In the philosophy of mind, neutral monism is the view that the mental and the physical are two ways of organizing or describing the same elements, which are themselves "neutral", that is, neither physical nor mental. This view denies that the physical are two fundamentally different things. Rather, neutral monism claims the universe consists of only one kind of stuff, in the form of neutral elements that are in themselves neither mental nor physical. Neutral monism about the mind–body relationship is described by C. D. Broad in one of his earlier works, The Mind and Its Place in Nature. Broad's list of possible views about the mind-body problem, which became known as "Broad's famous list of 1925" states the basis of what this theory had been and was to become; some examples of philosophers who are seen to have a neutral monist view are Baruch Spinoza, David Hume, Ernst Mach, Richard Avenarius, Kenneth Sayre, Joseph Petzoldt and Jonathan Westphal. There are few self-proclaimed neutral monists.
Most who are regarded as of this view were classified as such after their deaths. Earlier, William James had propounded the notion in his essay "Does Consciousness Exist?" in 1904. Whately Carington in his book Matter and Meaning advocated a form of neutral monism, he held that mind and matter both consist of the same kind of components known as "cognita" or sense data. Russian psychologist Boris Sidis appears to have adhered to some form of neutral monism. According to Stephen Stich and Ted Warfield, neutral monism has not been a popular view in philosophy as it is difficult to develop or understand the nature of the neutral elements. In 1921, Bertrand Russell adopted a similar position to that of William James. Russell quotes from James's essay "Does'consciousness' exist?" as follows: "My thesis is," says, "that if we start with the supposition that there is only one primal stuff or material in the world, a stuff of which everything is composed, if we call that stuff'pure experience,' knowing can be explained as a particular sort of relation towards one another into which portions of pure experience may enter.
The relation itself is a part of pure experience. Russell summarizes this notion as follows: James's view is that the raw material out of which the world is built up is not of two sorts, one matter and the other mind, but that it is arranged in different patterns by its inter-relations, that some arrangements may be called mental, while others may be called physical. Russell observes that the same view of "consciousness" is set forth in James's succeeding essay, "A World of Pure Experience". In addition to the role of James, Russell observes the role of two American Realists: the American realists Professor R. B. Perry of Harvard and Mr. Edwin B. Holt have derived a strong impulsion from James, but have more interest than he had in logic and mathematics and the abstract part of philosophy, they speak of "neutral" entities as the stuff out of which both matter are constructed. Thus Holt says: "... the least dangerous name is neutral-stuff." Russell goes on to agree with James and in part with the "American realists": My own belief – for which the reasons will appear in subsequent lectures – is that James is right in rejecting consciousness as an entity, that the American realists are right, though not wholly, in considering that both mind and matter are composed of a neutral-stuff which, in isolation is neither mental nor material.
David Chalmers considers the consciousness of rocks as well as thermostats, although he eschews the notion that rocks are conscious: I do not think it is accurate to say that rocks have experiences... although rocks may have experiences associated with them.... I am much more confident of naturalistic dualism than I am of panpsychism; the latter issue seems to be much open. But I hope to have said enough to show that we ought to take the possibility of some sort of panpsychism seriously: there seem to be no knockdown arguments against the view, there are various positive reasons why one might embrace it. In his 2002 "Consciousness and its Place in Nature", Chalmers considers neutral monism and panpsychism, variants of what he calls "Type-F Monism", he admits that: The type-F view is admittedly speculative and it can sound strange at first hearing. Many find it counterintuitive to suppose that fundamental physical systems have phenomenal properties: e.g. that there is something it is like to be an electron.
Dialectical monism Double aspect theory Monadology Panpsychism Philosophy of mind Unus mundus "Monism". Columbia Encyclopedia. Columbia University Press. 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-23. Erik C. Banks.. The Realistic Empiricism of Mach and Russell: Neutral Monism Reconceived. Cambridge University Press. Erik C. Banks.. Neutral Monism Reconsidered. Philosophical Psychology 23: 173-187. David Chalmers The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory, Oxford University Press, New York, ISBN 0-19-511789-1 David Chalmers ed. Philosophy of Mind: Classical and Contemporary Readings, Oxford University Press, New York, ISBN 0-19-514581-X. Andrew Gluck Damasio's Error and Descartes' Truth: An Inquiry into Epistemology and Consciousness, University of Scranton Press, Scranton PA, ISBN 978-1-58966-127-1. Bertrand Russell The Analysis of Mind, republished 2005 by Inc.. Mineola, NY, ISBN 0-486-44551-8 Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosop
Sir Olaf Kirkpatrick Kruuse Caroe was an administrator in British India, working for the Indian Civil Service and the Indian Political Service. He served as the Foreign Secretary to the Government of India during the World War II and as the Governor of the North-West Frontier Province; as Foreign Secretary, he was responsible for reviving the McMahon Line, which included the Assam Himalayan frontier within India. After retirement, Caroe took on the role of a strategist of the Great Game and the Cold War on the southern periphery of the Soviet Union, his ideas are believed to have been influential in shaping the post-War policies of Britain and the United States. Scholar Peter Brobst calls him the "quintessential master of the Great Game" and the "foremost strategic thinker of British India" in the years before indepndence. Olaf Caroe was the son of Grace Desborough Rendall, he was educated at Winchester College and Magdalen College, where he read classics. He went to India during World War I as an officer in the Indian Army.
He served in Punjab along the Afghan frontier. In 1919, Caroe joined the Indian Civil Service, soon moved to the Indian Political Service, he was influential in foreign policy and rose to be the Foreign Secretary to the Government of India, serving in that role through the World War II. When he was deputy foreign secretary, Caroe is credited with getting the Government of India to reaffirm the McMahon Line, negotiated by a former Foreign Secretary Henry McMahon with Tibet in the Simla Convention of 1914; the McMahon Line ran along the crest of the Himalayan ranges east of Bhutan, incorporated the present day Arunachal Pradesh within the territory of India. For various reasons, the Simla Convention was not operationalised until 1935, the official publication of the treaties of the Government of India, Aitchison's Treaties, did not include it. Caroe obtained the British government's permission to revise the official Indian maps to show the McMahon Line as the new boundary and to include the Simla Convention in a revised volume of Aitchison's Treaties but to do so "unobtrusively".
Caroe reissued the new volume in 1938, but still carrying the original 1929 date, had the original volumes withdrawn. When the matter was discovered in 1963, it gave rise to accusation of a "virtual falsification" of the official records. Scholar Karunakar Gupta states that Caroe's zeal in operationalising the McMahon Line warrants it being renamed the "McMahon–Caroe Line". Caroe took a great interest in involving native Indian officials in foreign service and training them in diplomacy. Two of Caroe's officers rose to high ranks after independence: K. P. S. Menon, who became India's ambassador to China and Soviet Union as well as foreign secretary, A. S. B. Shah, who headed Pakistan's Political Service and went as ambassador to Egypt. After the war, Caroe was appointed as the Governor of the North-West Frontier Province, on the northwest border of the Indian subcontinent, adjoining Afghanistan and Russia, he served in this role from 1946 to just before the Partition of India in 1947. Subject to accusations that he was too close to the Muslim League, he encountered opposition from Congress Party politicians, was replaced in mid-1947 by Rob Lockhart as governor.
He wrote extensively after returning to Britain in 1947. His strategic ideas proved influential in the United States: Wells of Power. London: Macmillan. 1951. Soviet Empire: The Turks of Central Asia and Stalinism. 1953. Reprinted with an additional Introduction. London: Macmillan. 1967. The Pathans 550 B. C.–A. D. 1957. Macmillan and Company, London 1958 Reprinted with a Foreword and an Epilogue on Russia. Karachi: OUP. 1983. ISBN 0-19-577221-0 From Nile to Indus: Economics and Security in the Middle East. 1960. "The Geography and Ethnics of India's Northern Frontiers". The Geographical Journal. 126. 1960. Brobst, Peter John, The Future of the Great Game: Sir Olaf Caroe, India's Independence, the Defense of Asia, University of Akron Press, ISBN 9781931968102 Brobst, Peter John, "Kashmir 1947: Sir Olaf Caroe and the question of British'Grand Design'", Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, 36: 92–123, doi:10.1080/14662049808447762 Hoffmann, Steven A.. India and the China Crisis. University of California Press.
ISBN 978-0-520-06537-6. Jha, Prem Shankar, Kashmir, 1947: Rival Versions of History, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-563766-3 Marshall, Julie. Britain and Tibet 1765–1947. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-32784-3. Mehra, Parshotam, "A Forgotten Chapter in the History of the Northeast Frontier: 1914-36", The Journal of Asian Studies, 31: 299–308, JSTOR 2052598 Meyer, Karl E.. Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-7867-3678-2. Panigrahi, D. N. Jammu and Kashmir, the Cold War and the West, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-136-51751-8 Noorani, A. G. "Caroe's lessons", retrieved 18 May 2018
Hermann von Wedderkop was a German author. He served as editor of Der Querschnitt. Wedderkop was an assesor in Cologne, he met Alfred Flechtheim in Paris in 1907, an art dealer and founder of Der Querschnitt. In 1912 he wrote a small exhibition guide for the Sonderbund in Cologne. During World War I, Wedderkop was a civilian commissary of the German civilian administration in Brussels. Among others, he met Gottfried Benn and Thea Sternheim and an affair with Yvonne George is said to him during that time. At the beginning of the 1920s, Wedderkop was a member of the advisory committee of the artists' association Das Junge Rheinland. In the series Junge Kunst published by Verlag Klinkhardt and Biermann Leipzig, he published the volumes on Paul Klee and Marie Laurencin. From 1921 he was an employee of the Der Querschnitt; as editor, Wedderkop succeeded in making Der Querschnitt into the leading German Zeitgeist magazine of the 1920s: open to the artistic avant-garde, such as Pablo Picasso, Marc Chagall or Fernand Léger, as well as the heroes of boxing elitist and artistic photos of male and female nude models.
In Ernest Hemingway's posthumous memoirs "A Moveable Feast", Wedderkop is mentioned as a purchaser of his works and described as awfully nice. The fact that Wedderkop was replaced by a chief editor in 1929 by the Ullstein Verlag, that he was removed from his editor's post in May 1931, is said to have had something to do with Wedderkop's publicist enthusiasm for Benito Mussolini, according to Wilmont Haacke. Wedderkop visited Mussolini on May 5 and October 10, 1930, on May 28, 1935, he spent most of the time of Nazi Germany in Italy. Wedderkop's book Deutsche Graphik des Westens was placed on the list of harmful and undesirable literature by the Reichsschrifttumkammer of the Reichskulturkammer in 1938. Wedderkop rejected the "old literature" by Gerhart Hauptmann and Thomas Mann, represented the demand for social novel. In 1927, he published a corresponding autobiographically colored novel with Adieu Berlin; the book, which plays in the North Sea resort of Kampen, did not receive much attention.
Wedderkop's alternative travel books about Cologne, Düsseldorf, Bonn, Paris and Rome and Oberitalien, published by Piper Verlag in the series Was nicht im „Baedeker“ steht were more successful. After 1938, Wedderkop appeared as the translator of the motivational trainer and author Dale Carnegie co-authored in German editions. Wedderkop translated Et in Arcadia ego by the Italian writer Emilio Cecchi into German. Der Rhein von den Alpen bis zum Meere Sizilien, schicksal einer insel Die falsche Note.