click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Neutron magnetic moment

The neutron magnetic moment is the intrinsic magnetic dipole moment of the neutron, symbol μn. Protons and neutrons, both nucleons, comprise the nucleus of atoms, both nucleons behave as small magnets whose strengths are measured by their magnetic moments; the neutron interacts with normal matter through either its magnetic moment. The neutron's magnetic moment is exploited to probe the atomic structure of materials using scattering methods and to manipulate the properties of neutron beams in particle accelerators; the neutron was determined to have a magnetic moment by indirect methods in the mid 1930s. Luis Alvarez and Felix Bloch made the first accurate, direct measurement of the neutron's magnetic moment in 1940; the existence of the neutron's magnetic moment indicates. For an elementary particle to have an intrinsic magnetic moment, it must have both spin and electric charge; the neutron has spin 1/2 ħ. The existence of the neutron's magnetic moment was puzzling and defied a correct explanation until the quark model for particles was developed in the 1960s.

The neutron is composed of three quarks, the magnetic moments of these elementary particles combine to give the neutron its magnetic moment. The best available measurement for the value of the magnetic moment of the neutron is μn = −1.91304272 μN. Here μN is the nuclear magneton, a physical constant and standard unit for the magnetic moments of nuclear components. In SI units, μn = −9.6623647×10−27 J⋅T−1. A magnetic moment is a vector quantity, the direction of the neutron's magnetic moment is defined by its spin; the torque on the neutron resulting from an external magnetic field is towards aligning the neutron's spin vector opposite to the magnetic field vector. The nuclear magneton is the spin magnetic moment of a Dirac particle, a charged, spin 1/2 elementary particle, with a proton's mass mp. In SI units, the nuclear magneton is μ N = e ℏ 2 m p, where e is the elementary charge and ħ is the reduced Planck constant; the magnetic moment of this particle is parallel to its spin. Since the neutron has no charge, it should have no magnetic moment by this expression.

The non-zero magnetic moment of the neutron indicates. The sign of the neutron's magnetic moment is that of a negatively charged particle; the fact that the magnetic moment of the proton, μp = 2.793 μN, is not equal to 1 μN indicates that it too is not an elementary particle. Protons and neutrons are composed of quarks, the magnetic moments of the quarks can be used to compute the magnetic moments of the nucleons. Although the neutron interacts with normal matter through either nuclear or magnetic forces, the magnetic interactions are about seven orders of magnitude weaker than the nuclear interactions; the influence of the neutron's magnetic moment is therefore only apparent for low energy, or slow, neutrons. Because the value for the magnetic moment is inversely proportional to particle mass, the nuclear magneton is about 1/2000 as large as the Bohr magneton; the magnetic moment of the electron is therefore about 1000 times larger than that of the neutron. The magnetic moment of the antineutron has the same magnitude as, but has the opposite sign, that of the neutron.

Soon after the neutron was discovered in 1932, indirect evidence suggested the neutron had an unexpected non-zero value for its magnetic moment. Attempts to measure the neutron's magnetic moment originated with the discovery by Otto Stern in 1933 in Hamburg that the proton had an anomalously large magnetic moment; the proton's magnetic moment had been determined by measuring the deflection of a beam of molecular hydrogen by a magnetic field. Stern won the Nobel Prize in 1943 for this discovery. By 1934 groups led by Stern, now in Pittsburgh, I. I. Rabi in New York had independently measured the magnetic moments of the deuteron; the measured values for these particles were only in rough agreement between the groups, but the Rabi group confirmed the earlier Stern measurements that the magnetic moment for the proton was unexpectedly large. Since a deuteron is composed of a proton and a neutron with aligned spins, the neutron's magnetic moment could be inferred by subtracting the deuteron and proton magnetic moments.

The resulting value had sign opposite to that of the proton. Values for the magnetic moment of the neutron were determined by R. Bacher at Ann Arbor and I. Y. Tamm and S. A. Altshuler in the Soviet Union from studies of the hyperfine structure of atomic spectra. Although Tamm and Altshuler's estimate had the correct sign and order of magnitude, the result was met with skepticism. By the late 1930s, accurate values for the magnetic moment of the neutron had been deduced by the Rabi group using measurements employing newly developed nuclear magnetic resonance techniques; the large value for the proton's magnetic moment and the inferred negative value for the neutron's magnetic moment were unexpected and could not be explained. The anomalous values for the magnetic moments of the nucleons would remain a puzzle until the quark model was developed in the 1960s; the refinement and evolution of the Rabi measurements led to the discovery in 1939 that the deuteron possessed an electric quadrupole moment.

This electrical property of the deuteron had been interfering with the measurements by the Rabi group. The discovery meant that the physical shape of the deuteron was not symmetric, which provided valuable insight into the nature of th

History of Las Rozas

According to some historians Las Rozas de Madrid could have been a Roman mansion or staging-post called Miacum, from which the name Madrid may have derived. This is somewhat speculative, although there is evidence of occupation locally in about the 3rd century of the Common Era when the Roman Empire was active in Spain. Las Rozas is located on the Roman Military Route between Segovia and Titulcia and to Emerita Augusta, is adjacent to the Rio Guadarrama, which provided plentiful fresh water all year round; the modern name means'the clearings' which may have related to military activity, as the agricultural value if the area is low, the traditional economic activity seems to have been sheep rearing. The first document that refers to Las Rozas itself dates from 1376, although it would appear that the town existed earlier than that; the town of "Las Rozas" appears in Volume V of the "Relaciones Historico-Geografico-Estadisticas" of the towns of Spain, written during the reign of Felipe II and, now kept in the library at the El Escorial Monastery.

The Pasture of Holy María of the Retamar appears mentioned in a letter dated to November 18, 1303 in a lawsuit between Madrid and Segovia relating to settlements at Galapagar and Colmenarejo. The legend says that the Virgin of the Retamar appeared there, but the contemporary carved image is not that today appears in a scallop niche in the Church of San Miguel and, used for the processions that carry the Virgin to the new hermitage church, built in the 1990s, a little nearer the town, next to Dehesa de Navalcarbón (the original, as'pasture' suggests was near the river. During the reign of Carlos III an ambitious project was conceived to create a navigable canal sourced by the river Guadarrama which would link Madrid to the Atlantic Ocean. In 1875 a French Engineer, Charles Lemur started work. Only 27 km was built when a great storm destroyed the project. A short section has been restored in the Dehesa de Navalcarbon nature park. In a map of the year 1755, the name appears, populated by laborers that built the highway to Segovia.

Subsequently it has been a center of research and development for the railways, now RENFE and, the main source of local employment. During the Spanish Civil War the area was held Mainly by republicans, saw a number of large battles, remnants of bunkers from that era can still be seen today in the Navalcarbón meadows. In the winter of 1936, pro-Franco troops advanced on western Madrid from the bases of Brunete, Villaviciosa de Odón and Campamento. In fog and low temperatures and Nationalist troops, along with air support, fought one of the worst battles of the civil war in Madrid; the inhabitants of Las Rozas took refuge in other places around the Sierra de Guadarrama mountains, such as the caves of Hoyo de Manzanares. The Church of San Miguel and all the houses in Las Rozas were destroyed in the battle. At the end of the war, the government created the Department of Devastated Areas in order to assist with the reconstruction of towns destroyed by the war, among, Las Rozas, where about six rows of six or seven small houses were cheaply built near the church.

One or two of these remain as of 2010, efforts are in hand to preserve them for posterity. Since'Democracy' and the advent of cheap travel the settlement has expanded from a pastoral village of some 6000 souls to a dormitory town of Madrid with a population of 100,000; as of 2010 there are still two flocks of sheep which graze on the riverbank of the Rio Guardarrama nature-park. Wild pigs, displaced from their natural habitat by building, are sometimes found in the streets of El Cantizal and El Molino de la Hoz in the north of the township; the Compositores de España International Piano Competition has been held here since about 2000. Recent concerns about the ecology, air pollution in Madrid and'peak oil' have prompted schemes to use railway stations more and reduce the reliance of children on'mum's taxi service' by promoting pedilecs and electric vehicles

Labour Party Black Sections

Labour Party Black Sections, abbreviated as LPBS and known as Black Sections, was a section made up of black Labour Party supporters from 1983 to 1993. Since the 1960s, the Labour Party has relied upon Britain's large black communities in urban areas for votes, over time, people from black communities stood in local council elections, as MPs, though during the 1970s these were in seats where they stood no chance of winning; the Labour Party Black Sections debate emerged in the context of ethnic minority voting patterns gaining prominence from 1974. The call for Black Sections among black Labour Party activists emanated from their realisation of the significance of black votes in areas of a high concentration of black and Asian residents. Black members active in the Labour Party argued for greater representation in return for the electoral support for their communities; the uprisings that occurred in the early 1980s in Brixton, Birmingham, Manchester and elsewhere acted as a warning to society being indifferent or hostile to the demands of disenfranchised and disadvantaged black people.

These urban disturbances provided black activists with greater political leverage in their arguments, while the rise of the Labour Left in local government in London, created the opportunity to place the issue of black representation on the political agenda. Parallel organisations within the trade unions such as the Black Trade Union Solidarity Movement and Black Media Workers' Association were set up prior to Labour Party Black Sections. There were two main approaches to the formation of Labour Party Black Sections. For supporters of Black Sections, the rationale for its existence was the fact that although black people had solidly voted Labour over the decades, this was not reflected in party policies, its hierarchy or within its structures, it was thought that Black Sections would involve more black people in Labour politics and challenge the party's records of neglect of black community concerns, as well as providing the party with the increased electoral support it needed. By organising as a section within the party, black Labour Party members hoped to increase the number of black people required to change the party so that it could take account of their needs, demands of more representation and adoption of their agenda.

Amid the growing weight of black demands and the creation of new opportunities to voice them, existing Labour Party members took the initiative to establish an unofficial national Labour Party Black Section. The group was first mooted in 1981 to further minority representation within the Labour Party. Among its founding members were Diane Abbott a councillor in Westminster, Paul Boateng a left-wing lawyer, Sharon Atkin, a Labour activist; the party hierarchy welcomed the idea, in 1983, a resolution setting out a framework for the National Executive Committee met with approval. After this, the NEC set up a working group to investigate the demand for Black Sections and recommended that they be made official, following a survey in constituencies throughout the country which favoured Black Sections by a four to one majority. Within a few years Black Sections had 35 branches, including four in London. On the back of its success, over 200 candidates were elected across the country in the 86 council elections.

Frustrated by the lack of a single ethnic minority MP in Parliament, supporters around the country established a Black Section in CLPs which sought to exert pressure on the Labour leadership to address poor ethnic representation in the party and to focus the party's attention on policies that were of concern to ethnic minority communities. Many Black Section members called for quotas to ensure black and Asian MPs were elected to Parliament, they lobbied for the party's constitution to be amended to ensure Black Sections had representation in the party's decision-making bodies such at the National Executive Committee, as was the case for women. In July 1984, the first National Black Sections Conference was held, where more than 300 delegates Afro-Caribbean attended. At the 1984 Labour Party Conference, 23 resolutions supporting Black Sections was received. At every autumn national party conference between 1984 and 1989, Black Sections activists sought and proposed resolutions to amend Labour's constitution and advocate formally recognising Black Sections but were defeated despite the support of large trade unions with their block votes in 1985.

By 1986, trade unions admitted to Black Sections and their positive effect in building a black union membership. Many local parties had Black Sections despite Labour's refusal to make them official: the Black Sections Annual Conference reported that 30 constituencies had unofficial Black Sections by 1986; the Labour Party refused to recognise Black Sections. Black Sections members operated as if their group was legitimate with the support of their local Labour Party branches; the relationship between Black Sections and the Labour Party leadership was marked by conflict and tension. Despite opposition, Black Sections won and achieved a 500-fold increase in African-Caribbean and Asian representation in town halls around the country, four black council leaders, four black MPs, Bill Morris as the first black trade union general secretary. On top of that, black self-organised groups were formed in trade unions and by police officers; the Trades Union Congress created places on its general council and executive for black representatives.

Paul Boateng, Diane Abbott, Bernie Grant, Russell Proffitt and Keith Vaz stopped acting as Black Sections activists when they were adopted for safe or winnable seats. The 1987 general election bore the fruit of Black Sect

Kiharu Nakamura

Kiharu Nakamura was an essayist and former geisha. Nakamura was born on April 1913 in Hokkaido or Tokyo, Japan, her birth name was Kazuko Yamamoto. In 1929, she became a geisha at a geisha house in Shinbashi, she learned English, gained a reputation the first English-speaking geisha. Some of her clients included Babe Ruth, Jean Cocteau, Charlie Chaplin. Nakamura was the first woman in Japan to get a pilot's license, she worked until 1940, when she married Shintaro Ota, a Japanese diplomat, moved with him to Calcutta, India. Nakamura divorced Ota soon after giving birth to her son, they returned to Japan in 1942, she married Masaya Nakamura, a photographer. After divorcing Masaya Nakamura in 1956, Nakamura moved to the United States, she consulted on many operas and films about geisha life, including productions of Madame Butterfly and Arthur Golden's Memoirs of a Geisha. Nakamura worked to change misconceptions about geisha, who are confused with oiran, she lived in New York City until her death in 2004.

Nakamura, Kiharu. Edokko geisha ichidaiki. Soshisha. ISBN 9784794201775. Nakamura, Kiharu. ああ情なや日本: 江戸っ子芸者の30年ぶりの日本. Soshisha. ISBN 9784794202239. Nakamura, Kiharu. あたしはアメリカが好き. Soshisha. ISBN 9784794202789

0 Series Shinkansen

The 0 series trains were the first Shinkansen trainsets built to run on Japan's new Tōkaidō Shinkansen high-speed line which opened in Japan in 1964. The last remaining trainsets were withdrawn in 2008; the 0 series entered service with the start of Tōkaidō Shinkansen operations in October 1964. These units were white with a blue stripe along the windows and another at the bottom of the car body, including the front pilot. Unlike previous Japanese trains the Tōkaidō Shinkansen and all subsequent Shinkansen lines were standard gauge; the trains were powered by 25 kV AC electricity at 60 Hz with all axles of all cars powered by 185 kW traction motors, giving a 220 km/h operation top speed. The original trains were introduced as 12-car sets, with some sets lengthened to 16 cars. Shorter trains of 6 cars and 4 cars were assembled for lesser duties. Production of 0 series units continued from 1963 until 1986. Shinkansen sets are retired after fifteen to twenty years; the final remaining 0 series sets were 6-car sets used on JR-West Kodama services on the San'yō Shinkansen between Shin-Ōsaka and Hakata, on the Hakata-Minami Line until their retirement on 30 November 2008.

Following retirement from regular service, JR-West ran a number of special commemorative Hikari runs in December 2008. Hikari 347, powered by set R61, arrived at Hakata Station at 6:01 pm on 14 December 2008, bringing to an end the 44 years of service of the 0 series trains; the initial shinkansen fleet delivered for use on Hikari and Kodama services on the Tōkaidō Shinkansen from 1 October 1964 consisted of 30 12-car sets formed of 1st- and 2nd-batch cars. Six sets, H1 to H6, were built by Hitachi between April and August 1964, six sets, K1 to K6, were built by Kisha between July and September 1964, six sets, N1 to N6, were built by Nippon Sharyo between March and September 1964, six sets, R1 to R6, were built by Kawasaki Sharyo between July and September 1964, six sets, S1 to S6, were built by Kinki Sharyo between April and August 1964; these sets were allocated to Osaka depots. A further 10 12-car sets were delivered between April and July 1965, formed of 120 3rd-batch cars, five 4th-batch sets were delivered between June and July 1966, five 5th-batch sets were delivered between October and November 1966.

The original 12-car sets were formed as follows, with two buffet cars. A further 21 6th- to 9th-batch 12-car sets were delivered between 1967 and 1969 with only one first-class car for use on Kodama services; the "T" sets were built by Tokyu Car Corporation. These sets were formed; the original 30 12-car sets were lengthened to 16 cars between December 1969 and February 1970 with the inclusion of new 10th-batch cars for Hikari services to handle the increased number of passengers travelling to and from Expo'70 in Osaka in 1970. From the opening of the San'yō Shinkansen in 1972, these sets were renumbered H1 to H30. Between 1972 and 1973, the earlier 12-car Kodama sets were lengthened to 16 cars with the inclusion of new 13th- and 15th-batch cars, were renumbered K1 to K47. With the opening of the Sanyo Shinkansen extension to Hakata, the fleet of 16-car H Hikari sets was reformed and increased between 1973 and 1974 with the inclusion of new 16th- and 17th-batch cars, including new restaurant cars in addition to the buffet car.

The fleet as of 10 March 1975 consisted of 64 sets, numbered H1 to H64. Between 1977 and 1980, 35 new 16-car NH sets were formed of −1000 subseries cars for Hikari services on the Tōkaidō Shinkansen and San'yō Shinkansen lines; the introduction of 100 series and 300 series trains reduced the number of 0 series trains used on Hikari services, with 0 series Hikari services operated by JR Central ending in 1995. A small fleet was subsequently maintained by JR-West for use on additional holiday period Hikari services, with the last remaining unit, NH32, being disbanded in December 1999; the NH sets had two Green cars and a restaurant car in addition to a buffet car, although use of the restaurant cars was discontinued from the mid-1990s. The 16-car YK sets were operated by JR Central on the all-stations Kodama services; these sets had upgraded reserved seat cars with 2+2 seating employing 100 series style seats, but only one Green car per 16-car set. Standard seating was 3+2 in standard class, 2+2 in Green cars.

The fleet was operated by JR Central on the Tokaido Shinkansen until the last units were withdrawn on 18 September 1999. In the last two months of service, they ran with "Arigatō 0 Series" stickers on the front ends; these 12-car SK sets based at Hakata Depot were operated by JR-West on Sanyo Shinkansen West Hikari services between Shin-Osaka and Hakata. Sets were formed of upgraded 5000 and 7000 subseries vehicles with improved seating, buffet cars were refurbished with a special seating area. All standard class cars had upgraded 2+2 seating; the sets were recognizable externally by the addition of an extra thin blue line below the windows and by the large "West" decals near the doors. Some sets included specially converted cinema cars, but these were withdrawn in 1996. Following the end of the West Hikari services on 21 April 2000, the remaining SK units were reformed into new 6-car R60 sets to replace unrefurbished sets on Sanyo Shinkansen Kodama services. 4-car Q sets were formed from March 1997 for use on Kodama shuttle services running between Hakata and Kokura/H

Docodon

Docodon was a mammaliaform from the Late Jurassic of western North America. It was the first docodontan Mesozoic cynodont. Docodon was the first docodontan cynodont found and named, gave its name to the family it now belongs to, the Docodonta. Docodontans had more complex shaped teeth than other early non-mammalian mammaliaforms, with piercing and crushing surfaces that would have allowed members of this family to eat a wider range of food types; these complex teeth are more similar to mammal groups, but evolved independently of them. Unlike many of its coexisting mammal relatives from the Mesozoic, Docodon is known from a large number of teeth and jaws of differing growth stages; this has made it possible to study the growth of this docodontan, has revealed how docodont jaws change from juvenile stages to adulthood. Docodon was discovered and named by Othniel Charles Marsh in 1880. Like many other early small mammaliaforms, it is known only from fossilized teeth and jaws, as these are the hardest parts of the body and survive more in the fossil record.

Docodon fossils are found most in the Black Hills region of South Dakota. Its height is estimated at 10 centimeters with an approximate weight of 30 grams, making it one of the larger mammaliaforms known from the Morrison Formation. A number of species have been erected, but most are now considered to represent D. victor, with differences being attributed to differing ages of the individuals represented. However, D. apoxys is still considered a separate species from D. victor due to differing numbers of tooth roots. Docodon victor Docodon apoxys Morrison Formation Mammals of the Morrison Formation Docodon Docodon Library Mammal Genus