose Gap from among thousands of companies evaluated as one of 100 "World's Most Ethical Companies."In October 2011, Gap Inc. announced plans to close 189 US stores, nearly 21 percent, by the end of 2013. The company announced it would open its first stores in Brazil in the Fall of 2013. In January 2015, Gap Inc announced plans to close their subsidiary Piperlime in order to focus on their core brands.
The first and only Pip
MLB.com is the official site of Major League Baseball and is overseen by Major League Baseball Advanced Media, L. P.. MLB.com is a source of baseball-related information, including baseball news and sports columns. MLB.com is a commercial site, providing online streaming video and streaming audio broadcasts of all Major League Baseball games to paying subscribers, as well as "gameday", a near-live streaming box score of baseball games for free. In addition, MLB.com sells official baseball merchandise, allows users to buy tickets to baseball games, runs fantasy baseball leagues, runs auctions of baseball memorabilia. In association with HB Studios, MLB.com has developed recent R. B. I. Baseball installments. MLB.tv is an American subscription based audio and video service which through two different service tiers allows users to listen and watch HD quality out of market Major League Baseball games live via a high-speed Internet connection. Users can subscribe to the "MLB.tv All Teams" package which access to every MLB teams live feeds as well as in-game highlights and stats and live DVR control, full game archives and pitch widget.
The other option, the "MLB.tv Single Team" gives subscribers access to a single MLB team's live audio and video feeds as well as in-game highlights and live DVR controls. MLB.tv services were offered as a "Basic" and "Premium" tiers with basic receiving only HD quality audio and video on their desktop or laptop devices whereas the Premium subscribers were given access to live game audio and video on desktop and laptop as well as on mobile devices such as Android or iOS devices through a free subscription to the At-Bat mobile app and through certain connected devices including smart televisions, Blu-ray players, TiVo DVRs, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360 and PlayStation 4. MLB. TV has since eliminated these restrictions and now users of both the "All Teams" and "Single Game" tier can share the same access including new access via a Amazon Fire TV, Google Chromecast and Roku devices. Starting with the 2012 season MLB. TV Premium had begun a service called Audio Overlay which allows the user to replace the video's home or away audio with the audio feed from the home or away radio feed or Park which removes all audio commentary and lets the viewer hear the ball park's natural sounds.
As with MLB's Extra Innings cable and satellite television service normal blackout restrictions will apply where applicable, see below. This service has since been discontinued starting with the new subscription tier. Mosaic was a downloadable program which provided features not available when streaming through a web browser, it was only available to subscribers of MLB.tv Premium. Live games were shown, on-demand games available for a period of two days previous to the current date. Major League Baseball has not used MLB.tv Mosaic since the 2008 season. Mosaic allowed you to show multiple games at once, provided the following viewing modes: 6 games tiled across the screen. 4 games tiled across the screen. One main game, with 2 games tiled on the right hand side. One main game, with 3 games tiled on the right hand side. One main game When set on one main game, team information was shown to the right hand side of the game, including team line-ups, the boxscore, team statistics. Users could view their "player tracker", which would alert the user when a player in their chosen player list was active in a game.
Beginning with the 2009 season, Mosaic functionality was incorporated into the main viewing mode. Multiple-game viewing has been retained, with a choice of one, two side to side and four-game mode available. MLB.com has been providing live and archived streaming video since the 2002 baseball season with only audio available before that. In the United States, South Korea and the U. S. Virgin Islands are subject to blackout restrictions. In Guam all of the live Los Angeles Dodgers and Oakland A's games are blackout for the entire season. Games are blacked out to all users within the theoretical home television territory assigned to each team, irrespective of whether local television stations carry local games of those teams. Contractual stipulations with Fox and ESPN mean that regular season Saturday games scheduled before 1900 EST and Sunday games scheduled after 17:00 EST are blacked out throughout the United States. During the post-season, all games are blacked out in the United States, Japan, South Korea and the US Virgin Islands.
In all other countries and territories, no exclusivity rights have been granted and MLB.com is able to broadcast all games. MLB Gameday Audio does not have blackout restrictions. Any game, blacked out is made available as an archived game 90 minutes after the conclusion of each game. MLB.com can check a viewer's origin by using IP address information, but some users have reported inaccuracy of the ISP-based targeting used, thus leaving many fans unable to watch games on MLB.com. MLB.com At Bat is a mobile application available for different platforms including iOS, BlackBerry, HP TouchPad/webOS. The iOS application features "live audio, in-game video highlights, pitch-by-pitch live data and more." The BlackBerry and Android application features "real-time scores, live audio, in-game highlights and more." The application is free (although it requires a subscription to MLB